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研究生:洪嘉雯
研究生(外文):Chia-Wen Hung
論文名稱:社區民眾對不同精神病症狀的歸因、危險覺知及社會距離研究
論文名稱(外文):The attribution, perceived dangerousness, and social distance of different psychiatric symptoms: A study with general community population
指導教授:譚偉象譚偉象引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wai-Cheong Carl Tam
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:社會距離歸因精神病症狀危險覺知
外文關鍵詞:psychiatric symptomperceived dangerousnesssocial distanceattribution
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:9
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:14
摘�� � 要
本研究以五種精神疾病:精神分裂症、憂鬱症、酒精濫用、強迫症、藥物濫用,瞭解民眾對不同精神疾病的反應,以證明民眾對不同精神疾病症狀的歸因、危險覺知及社會距離有差異,並企圖瞭解在不同精神病症狀下,歸因及危險覺知如何影響社會距離反應。

研究工具共包含五個部分,分別為:研究對象基本資料、歸因向度量表、危險覺知量表、社會距離量表、各精神疾病症狀短文(包含精神分裂症、憂鬱症、強迫症、藥物濫用、酒精濫用),研究工具符合信、效度要求。本研究樣本為社區民眾,以立意取樣選取台北縣市、台中市及高雄市等社區為樣本,詢問社區民眾受測意願,同意受測者給予問卷填寫,共收取314名社區民眾為研究樣本。

研究結果如下:研究結果呈現出:(一)五種精神疾病的穩定歸因有顯著差異,民眾對各精神疾病的穩定歸因略偏向穩定、不會隨時間改變的;(二)五種精神疾病的個人因素可控制性歸因有顯著差異,民眾對各精神疾病的個人因素可控制性歸因並無特別傾向;(三)五種精神疾病的外在因素可控制性歸因有顯著差異,民眾對五組精神疾病的外在因素可控制性歸因並無特別傾向;(四)五種精神疾病的因果根源歸因有顯萛t異,民眾對五組精神疾病的因果根源歸因偏向個人或內在歸因;(五)五組精神疾病的危險覺知有顯著差異,民眾對精神疾病的危險覺知反應定無特別傾向;(六)五種精神疾病的社會距離有顯著差異,民眾對五組疾病的社會距離反應並無特別傾向;(七)民眾對精神分裂症的社會距離取決於危險覺知、穩定歸因及因果根源(內在歸因);民眾對憂鬱症的社會距離取決於危險覺知;民眾對酒精濫用的社會距離取決於因果根源(內在歸因)、危險覺知、個人因素可控制性及穩定;民眾對強迫症的社會距離取決於危險覺知、穩定及個人因素可控制性;民眾對藥物濫用的社會距離取決於危險覺知、個人因素可控制性及因果根源(內在歸因)。
本研究最後根據研究結果進行討論並對後續研究提出建議。
The purpose of this study is to explore the general community population’s reaction to different psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, alcohol abuse, OCD, and drug abuse. The study tried to prove that the attribution, perceived dangerousness, and social distance of different psychiatric symptoms were significantly different. This study attempted to investigate how the attribution and perceived dangerousness affect the social distance reaction under different psychiatric symptoms.

There were five instruments in this study : basic demographic data, Causal Dimension Scale-II, Dangerousness Scale, Social Distance Scales and psychiatric symptoms vignettes ( including schizophrenia, depression, alcohol abuse, OCD, and drug abuse).The validity and reliability of the instruments were satisfactory. The sample consists of 314 citizens from Taipei city, Taipei county,Taichung city, and Kaohsiung city.

Results revealed that:
1) The degree of stable attribution between the five disorders was significantly different, and did not change by time.
2) The degree of personal controllability between the five disorders was significantly different, and was towards to having personal controllability.
3) The degree of external controllability between the five disorders was significantly different, and was towards to having external controllability.
4) The degree of locus of causality between the five disorders was significantly different, and was towards to having internal attribution.
5) The degree of dangerousness between the five disorders was significantly different, and was towards to being dangerous. Most citizens agreed that the five disorders were dangerous.
6) The degree of social distance between the five disorders was significantly different.
7) Regarding social distance reaction, the contributing factors with respect to different disorders were as follows :
(a)schizophrenia-dangerousness, internal attribution, and stability.
(b)depression-dangerousness.
(c)alcohol abuse-dangerousness, personal controllability, stability, and internal attribution.
(d)OCD-dangerousness, stability, and personal controllability.
(e)drug abuse-dangerousness, personal controllability, and internal attribution.

The implications and contribution of this research were also discussed.
目 錄
頁碼
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………………� 1
第一節 研究動機………………………………………………………… 1
第二節 精神疾病的定義、相關流行病學……………………………… 3
壹、 精神疾病的定義………………………………………………. 3
貳、 精神疾病的分類……………………………………………… 3
參、 各精神疾病的盛行率………………………………………… 5
肆、 各精神疾病症狀……………………………………………… 7
第三節 社區民眾對精神疾病的歸因態度…………………………… � 13
壹、 歸因的意義…………………………………………………… 13
貳、 歸因理論……………………………………………………… 13
參、 歸因向度……………………………………………………… 14
肆、 歸因的測量…………………………………………………… 16
伍、 歸因向度與民眾對精神疾病的接受度……………………… 17
第四節�社區民眾對精神疾病的社會距離…………………………… 19
壹、 社會距離……………………………………………………… 19
貳、 社會對精神疾病患者的迎拒情形…………………………… 20
參、 精神病污名與社會距離的關聯性…………………………… 20
第五節 社區民眾對精神疾病的危險覺知覺知………………………. 22
壹、 刻板印象…………………………………………………….. 22
貳、 危險覺知與精神疾病關聯性:過去研究回顧…………….. 23
� �第六節 研究目的與研究假設……………………………………….. 26
第二章 研究方法……………………………………………………………. 30
第一節 研究對象………………………………………………………. 30
第二節 研究工具……………………………………………………. 31
壹、 基本資料…………………………………………………. 31
貳、 各精神疾病症狀短文……………………………………. 32
參、 歸因向度量表…………………………………………... 35
肆、 危險覺知量表…………………………………………… 37
伍、 社會距離量表…………………………………………… 38
第三節 研究程序…………………………………………………….. 41
第三章� 研究結果……………………………………………………….. 43
第一節�描述性統計分析…………………………………………… 43
壹、 有效樣本的特性分析……………………………………… 43
貳、 依變項描述性分析………………………………………… 45
第二節 因果根源歸因、外在因素可控制性歸因、個人因素可控
制性歸因、穩定歸因、危險覺知、社會距離的人口學差異
性分析…………………………………………………………. 51
壹、 精神分裂症、憂鬱症、酒精濫用、強迫症、藥物濫用短
文組在穩定歸因變項人口學之比較…..………………… 51
貳、 精神分裂症、憂鬱症、酒精濫用、強迫症、藥物濫用短
文組在個人因素可控制性歸因變項人口學之比較……… 56
參、 精神分裂症、憂鬱症、酒精濫用、強迫症、藥物濫用短
文組在外在因素可控制性歸因變項人口學之比較………� �61
肆、 精神分裂症、憂鬱症、酒精濫用、j迫症、藥物濫用短
文組在因果根源歸因變項人口學之比較…………………� �66
伍、 精神分裂症、憂鬱症、酒精濫用、強迫症、藥物濫用短
文組在危險覺知變項人口學之比較………………………� �71
陸、 精神分裂症、憂鬱症、酒精濫用、強迫症、藥物濫用短
文組在社會距離變項人口學之比較………………………� � 76
第三節 研究假設的驗證……………………………………………… 81
第四章� 綜合討論……………………………………………………….. 100
第一節�研究假設驗證…………………………………………….... 100
第二節�研究結果與民眾實際行為的差異…..…………………….. 102
第三節�研究限制及未來研究方向………………………………… 104
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………. 107
附錄一………………………………………………………………………. 114
圖目錄
圖一研究架構模式圖………………………………………………… 29
表目錄
表1-1 ICD-10精神疾病分類表……………………………………… 4
表1-2 DSM-IV精神疾病分類表……� …………………………… 5
表1-3 台灣地區精神疾病終身盛行率……………………………….. 7
表1-4 精神分裂症在ICD-10 及DSM-IV的疾病特性…………….. 8
表1-5 重鬱症在ICD-10 及DSM-IV的疾病特性………………….. 9
表1-6 酒精濫用在ICD-10 及DSM-IV的疾病特性……………….. 10
表1-7 藥物濫用在ICD-10 及DSM-IV的疾病特性……………….. 11
表1-8 強迫症在ICD-10 及DSM-IV的疾病特性………………….. 12
表2-1 民眾對各疾病短文回答正確次數表………………………… 33
表2-2 歸因向度量表各變項間相關矩}…………………………… 36
表2-3 歸因向度量表因素分析摘要表……………………………… 36
表2-4 危險覺知量表各項目間相關矩陣…………………………….. 38
表2-5危險覺知量表的因素分析摘要表…………………………… 38
表2-6 社會距離量表各項目相關矩陣………………………………… 38
表2-7 距離量表的因素分析摘要表…………………………………... 40
表3-1 受試者人口變項特性………………………………………….� 44
表3-2 各疾病的穩定歸因描述統計摘要表………………………….. 45
表3-3 各疾病的個人因素可控制性歸因描述統計摘要表………….. 46
表3-4 各疾病的外在因素可控制性歸因描述統計摘要表…………… 47
表3-5各疾病的因果根源歸因描述統計摘要表…………………..…. 48
表3-6各疾病的危險覺知描述統計摘要表………………………........ 49
表3-7各疾病的社會距離描述統計摘要表……………………………. 50
表3-8民眾的性別在穩定變項的t檢定摘要表……………………… 52
表3-9 民眾的年齡在穩定變項變異數摘要表………………………… 53
表3-10民眾的教育程度穩定變項變異數摘要表……………………… 54
表3-11民眾的社經地位在穩定變項變異數摘要表…………………... 55
表3-12民眾的性別在個人因素可控制性變項的t檢定摘要表………. 57
表3-13民眾的年齡在個人因素可控制性變項變異數摘要表………… 58
表3-14 民眾的教育程度在個人因素可控制性變項變異數摘要表…… 59
表3-15 民眾的社經地位在個人因素可控制性變項變異數摘要表…… 60
表3-16 民眾的性別在外在因素可控制性變項的t檢定摘要表……… 62
表3-17 民眾的年齡在外在因素可控制性變項變異數摘要表………. 63
表3-18 民眾的教育程度在外在因素可控制性變項變異數摘要表….. 64
表3-19 民眾的社經地位在外在因素可控制性變項變異數摘要表…… 65
表3-20民眾的性別在因果根源變項的t檢定摘要表………………… 67
表3-21民眾的年齡在因果根源變項變異數摘要表…………………... 68
表3-22民眾的教育程度在因果根源變項變異數摘要表……………… 69
表3-23民眾的社經地位在因果根源變項變異數摘要表……………… 70
表3-24民眾的性別在危險覺知變項的t檢定摘要表…………………. 72
表3-25 民眾的年齡在危險覺知變項變異數摘要表…………………… 73
表3-26 民眾的教育程度在危險覺知變項變異數摘要表……………… 74
表3-27 民眾的社經地位在危險覺知變項變異數摘要表……………… 75
表3-28 民眾的性別在社會距離變項的t檢定摘要表…………………. 77
表3-29 民眾的年齡在社會距離變項變異數摘要表…………………… 78
表3-30 民眾的教育程度在社會距離變項變異數摘要表……………… 79
表3-31 民眾的社經地位在社會距離變項變異數摘要表……………… 80
表3-32 各組穩定歸因之變異數分析……………………………………. 82
表3-33 各組疾病在穩定歸因各題目的平均數…………………………. 82
表3-34 各組個人因素可控制性歸因之變異數分析… ………………. 84
表3-35 各組疾病在個人因素可控制性歸因各題目的平均數…………. 84
表3-36 各組外在因素可控制性歸因之變異數分析……………………. 86
表3-37 各組疾病在外在因素可控制性歸因各題目的平均數…………. 86
表3-38 各組因果根源歸因之變異數分析………………………………. 88
表3-39 各組疾病在因果根源歸因各題目的平均數……………………. 88
表3-40 各組危險覺知之變異數分析…………………………………..... 90
表3-41 各組疾病在危險覺知各題目的平均數………………………… 90
表3-42 各組社會距離之變異數分析…………………………………… 92
表3-43 各組疾病在社會距離各題目的平均數………………………… 92
表3-44 影響社區民眾對精神分裂症因素之逐步迴歸分析..………….. 94
表3-45 影響社區民眾對憂鬱症因素之逐步迴歸分析………………… 95
表3-46 影響社區民眾對酒精濫用因素之逐步迴歸分析……………… 96
表3-47影響社區民眾對強迫症因素之逐步迴歸分析…………..……… 97
表3-48影響社區民眾對藥物濫用因素之逐步迴歸分析………….….. . 98
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