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研究生:謝明奇
研究生(外文):Ming-chyi Shieb
論文名稱:自然溼地與人工溼地系統底泥特性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of sediment characteristics in natural wetlands and constructed wetland systems
指導教授:荊樹人荊樹人引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shuh-Ren Jing
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:嘉南藥理科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:礦質土有機土土壤基本性質底泥特性自然溼地自由表面流動系統營養鹽
外文關鍵詞:organic soilnutrientsediment characteristicsfundamental properties of soilmineral soilfree water surface flow systemnatural wetland
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本研究利用位於台南縣二行村為全國首座用來處理社區生活污水的示範實場,於民國90年開始操作至今已有三年,針對實場區之自由表面流動(FWS)系統作底泥特性的探討,再另選一處自然溼地作背景值。茲將兩系統的分析數據作比較,以瞭解人工溼地利用土壤介質作為植物媒介來淨化污水,期能探討系統經長期性處理生活污水之污染物最終沉積於底泥的累積與變化,且研究在不同深度底泥特性中污染物停留分佈形態及植物體攝取的狀況。
本研究先分析兩系統水中的總懸浮固體、生化需氧量、總氮和總磷等污染物,其污染物經由物理淨化過程,而部份污染物因化學反應形成非溶解性物質則沉積於介質上;再者,底泥長期處於厭氧還原形態環境中,影響到土壤基本性質的變化;而本研究主要探討之參數包括質地分析、容積密度、陽離子交換容量、底泥含水量、底泥酸鹼值、有機物含量、溶解性總有機碳、硝酸態氮、總氮、總磷及重金屬等,以分析各參數的累積情況與變化;最後進行人工溼地的植物對營養鹽之攝取含量等分析。
初步研究結果顯示,自然溼地土壤性質分析底泥在長期淹澇的結果,會使累積於介質上的沉積物在形成有機土過程,造成底泥特性有很大的變化,像底泥孔隙小且緊密度增加到1 g/cm3 左右,而底泥上下層質地呈現均質化及色澤相似、屬中性偏鹼性、吸附有機物能力強和ORP負值高等性質;最後礦質土轉為有機的富營養之底泥,而底泥挖除後亦可回收再利用。然而在人工溼地FWS系統,由於系統中物質轉換累積等行為未穩定,底泥上層有機土的形成尚不明顯,所以研判底泥特性的變化較小,可能需長時間才會像自然溼地一樣的性質,故人工溼地系統底泥吸附污染物之能力與貯存量尚有很大的空間。
This experiment of this research was performed in the first full-scale constructed wetland system (CW) built in Erh-Hang village, Tainan and has been operated since 2001. The goal of this research is focused on the study of sediments taken from the free water surface flow (FWS) of the CW and natural wetland. By comparing the sediment characteristics of these two different types of wetland to understand the media behavior in a CW while treating wastewater, so that further understand pollutants accumulation and variation in the sediment of CW after a long-term operation. Furthermore, a distribution of pollutants along the depth of sediment and absorption by macrophytes were also investigated.
Total suspend solid, biological oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were measured in this research work. Part of those constituents in wastewater were removed via physical mechanism and chemical precipitation to settle on the bottom media in CW. Meanwhile, in the continuously anaerobic condition in the sediment, the soil characteristics were changed. The parameters investigated in this research includes soil texture analyses, volumetric density, cationic exchange capacity, water content of sediment, pH of sediment, organic content, soluble total organic carbon, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and heavy metals. The accumulation and variation of these measures were analyzed. The nutrient contents in the macrophytes in CW were also analyzed.
The initial research results indicate that the characteristics of sediment varied significantly in natural wetlands due to the process of accumulation of materials on the surface of media during long-term merged in water, such as the density would increase to 1 g/cm3, upper and lower layers become similar in color and weak base, the adsorption of organics becomes stronger, and oxidation- reduction potential becomes highly negative, etc. Eventually, the mineralized soil turns to be more nutritious organic from and suitable for recycled. However, the materials transforming behaviors in the FWS wetland system were still not stabilized and the organic layer was not yet formed on sediment. The variation of the soil characteristics in FWS wetland. Therefore, the adsorption and the storage capacities for pollutants in constructed wetland system are still remained very high potential.
中文摘要.....................................................................I
英文摘要.....................................................................II
目錄.....................................................................IV
表目錄...................................................................VIII
圖目錄....................................................................IX
第一章 前言..................................................................1
1.1 研究背景..................................................................1
1.2 研究動機..................................................................2
1.3 研究方向及目的............................................................2
第二章 文獻回顧..............................................................4
2.1 生態工法..................................................................4
2.1.1 生態工法概念............................................................4
2.1.2 生態工法的應用..........................................................5
2.2 溼地......................................................................6
2.2.1 溼地的定義與分類........................................................6
2.2.2 溼地貢獻...............................................................10
2.2.3 溼地的價值.............................................................15
2.3 溼地構造.................................................................17
2.3.1 概述...................................................................17
2.3.2 溼地水文...............................................................17
2.3.3 溼地土壤...............................................................19
2.3.4 溼地植物...............................................................21
2.4 人工溼地概述.............................................................23
2.4.1 人工溼地的種類.........................................................23
2.4.2 人工溼地發展沿革與應用.................................................25
2.4.3 人工溼地的淨化機制與弁?..........28
2.5 營養鹽在人工溼地的宿命...................................................33
2.5.1 營養鹽的分佈...........................................................33
2.5.2 氮循環.................................................................33
2.5.2 磷循環.................................................................36
2.6 重金屬在人工溼地的宿命...................................................37
2.6.1 重金屬的去除...........................................................37
2.7 影響溼地底泥特性的變化...................................................39
2.7.1 土壤質地...............................................................39
2.7.2 底泥的陽離子交換容量...................................................40
2.7.3 底泥pH及ORP值..........................................................41
2.7.4 底泥碳源與有機物.......................................................41
2.7.5 底泥的硝酸態氮.........................................................42
2.7.6 底泥微生物的表現.......................................................43
第三章 研究設備與方法.......................................................45
3.1 溼地場址概述.............................................................45
3.1.1 二行村實場人工溼地系統.................................................45
3.1.2 東勢里自然埤塘溼地.....................................................47
3.2 樣品採集.................................................................49
3.3 現場監測.................................................................49
3.4 水質採集與分析...........................................................50
3.4.1 水質採樣...............................................................50
3.4.2 水體營養鹽分析.........................................................51
3.5 底泥採集與分析...........................................................52
3.5.1 底泥成分之分析.........................................................53
3.5.2 土壤基本性質分析.......................................................55
3.5.3 營養鹽和重金屬分析.....................................................57
3.6 植物體採集與分析.........................................................61
3.6.1 植物體採樣.............................................................61
3.6.2 植物體營養鹽分析.......................................................61
第四章 結果與討論............................................................63
4.1 水質分析.................................................................64
4.1.1 水溫變化...............................................................65
4.1.2 總懸浮固體物的去除.....................................................65
4.1.3 生化需氧量的去除.......................................................66
4.1.4 總凱氏氮的去除.........................................................67
4.1.5 總磷的去除.............................................................68
4.2 土壤基本性質分析.........................................................75
4.2.1 質地分析...............................................................75
4.2.2 容積密度分析...........................................................76
4.2.3 陽離子交換容量分析.....................................................77
4.2.4 底泥含水量分析.........................................................78
4.2.5 底泥酸鹼值分析.........................................................79
4.2.6 底泥氧化還原能力分析...................................................79
4.3 影響底泥特性之因素.......................................................90
4.3.1 沉積物的累積...........................................................90
4.3.2 底泥有機物含量分析.....................................................91
4.3.3 溶解性總有機碳含量分析.................................................93
4.3.4 硝酸態氮含量分析.......................................................95
4.4 底泥營養鹽的累積........................................................109
4.4.1 底泥總凱氏氮含量與分佈................................................109
4.4.2 底泥總磷含量與分佈....................................................110
4.5 植物體對營養鹽的攝取....................................................116
4.5.1 植物體總凱氏氮的攝取..................................................116
4.5.2 植物體總磷的攝取......................................................117
4.6 溼地底泥的生物觀察......................................................118
第五章 結論與建議...........................................................122
5.1 結論....................................................................122
5.2 建議....................................................................128
第六章 參考文獻.............................................................130
附錄........................................................................137
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