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研究生(外文):Tsung-hsien Tsai
論文名稱(外文):Study on Biodegradation of Perchlorate in Groundwater
指導教授(外文):Min-Hsin Liu
外文關鍵詞:GroundwaterAnaerobic biodegradationPerchlorate
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本研究曾探討過氯酸鹽於國內使用狀況並評估其污染地下水之可能性,並模擬地下含水層中過氯酸鹽污染物流動及受土壤吸附狀態,由土壤管柱試驗中得知過氯酸鹽在地下水流動時會為土壤有機質會吸附,吸附量與土壤有機質量成正比,同時研究中使用在厭氧狀態下生物分解方式,探討過氯酸鹽降解所需之環境最佳狀況,並計算地下水中過氯酸鹽生物降解的速率。實驗結果顯示,過氯酸鹽在厭氧性的懸浮生長生物模場中,生物降解反應對100 mg/L過氯酸鹽之去除效果非常的良好可達到99 %以上,其生物降解動力學判斷為零階反應,而降解速率與生物量成正比,依數據推導降解速率常數為0.0093 hr-1。
Ammonium perchlorate is a strong oxidant mainly used in rocket and missile engine solid propellants. Perchlorate salts are also used in pyrotechnics in the manufacture of matches, munitions and in the chemical analytical industry. Other perchlorate compounds uses include additives in lubricating oils, tanning, finished leather, fabric fixer, dyes, electroplating, aluminum refining, rubber manufacture, paint and enamel production, additive in cattle feed, in magnesium batteries, and as a component of automobile air bag inflators. Because of the high solubility of most perchlorate salts, the resultant perchlorate anion is extremely mobile and becomes a significant soil and groundwater contaminant. When the groundwater contaminated with perchlorate salts is used as potable water, perchlorate anion will interfere with the body’s iodine intake and cause inhibition of thyroid production in the human body.

The potential of perchlorate contamination in soil and groundwater was investigated in a firework accidental explosion site in Taiwan. In order to understand perchlorate salts contaminant be adsorbed by the soil in the aquifer of simulation. The soil column experiment indicated that perchlorate contamination will be absorbed by the organic matters in soil matrix. The absorbing amount was in direct proportion to organic matters amount in soil. In addition, an anaerobic suspended-growth system was established in this study to degrade the perchlorate anion in groundwater. The removal efficiency of perchlorate was determined to be more than 99% in the system. The rate of anaerobic degradation followed zero-order kinetics with respect to perchlorate concentration, and the degradation rate was proportional to the biomass concentration in the reactor, the rate constant was calculated to be 0.0093 h-1.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌 謝 III
總目錄 IV
表 目 錄 VII
圖 目 錄 VIII
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1過氯酸鹽的來源 6
2.2過氯酸鹽對環境的影響 10
2.2.1過氯酸鹽的暴露途徑 10
2.2.2過氯酸鹽對潛在人體和生態健康的影響 11
2.3過氯酸鹽的分析技術 13
2.3.1 早期分析方法 13
2.3.2 近期的分析方法 16
2.4過氯酸鹽的整治技術 17
2.4.1 離子交換法(Ion exchange) 17
2.4.2生物程序法(Biological Processes) 21
2.4.3新穎整治技術 30
2.5影響生物去除過氯酸鹽的因素 36
第三章 實驗設備與方法 38
3.1實驗藥品及設備 38
3.2土壤吸附管柱試驗 44
3.3厭氧性生物模場試驗 47
3.3.1厭氧性生物模場 47
3.3.2模廠操作條件 49
3.3.3 模場短流試驗 49
3.3.4模場連續進流批次降解試驗 50
第四章 結果與討論 53
4.1國內目前過氯酸鹽污染現況 53
4.2土壤吸附管柱試驗 59
4.3模場短流試驗 62
4.4模場進流基質及反應槽水質分析 65
4.4.1模場菌種馴化 66 模場pH及MLSS變化分析 66 模場電導度及溫度變化分析 68 模場氧化還原電位(ORP)及溶氧(DO)變化分析 70
4.4.2馴化結束系統穩定加入污染物 72
4.5連續進流及定量瓶批次實驗 75
4.5.1連續進流實驗 75
4.5.2定量瓶批次實驗 77
第五章 結論與建議 80
5.1結論 80
5.2建議 82
參考文獻 83
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