(3.237.97.64) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/03 01:52
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:劉興潮
研究生(外文):Liu Shing-Chaur
論文名稱:聚脲樹脂合成皮作業勞工職業性二甲基甲醯胺暴露對健康狀況及免疫功能的影響
論文名稱(外文):Health and immunologic effects of occupational N,N-dimethylformamide exposure among polyurethane synthetic leather workers
指導教授:賴俊雄賴俊雄引用關係郭憲文郭憲文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lai Jinn-ShoungKuo Hsien-Wen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國醫藥大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:二甲基甲醯胺單甲基甲醯胺健康效應免疫功能免疫球蛋白
外文關鍵詞:NN-Dimethylformamide(DMF)N-methylformamide(NMF)health effectsimmunologic effectsimmunoglobulin
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:199
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
二甲基甲醯胺(DMF)是工業上經常使用的有機溶劑,它和水及大部分的有機溶劑如丙酮、苯、乙醇、四氯化碳等均具有良好的混溶性,因此經常使用在人造皮製造業及低碳脂肪族提煉製程中。合成皮作業勞工可能因吸入逸散於作業環境中之二甲基甲醯胺的蒸氣、霧滴,或因皮膚直接接觸含二甲基甲醯胺溶劑之物料,甚至是作業環境中之二甲基甲醯胺的蒸氣從皮膚滲透入體內,而致職業暴露。流行病學研究已證實二甲基甲醯胺是肝臟毒性的物質,勞工過度暴露會造成肝臟的損傷,其他可能的健康危害包括中樞神經系統、血液學、接觸性皮膚炎及接觸性結膜炎等。
動物實驗已證實DMF具免疫毒性,但人類的資料至今仍闕如,由於暴露DMF勞工極可能已潛在著遭受職業性免疫毒害。因此,為達到預防職業性疾病,保障勞工健康之目的,有必要針對二甲基甲醯胺暴露勞工之免疫狀況,作一概括性的了解。所以本研究以血液學及血清免疫球蛋白IgG、IgM、IgA及IgE等周邊血液免疫功能指標來探討二甲基甲醯胺對免疫功能的影響。並嘗試探討職業性二甲基甲醯胺暴露,在生理學、血液學、生化學及個人自覺症狀等健康狀態之影響。
研究以中部某一聚脲樹脂合成皮工廠為研究母群體,西元2004年3月在該工廠內之作業屬DMF暴露的勞工為主,並依其暴露嚴重度共隨意選取88位DMF暴露勞工為研究對象。其中DMF暴露狀況是以作業環境測定、個人生物偵測及累積暴露三種方式來評估,並以自覺症狀、生理學資料、血液學檢查值、生化學檢查值及六個免疫功能指標作為健康狀況的評估指標,並考量人口學因子、生活習慣、工作狀態及個人病史等研究之中介變項。
88名研究對象,其平均年齡為41.38.6歲,平均工作年資為143.577.0月,男性佔87.5%。其經個人採樣之作業環境DMF平均濃度為6.4±4.8 ppm,尿液中NMF代謝濃度平均為22.9±23.0 mg/g cre.。與作業環境DMF暴露濃度及累積暴露濃度有關的自覺症狀為疲倦,且DMF暴露濃度偏高組其疲倦症狀得分顯著高於暴露濃度偏低組。在DMF暴露與健康的關係方面,經多變項迴歸分析控制年齡、疾病史、抽菸及喝酒習慣等變項後,發現DMF暴露與肝、腎功能異常並無明顯相關,但與免疫功能有關,當DMF暴露濃度愈高時,免疫球蛋白G、免疫球蛋白E異常率會顯著增加,且免疫球蛋白M濃度會顯著下降,免疫球蛋白E濃度會顯著增加,顯示DMF對人體具有免疫毒性。
DMF對人體確實是一毒害物質。本研究中發現部份高暴露勞工,因沒有明顯的不適症狀,而忽略了個人防護裝備的穿戴,因此在勞工的教育訓練方面,仍需加強宣導,以期建立良好正確的衛生習慣,達到預防職業性疾病,保障勞工健康之目的。此外,作業環境中之DMF濃度亦應儘可能控制至更低。
N,N-Dimethylformamide(DMF)is an organic solvent that is used intensively in the production of synthetic leather and resins, above all as a result of its ready miscibility with water and various organic compounds. In exposed workers its absorption occurs through inhalation of vapors and by direct contact with its liquid form, vapors can also be absorbed through the skin. DMF known to cause a variety of adverse health effects, in particular, it is hepatotoxic. Moreover, although there is only inadequate evidence for its carcinogenicity in experimental animals, DMF is possibly a testicular carcinogen in humans. The immune system plays a crucial role in health, however previous studies showed DMF has effects on immunotoxicity in animal model, but there is no data in human nowadays. Therefore the objective of the current study is to evaluate the health and immunological effects among DMF–exposed workers.
The study population includes about eighty-eight convenience subjects which were selected from polyurethane synthetic leather factory. All participants were interviewed with a standard self-administered questionnaire to obtain demographic data, lifestyle habits, perceived symptoms and occupational history, in addition, physiological data were also gathered. DMF exposure levels of workers were assessed by the personal air sampling, urinary NMF(N-methylformamide) concentration in post-shift and the cumulative exposure dose. Immunological effects were evaluated by white blood cells(WBC), percentage of lymphocytes, and immunoglobulin(Ig)G, M, A, and E levels in serum. In addition, various hematologic and biochemical parameters were also analyzed.
The mean age of the study subjects was 41.3 years and the mean duration of their work was 143.5 months. The mean level of DMF in air among was 6.4 ppm and the mean concentration of NMF in urine was 22.9 mg/g cre in study workers. Based on the levels of DMF in air, all workers were classified into two groups in workplace. Adjusting the other factors(age, gender, work duration, smoking and alcohol consumption, history of disease), the levels of IgM in workers exposed to DMF were significant lower than the control groups, but the levels of IgE were significant higher than the control groups. Ajusting the same variables, high exposure DMF group had high risk in the abnormal proportion of serum IgG and IgE. This finding indicated that exposure to DMF has a detrimental effect on the immune system.
Exposure to DMF has a statistically significant toxic influence on the immune system, but this conclusion warrants a further complete investigation of the mechanism in immunologic effect. It is evident that workers exposed to DMF in the polurethane synthetic leather factory must be reduced to minimum and must use the adequate control devices.
誌謝 i
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 x
第一章 前言 11
第一節 研究背景 11
第二節 研究動機 14
第三節 研究目的 15
第二章 文獻探討 16
第一節 二甲基甲醯胺的物化特性及其應用 16
第二節 二甲基甲醯胺的吸收途徑 19
第三節 二甲基甲醯胺的代謝機轉 22
第四節 二甲基甲醯胺的生物偵測及容許標準 25
第五節 二甲基甲醯胺的健康效應 29
第六節 免疫系統 33
第七節 職業性免疫功能損傷 44
第三章 研究方法 47
第一節 研究架構 47
第二節 研究對象 49
第三節 問卷調查 50
第四節 作業環境之採樣分析 51
第五節 二甲基甲醯胺暴露之生物偵測 53
第六節 血液學及血清生化學分析 55
第七節 資料處理與分析 56
第四章 結果 57
第一節 研究對象的基本資料及作業環境狀況 57
第二節 研究對象的健康狀態 59
第三節 依DMF暴露狀況分組與個人相關因子及健康狀態之相關性 62
第四節 依DMF累積暴露狀況分組與個人相關因子及健康狀態之相關性 66
第五節 以多變項迴歸分析DMF暴露狀況與肝、腎功能指標之相關 71
第六節 以多變項迴歸分析DMF暴露狀況與免疫功能指標之相關 73
第五章 討論 76
第一節 研究對象之代表性 76
第二節 職場中共同暴露溶劑之影響 78
第三節 DMF暴露對健康狀況之影響 79
第四節 DMF暴露與自覺症狀之相關性 81
第五節 DMF暴露對免疫功能之影響 83
第六節 研究限制與缺點 85
第七節 未來研究方向 87
第六章 結論與建議 89
參考文獻 91
附錄 132
1.彭燕淞。2001年合成皮產業回顧與未來市場展望。化工商情2002; 28: 35-39。
2.朱小蓉。工業減廢技術手冊(7)PU合成皮工業。經濟部工業局1997: 27-58。
3.陳萬財,黃順明。PU合成皮業廢棄物資源化案例彙編。經濟部工業局1996: 1-46。
4.IOSH90-T-039 有害物暴露調查與對策技術資料(一)二甲基甲醯胺(合成皮製造業)。
5.Wrbitzky R. Liver function in workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide during the production of synthetic textiles. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999; 72(1): 19-25.
6.Cai SX, Huang MY, Xi LQ, et al. Occupational dimethylformamide exposure. 3. Health effects of dimethylformamide after occupational exposure at low concentrations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1992; 63(7): 461-8.
7.Scailteur V, Lauwerys RR. Dimethylformamide (DMF) hepatotoxicity. Toxicology. 1987; 43(3): 231-8.
8.Hasegawa R, Koizumi M, Hirose A. Principles of risk assessment for determining the safety of chemicals: recent assessment of residual solvents in drugs and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Congenit Anom(Kyoto). 2004; 44(2): 51-9.
9.B Longoni P, Cascone G, Imbriani M. Changes induced by dimethylformamide on platelet function and coagulation Activity. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1984; 60(11): 2199-205.
10.Imbriani M, Ghittori S, Prestinoni A, et al. Effects of dimethylformamide (DMF) on coagulation and platelet activity. Arch Environ Health. 1986; 41(2): 90-3.
11.Camarasa JG. Contact dermatitis from dimethylformamide. Contact Dermatitis. 1987; 16(4): 234.
12.Garnier R, Chataigner D, Efthymiou ML. Skin and eye burns, painful abdomen syndrome, Antabuse effect, and cytolytic hepatitis in workers exposed to dimethylformamide. J Toxicol Clin Exp. 1992; 12(4-5): 227-37.
13.Lyle WH, Spence TW, McKinneley WM, Duckers K. Dimethylformamide and alcohol intolerance. Br J Ind Med. 1979; 36(1): 63-6.
14.Cox NH, Mustchin CP. Prolonged spontaneous and alcohol-induced flushing due to the solvent dimethylformamide. Contact Dermatitis. 199; 24(1): 69-70.
15.Hellwig J, Merkle J, Klimisch HJ, Jackh R. Studies on the prenatal toxicity of N,N-dimethylformamide in mice, rats and rabbits. Food Chem Toxicol. 1991; 29(3): 193-201.
16.Kimmerle G, Machemer L. Studies with N,N-dimethylformamide for embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on rats after dynamic inhalation. Int Arch Arbeitsmed. 1975; 34(3): 167-75.
17.Gollins WJ. Dimethylformamide and testicular cancer. Lancet. 1991; 337(8736): 306-7.
18.Midorikawa K, Murata M, Oikawa S, Tada-Oikawa S, Kawanishi S. DNA damage by dimethylformamide: role of hydrogen peroxide generated during degradation. Chem Res Toxicol. 2000; 13(4): 309-15.
19.Major J, Hudak A, Kiss G, Jakab MG, Szaniszlo J, Naray M, Nagy I, Tompa A. Follow-up biological and genotoxicological monitoring of acrylonitrile- and dimethylformamide-exposed viscose rayon plant workers. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1998; 31(4): 301-10.
20.Seiji K, Inoue O, Cai SX, Kawai T, Watanabe T, Ikeda M. Increase in sister chromatid exchange rates in association with occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1992; 64(1): 65-7.
21.NIOSH. NIOSH Alert Preventing Adverse Health Effects from Exposure to Dimethylformamide (DMF), 1990 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 90-105.
22.Gao XQ, Zhang WD, Qiao CB. Effects of dimethylformamide on the monocytophagocytic system of rodents. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1994; 28(1): 13-5.
23.Gao X, Qiao C, Zhang W. Studies on cell-mediated immunotoxicity of dimethylformamide. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1996; 30(5): 269-72.
24.Han SF, Li YQ, Yang LJ, Chen SH, Liu WW, Huang ZQ, Wu JM, Chen JY. Evaluation of recent thymic output function in benzene-exposed workers. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2004; 22(3): 181-3.
25.Stockstad E. Toxicology. Factory study shows low levels of benzene reduce blood cell counts. Science. 2004; 306(5702): 1665.
26.Weisglas-Kuperus N, Vreugdenhil HJ, Mulder PG. Immunological effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch school children. Toxicol Lett. 2004; 149(1-3): 281-5.
27.Van Den Heuvel RL, Koppen G, Staessen JA, Hond ED, Immunologic biomarkers in relation to exposure markers of PCBs and dioxins in Flemish adolescents (Belgium). Environ Health Perspect. 2002; 110(6): 595-600.
28.Ernst M, Flesch-Janys D, Morgenstern I, Manz A. Immune cell functions in industrial workers after exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: dissociation of antigen-specific T-cell responses in cultures of diluted whole blood and of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Environ Health Perspect. 1998; 106(Suppl 2): 701-5.
29.Jung D, Berg PA, Edler L, Ehrenthal W, Fenner D, Immunologic findings in workers formerly exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and its congeners. Environ Health Perspect. 1998; 106(Suppl 2): 689-95.
30.Pinkerton LE, Biagini RE, Ward EM, Hull RD, Immunologic findings among lead-exposed workers. Am J Ind Med. 1998; 33(4): 400-8.
31.Undeger U, Basaran N, Canpinar H, Kansu E. Immune alterations in lead-exposed workers. Toxicology. 1996; 109(2-3): 167-72.
32.Shrivastava R, Upreti RK, Seth PK, Chaturvedi UC. Effects of chromium on the immune system. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2002; 34(1): 1-7.
33.O'Byrne KJ, Dalgleish AG, Browning MJ, Steward WP, The relationship between angiogenesis and the immune response in carcinogenesis and the progression of malignant disease. Eur J Cancer. 2000; 36(2): 151-69.
34.勞工安全法令彙編。台灣省政府勞工處。民國78年。
35.有機溶劑中毒預防規則。行政院勞工委員會。民國80年。
36.危險物及有害物通識規則。行政院勞工委員會。民國81年。
37.Bainova A. IPCS (International Program on Chemical Safety) Envirinmental health criteria 114 Dimethylformamide. Worid Health Organization 1991.
38.Mraz J, Nohova H. Percutaneous absorption of N,N-dimethylformamide in humans. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1992; 64(2): 79-83.
39.Nomiyama T, Nakashima H, Chen LL, Tanaka S, N,N-dimethylformamide: significance of dermal absorption and adjustment method for urinary N-methylformamide concentration as a biological exposure item. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001; 74(3): 224-8.
40.Nomiyama T, Nakashima H, Chen LL, Tanaka S, N,N-dimethylformamide: significance of dermal absorption and adjustment method for urinary N-methylformamide concentration as a biological exposure item. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001; 74(3): 224-8.
41.Mraz J, Nohova H. Absorption, metabolism and elimination of N,N-dimethylformamide in humans. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1992; 64(2): 85-92.
42.Mraz J, Gescher A, Cross H, Shaw AJ, Flek J. New findings in the metabolism of N,N-dimethylformamide--consequences for evaluation of occupational risk. Sci Total Environ. 1991; 101(1-2): 131-4.
43.Lauwerys RR, Kivits A, Lhoir M, Rigolet P, Biological surveillance of workers exposed to dimethylformamide and the influence of skin protection on its percutaneous absorption. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1980; 45(3): 189-203.
44.Nomiyama T, Haufroid V, Buchet JP, Miyauchi H, Insertion polymorphism of CYP2E1 and urinary N-methylformamide after N,N- dimethylformamide exposure in Japanese workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001; 74(7): 519-22.
45.Amato G, Grasso E, Longo V, Gervasi PG. Oxidation of N,N-dimethylformamide and N,N-diethylformamide by human liver microsomes and human recombinant P450s. Toxicol Lett. 2001; 124(1-3): 11-9.
46.Mraz J, Jheeta P, Gescher A, Hyland R, Investigation of the mechanistic basis of N,N-dimethylformamide toxicity. Metabolism of N,N-dimethylformamide and its deuterated isotopomers by cytochrome P450 2E1. Chem Res Toxicol. 1993; 6(2): 197-207.
47.Kafferlein HU, Angerer J. N-methylcarbamoylated valine of hemoglobin in humans after exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide: evidence for the formation of methyl isocyanate? Chem Res Toxicol. 2001; 14(7): 833-40.
48.Imbriani M, Maestri L, Marraccini P, Saretto G, Urinary determination of N-acetyl- S-(N-methylcarbamoyl) cysteine and N-methylformamide in workers exposed to N, N-dimethylformamide. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002; 75(7): 445-52.
49.Mraz J, Duskova S, Galova E, Nohova H, Mraz J, Duskova S, Galova E, Nohova H. N-methylcarbamoyl adduct at the N-terminal valine of globin as a biomarker of chronic occupational exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002; 75(Suppl): S93-6.
50.Mraz J, Duskova S, Galova E, Nohova H, Krausova P. Improved gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of the N-methylcarbamoyl adduct at the N-terminal valine of globin, a metabolic product of the solvent N,N-dimethylformamide. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002; 778(1-2): 357-65.
51.Angerer J, Goen T, Kramer A, Kafferlein HU. N-methylcarbamoyl adducts at the N-terminal valine of globin in workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide. Arch Toxicol. 1998; 72(5): 309-13.
52.Lareo AC, Perbellini L. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to N-N-dimethylformamide. II.k imethylformamide and its metabolites in urine of exposed workers.k Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1995; 67(1): 47-52.
53.勞工作業環境空氣中有害物容許濃度標準。行政院勞工委員會。民國84年。
54.ACGIH. 1994-1995 Threshold limit valures for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices.1994.
55.Lundberg I, Lundberg S, Kronevi T. Some observations on dimethylformamide hepatotoxicity. Toxicology. 1981; 22(1): 1-7.
56.Paoletti A, Fabri G, Marini Bettolo P. j An unusual case of "acute abdomen". Dimethylformamide poisoning. Minerva Med. 1982; 73(48): 3407-10.
57.Redlich CA, West AB, Fleming L, True LD. Clinical and pathological characteristics of hepatotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide. Gastroenterology. 1990; 99(3): 748-57.
58.Wang JD, Lai MY, Chen JS, Lin JM, Chiang JR. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers. Arch Environ Health. 1991; 46(3): 161-6.
59.Kennedy GL Jr, Sherman H. Acute and subchronic toxicity of dimethylformamide and dimethylacetamide following various routes of administration. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1986; 9(2): 147-70.
60.Luo JC, Kuo HW, Cheng TJ, Chang MJ. Abnormal liver function associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide and hepatitis B virus. J Occup Environ Med. 2001; 43(5): 474-82.
61.Imazu K, Fujishiro K, Inoue N. Liver injury and alterations of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase system due to dimethylformamide(DMF)in rats. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 1994; 85(5): 147-53.
62.Levin SM, Baker DB, Landrigan PJ, Monaghan SV. Testicular cancer in leather tanners exposed to dimethylformamide. Lancet. 1987; 2(8568): 1153.
63.Walrath J, Fayerweather WE, Gilby PG, Pell S. A case-control study of cancer among du pont employees with potential for exposure to dimethylformamide. J Occup Med. 1989; 31(5): 432-8.
64.Cheng TJ, Hwang SJ, Kuo HW, Luo JC. Exposure to epichlorohydrin and dimethylformamide, glutathione S-transferasesand sister chromatid exchange frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes. Arch Toxicol. 1999; 73(4-5): 282-7.
65.Kimmerle G, Machemer L. Studies with N,N-dimethylformamide for embryotoxic and teratogenic effects onrats after dynamic inhalation. Int Arch Arbeitsmed. 1975; 34(3): 167-75.
66.National institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Request for assistance in preventing adverse health effects from exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF). DHHS (NIOSH) Cincinnati OH. 1990: 90-105.
67.Lewis SC, Schroeder RE, Kennedy GL Jr. Developmental toxicity of dimethylformamide in the rat following inhalation exposure. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1992; 15(1): 1-14.
68.Farquharson RG,Hall MH, Fullerton WT. Poor obstetric outcome in three quality control laboratory workers.Lancet 1983; 1: 983-984.
69.Schardein JL. Chemical induced birth defects. Mercel Dekker, Inc.,New York,1985.
70.Chang HY, Shih TS, Guo YL, Tsai CY. Sperm function in workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide in the synthetic leather industry. Fertil Steril. 2004; 81(6): 1589-94.
71.Hurtt ME, Placke ME, Killinger JM, Singer AW. 13-week inhalation toxicity study of dimethylformamide (DMF) in cynomolgus monkeys. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1992; 18(4): 596-601.
72.Chris Kent. Immunotoxicity. In: Chris Kent. Basics of Toxicology: John&sons. 1998: 144-149.
73.Goldsby RA, Kindt TJ, Osborne BA. Kuby Immunology: New York: W.H. Freeman. 2000: 1-24.
74.Male D. Roitt’s essential immunity 10ed; Malden, MA: Blackwell Science. 2001: 1-12.
75.Lydyard PM, Grossi CE. Roitt’s essential immunity 10ed; Malden, MA: Blackwell Science. 2001: 13-46.
76.Virella G. Medical immunology 5th ed; New York: M. Dekker, 2001: 11-30.
77.Turner M. Roitt’s essential immunity 10th ed; Malden, MA: Blackwell Science. 2001: 64-86.
78.Boackle R. Medical immunology 5th ed; New York: M. Dekker. 2001: 65-86.
79.Balkwill F. Roitt’s essential immunity 10th ed; Malden, MA: Blackwell Science. 2001: 117-30.
80.王祥甫,鍾景光。圖解免疫學。合記2000: 71-80。
81.Feldman M, Marini JC. Roitt’s essential immunity 10th ed; Malden, MA :Blackwell Science. 2001: 131-46.
82.Shames RS, Adelman DC. Clinical Immunology. In: Joseph LadDou. Occupational and Environmental Medicine: Prentice-hall International. 1997: 180-240.
83.Chen PH, Wong CK, Rappe C, Nygren M. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans and quaterphenyls in toxic rice-bran oil and in the blood and tissues of patients with PCB poisoning (Yu-Cheng) in Taiwan. Environ Health Perspect. 1985; 59-65.
84.Weisskopf MG, Anderson HA, Hanrahan LP. Decreased sex ratio following maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated Great Lakes sport-caught fish: a retrospective cohort study. Environ Health. 2003; 2(1): 2.
85.熊映美,黃如瑋,楊燦等。畜殖場勞工免疫功能影響因素之探討。勞工安全衛生研究季刊 1998; 6(1):3 5-39。
86.Kuo HW, Wu ML. Effect of chromic acid exposure on immunological parameters among electroplating workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002; 75(3): 186-90.
87.Kuo HW, Hsiao TY, Lai JS. Immunological effects of long-term lead exposure among Taiwanese workers. Arch Toxical. 2001; 75(10): 569-73.
88.熊映美彙編。鉛暴露對勞工免疫功能影響因素之追蹤調查。勞工安全衛生研究報告 IOSH87-M362。行政院勞工委員會安全衛生研究所。民國87年。
89.熊映美彙編。重金屬對勞工免疫功能影響因素之初步調查。勞工安全衛生研究報告 IOSH86-M362。行政院勞工委員會安全衛生研究所。民國86年。
90.Kimmerle G, Eben A. Metabolism studies of N,N-dimethylformamide. II. Studies in persons. Int Arch Arbeitsmed. 1975; 34(2): 127-36.
91.Boeniger et al.譯:以Creatinine校正尿液結果來評估勞工的化學暴露, AIHA Journals 1993; 54(10): 615-27.
92.賴俊雄等。台灣省PU樹脂合成皮工廠作業勞工有機溶劑實況及其健康影響追蹤調查研究計劃。台灣省政府勞工處委託研究。執行單位中國醫藥學院。民國81年。
93.陳俊璋。聚脲樹脂及合成皮製造工廠勞工二甲基甲醯胺暴露研究。中國醫藥學院環境醫學研究所碩士論文。民國89年。
94.Chang HY, Yun YD, Yu YC, Shih TS. The effects of simultaneous exposure to methyl ethyl ketone and toluene on urinary biomarkers of occupational N,N-dimethylformamide exposure. Toxicol Lett. 2005; 155(3): 385-95.
95.Gu YF, Wang ML, Sun XL et al. Epidemiological investigation on occupational exposure to dimethylformamide. Chinese Ind Med. 2003; 16(6): 362-4.
96.王剛垛,黃芙蓉,戴秀蓮。急性二甲基甲醯胺中毒的臨床表現總結分析。Ind Hlth & Dis 1999; 25(2): 109-10。
97.Jian XD. Effect of dimethylformamide (DMF) on calcium homeostasis of rat kidney.Occup Med 1995; 22(4): 2-4.
98.李陸明,王明龍,孫曉樓等。二甲基甲醯胺作業工人肝腎損害和尿中二甲基甲醯胺含量的關係。Chin J Hyg Occup Dis 2004; 22(4): 270-1。
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔