(3.238.130.97) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/09 04:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡宗憲
研究生(外文):Tsung-hsien Tsai
論文名稱:地下水中之過氯酸鹽生物分解之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Biodegradation of Perchlorate in Groundwater
指導教授:劉敏信劉敏信引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Hsin Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:地下水厭氧生物降解過氯酸鹽
外文關鍵詞:GroundwaterAnaerobic biodegradationPerchlorate
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:355
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:45
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
過氯酸鹽主要作為火箭引擎之燃料及製造煙火等材料,而且過氯酸鹽亦為潤滑油、製革成品、染料、電鍍、鋁精煉、橡膠工業、塗料瓷釉產品上之添加劑,並用於牛飼料及鎂電池之添加物以及汽車中安全氣囊充氣劑成份,可見過氯酸鹽的應用非常的廣,因此在製造或使用過程中若有溢散事件發生時,將會污染環境中之土壤與地下水等介質。過氯酸鹽如存在地下水中為人們所飲用,將會影響人體碘之攝取,抑制人體甲狀腺之功能,並且還有可能引起甲狀腺癌,更嚴重的是過氯酸鹽可能也會經由遺傳而對後代的發育產生影響。
本研究曾探討過氯酸鹽於國內使用狀況並評估其污染地下水之可能性,並模擬地下含水層中過氯酸鹽污染物流動及受土壤吸附狀態,由土壤管柱試驗中得知過氯酸鹽在地下水流動時會為土壤有機質會吸附,吸附量與土壤有機質量成正比,同時研究中使用在厭氧狀態下生物分解方式,探討過氯酸鹽降解所需之環境最佳狀況,並計算地下水中過氯酸鹽生物降解的速率。實驗結果顯示,過氯酸鹽在厭氧性的懸浮生長生物模場中,生物降解反應對100 mg/L過氯酸鹽之去除效果非常的良好可達到99 %以上,其生物降解動力學判斷為零階反應,而降解速率與生物量成正比,依數據推導降解速率常數為0.0093 hr-1。
Ammonium perchlorate is a strong oxidant mainly used in rocket and missile engine solid propellants. Perchlorate salts are also used in pyrotechnics in the manufacture of matches, munitions and in the chemical analytical industry. Other perchlorate compounds uses include additives in lubricating oils, tanning, finished leather, fabric fixer, dyes, electroplating, aluminum refining, rubber manufacture, paint and enamel production, additive in cattle feed, in magnesium batteries, and as a component of automobile air bag inflators. Because of the high solubility of most perchlorate salts, the resultant perchlorate anion is extremely mobile and becomes a significant soil and groundwater contaminant. When the groundwater contaminated with perchlorate salts is used as potable water, perchlorate anion will interfere with the body’s iodine intake and cause inhibition of thyroid production in the human body.

The potential of perchlorate contamination in soil and groundwater was investigated in a firework accidental explosion site in Taiwan. In order to understand perchlorate salts contaminant be adsorbed by the soil in the aquifer of simulation. The soil column experiment indicated that perchlorate contamination will be absorbed by the organic matters in soil matrix. The absorbing amount was in direct proportion to organic matters amount in soil. In addition, an anaerobic suspended-growth system was established in this study to degrade the perchlorate anion in groundwater. The removal efficiency of perchlorate was determined to be more than 99% in the system. The rate of anaerobic degradation followed zero-order kinetics with respect to perchlorate concentration, and the degradation rate was proportional to the biomass concentration in the reactor, the rate constant was calculated to be 0.0093 h-1.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌 謝 III
總目錄 IV
表 目 錄 VII
圖 目 錄 VIII
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1過氯酸鹽的來源 6
2.2過氯酸鹽對環境的影響 10
2.2.1過氯酸鹽的暴露途徑 10
2.2.2過氯酸鹽對潛在人體和生態健康的影響 11
2.3過氯酸鹽的分析技術 13
2.3.1 早期分析方法 13
2.3.2 近期的分析方法 16
2.4過氯酸鹽的整治技術 17
2.4.1 離子交換法(Ion exchange) 17
2.4.2生物程序法(Biological Processes) 21
2.4.3新穎整治技術 30
2.5影響生物去除過氯酸鹽的因素 36
第三章 實驗設備與方法 38
3.1實驗藥品及設備 38
3.2土壤吸附管柱試驗 44
3.3厭氧性生物模場試驗 47
3.3.1厭氧性生物模場 47
3.3.2模廠操作條件 49
3.3.3 模場短流試驗 49
3.3.4模場連續進流批次降解試驗 50
第四章 結果與討論 53
4.1國內目前過氯酸鹽污染現況 53
4.2土壤吸附管柱試驗 59
4.3模場短流試驗 62
4.4模場進流基質及反應槽水質分析 65
4.4.1模場菌種馴化 66
4.4.1.1 模場pH及MLSS變化分析 66
4.4.1.2 模場電導度及溫度變化分析 68
4.4.1.3 模場氧化還原電位(ORP)及溶氧(DO)變化分析 70
4.4.2馴化結束系統穩定加入污染物 72
4.5連續進流及定量瓶批次實驗 75
4.5.1連續進流實驗 75
4.5.2定量瓶批次實驗 77
第五章 結論與建議 80
5.1結論 80
5.2建議 82
參考文獻 83
Achenbach, L. A., et al., Dechloromonas agitate gen. nov. sp. nov. and Dechlorosoma suillum gen. nov., sp. nov., two novel environmentally dominant (per) chlorate reducing bacteria and their phylogenetic position, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 51, pp. 527-533 ( 2001).
Attaway, H., and Smith, M., Reduction of Perchlorate by an Anaerobic Enrichment Culture, J. Ind. Microbiol., 12(6): pp. 408-412 (1993).
AWWA, Membrane technology comes into its own in last few years (2001).
Bates, R. L., Geology of the Industrial Rocks and Minerals, Dover Publications (1969).
Batista, J. R., et al., The removal of perchlorate from waters using ion exchange resins, Perchlorate in the environment, pp. 135-145, New York: Kluwer / Plenum (2000).
Beisel, T. H., et al., Ex- situ treatment of perchlorate contaminated groundwater, National Ground Water Association Conference on MTBE and Perchlorate: Assessment, Remediation, and Public, Costa Mesa, CA, pp. 3-4, June (2004).
Bellinger, D. C., What is an adverse effect? A possible resolution of clinical and epidemiological perspectives on neurobehavioral toxicity, Environ. Res., Vol. 95, pp. 394-405 (2004).
Best, E. P. H., et al., Environmental behavior and fate of explosives from groundwater from the Milan Army Ammunition Plant in aquatic and wetland plants, Fate of TNT and RDX, Prepared for U.S. Army Environmental Center by U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg, MS. Report SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-97060 (2000).
Betts, K. S., Rotating ion exchange system removes perchlorate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32(19): 454A (1998).
Boralessa, R., Transport of perchlorate in the Las Vegas Wash and Lake Mead, Master’s thesis, Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (2001).
Borden, R. C., et al., Treatment of Nitrate, Perchlorate, Chromate and ARD Using Edible Oils, Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, The Fourth International Conference, Monterey, CA, pp. 24-27 (2004).
Bryan, E. H., Application of the chlorate BOD procedure to routine measurement of wasrewater strength, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., 38, pp. 1350-1362 (1966).
CDHS (California Department of Health Services), DHS Sanitation and Radiation Laboratory Branch, Determination of perchlorate by ion chromatography, Revision No. 0, 35, p.35-48 (1997).
CDHS (California Department of Health Services), Laboratory analysis for perchlorate (2000b).
CDHS, Division of Drinking Water and Environmental Management Drinking Water Program, Perchlorate in drinking water-basis for provision action level, in: Proceedings of the American Water Works Association Research Foundation Perchlorate Research Issue Group Conference, Ont., CA, September 30~October 2 (1997).
Chemfinder, Ammonium, barium, cesium, lead, lithium, potassium, rubidium, and sodium perchlorate, perchlorate acid, perchlorate anion, and lithium perchlorate trihydrate (2000).
Chilean Nitrate Corporation (CNC) website (1999).
Clewell, R. A., et al., Analysis of trace level perchlorate in drinking water and ground water by electrospray mass spectrometry, Chapter 6, in: Perchlorate in the Environment, 45-48 (2000). (Urbansky, E. T., Ed.). New York, NY, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Coates, J. D, et al., Hydrogen Bioremediative potential of (Per)chlorate-reducing bacteria, Bioremediation J., 3, pp. 323-334 (1999).
Coates, J. D., et al., The ubiquity and diversity of dissimilatory (per)chlorate reducing bacteria, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65, pp. 5234-5241 (1999).
Conkling, J. A., Pyrotechnics, Scientific American, pp. 96-102, July (1990).
Cox, E. E., et al., Perchlorate in groundwater: Scope of the problem and emerging remedial solutions, In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, pp. 27-32 (2001).
Cramer, R. J., et al., Naval Ordnance Safety and Security Activity, Naval Sea Systems Command Technical Report # NOSSA-TR-2004-001 (2004).
Dean, K. E., et al., Development of fresh water-quality criteria for perchlorate, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., Vol. 23, pp. 1441-1451 (2004).
Eichler, O., Zur Pharmakologie der Perchloratwirkung, Arch Exper Path (1929).
Ericsen, G. E., The Chileam Nitrate Deposits, American Scientist, Vol. 71, pp. 366-374 (1983).
Farmer, J. C., et al., Capacitive Deionization of NH4ClO4 Solutions with Carbon Aerogel Electrodes, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, Published in Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 26, January (1996).
Felz, M. W., and Forren, A. C., Profound Hypothyroidism – a Clinical Review with Eight Recent Cases, Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 97, pp. 490-498 (2004).
Gingras, T., and Batista, J. R., Biological reduction of perchlorate in ion exchange regenerant solutions containing high salinity and ammonium levels, Journal of Environment Monitoring , 4, pp. 96-101 (2002).
Greer, M. A., et al., Health effect assessment for environmental perchlorate contamination: The dose response for inhibition of thyroidal radioiodide uptake in humans, Environ. Health Perspect, Vol. 110, pp. 927-937 (2002).
Gu, B., et al., Development of novel bifunction anion exchange resins with improved selectivity for pertechnetate sorption from contaminated groundwater, Environment Science and Technology, 34, pp. 1075-1080 (2000).
Gu, B., Ku, Y., and Brown, G. M., Treatment of perchlorate contaminated groundwater using highly selective regenerable ion exchange technology: A pilot plant demonstration, Remediation, 12, pp. 51-68 (2002).
Gullick, R., et al., Occurrence of perchlorate in drinking water sources, J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 93 (1), pp. 66-77 (2001).
Gurol, et al., Investigation of Perchlorate Removal in Drinking Water Sources by Chemical Methods from Perchlorate in the Environment, Edited by Urbansky, et al., San Diego State University, San Diego, California (2000).
Hackenthal, E., et al., Die reduction von perchlorat durch bacterien, Untersuchungen an intakten zellen, Biochem. Pharm., 13, pp. 195-206 (1964).
Hammer, D. A., Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: municipal, industrial, and agricultural, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1990).
Hatzinger, P. B., In situ bioremediation of perchlorate, Final Report to the Strategic Environment Research and Development Program (SERDP), Project CU-1163, 131 (2002).
Hatzinger, P. B., et al., Biological treatment of perchlorate contaminated groundwater using fluidized bed reactors, in Wickramanayake, G. B., et al., Case studies in the remediation of chlorinated and recalcitrant compounds, Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, pp. 115-122 (2000).
Hautman, D. P., et al., Method 314.0, Determination of perchlorate in drinking water using ion chromatography, Revision 1.0, 35p (1999). USEPA, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH,
Henry, B. M., et al., Strategies using vegetable oil for enhanced bioremediation of chlorinated solvents, In Situ and On-site Bioremediation, the Seventh International Symposium, Orlando, FL, pp. 2-5 (2003).
Hjeresen, D., et al., Los Alamos National Laboratory Perchlorate Issues Update (2004).
Hunley, J. D., The History of Solid-Propellant Rocketry: What We Do and Do Not Know, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (1999).
ITRC, In Situ Bioremediation in GW-Perchlorate (2002).
Kadlec, R. H., and Knight, R. L., Treatment wetlands, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL (1996).
Wallace K., and Hofmann, M. T., Thyroid dysfunction: How to manage overt and subclinical disease in older patients, Geriatrics, Vol. 53, 4, pp. 32-37 (1998).
KDHE, Foodborne Illness and Outbreak Investigation Manual (2004).
Kengen, S. W. M., et al., Purification and characterization of (per)chlorate reductase form the chlorate-respiring strain GR-1, J. Bacteriol., 181 (21), pp. 6706-11 (1999).
Lide, D.R. (Ed. in Chief), in: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 4-37 to 4-10, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 77th Edition (1996).
Logan, B. E., et al., Kinetics of perchlorate and chlorate respiring bacteria, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 67(6), pp. 2499-2506 (2001).
Logan, B. E., and LaPoint, D., Treatment of perchlorate and nitrate contaminate groundwater in an autotrophic, gas phase, packed-bed bioreactor, Water Research, 36, pp. 3647-3653 (2002).
Logan, B. E., A review of chlorate and perchlorate respiring microorganisms, Bioremediation Journal, 2, pp. 69-79 (1998).
Logan, B. E., Assessing the outlook for perchlorate remediation, Environment Science & Technology, 35, pp. 482A-487A, December 1 (2001).
Losi, M. E., et al., Bioremediation of perchlorate contaminated groundwater using a packed bed biological reactor, Biorem. J., 6, pp. 97-103 (2002).
Min, B., et al., Perchlorate removal in sand and plastic media bioreators, Wat. Res., 38, pp. 47-60 (2004).
Morreale, E. G., et al., Is neuropsychological development related to maternal hypothyroidism or to maternal hypothyroxinemia? Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., Vol. 85, pp. 3975-3987 (2000).
Moshiri, G. A., Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL (1994).
Mulamoottil, G., et al., Constructed Wetlands for the Treatment of Landfill Leachates, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Boca Raton, FL (1998).
O’Conner, S. M., and Coates, J. D., A universal immunoprobe for (per)chlorate reducing bacteria, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68, pp. 3108-3113 (2002).
Orris, G. J., Perchlorate in Natural Minerals and Materials, USGS Quarterly Report, April (2004).
Park, S.P. (Ed. in Chief). in: McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical Terms, New York, NY, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 470 (1985).
Perlmutter, M., et al., In situ treatment of perchlorate in groundwater using permeable reactive barriers, National Ground Water Association Conference on MTBE and Perchlorate: Assessment, Remediation, and Public Policy, Costa Mesa, CA, pp. 3-4, June (2004).
Huang, C. P., Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Personal Communication, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA, July (2004).
Polk, J., et al., Army success story: ex-situ biological treatment of perchlorate contaminated groundwater, Federal Facilities Environmental Journal, pp. 85-94 (2002).
Purolite, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Environmental Protection Agency (2004).
Renner, R., Study finding perchlorate in fertilizer rattles industry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33, pp. 394A-395A (1999b).
Rikken, G. B., et al., Transformation of (per)chlorate into chloride by a newly isolated bacterium: reduction and dismutation, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 45, pp. 420-426 (1996).
Rikken, G. B., et al., Transformation of (per)chlorate into chloride by a newly isolated bacterium: reduction and dismutation, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 45(3), pp. 420-426 (1996).
Roquebert, V., et al., Electrodialysis reversal and ion exchange as polishing treatment for perchlorate treatment, Desalination, 131, pp. 285-291 (2000).
Sax, N. I., and Lewis, R. J. Sr., Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, New York, NY, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1288, Eleventh Edition (1987).
Schumacher, J. C., Perchlorates: Their Properties, Manufacture and Uses, American Chemical Society Monograph, Vol. 146, Reinhold Publishing, New York (1960).
Silva, M. A., Safety Flares Threaten Water Quality With Perchlorate, Santa Clara Valley Water District (2003).
Song, Y., Logan, B. E., Effect of O2 exposure on perchlorate reduction by Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, Water Res. 38(6): pp. 1626-1632 (2004).
Stanbury, J. B., and Wyngaarden, J. B., Effect of Perchlorate on the Human Thyroid Gland, Metabolism 1, pp. 553-559 (1952).
Streitelmeier, B. A., et al., Use of a unique biobarrier to remediate nitrate and perchlorate in groundwater, International Containment and Remediation Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, June (2001).
Susarla, A., et al., Perchlorate Uptake in Lettuce Seedlings, American Chemical Society, pp. 22-26, August (1999).
Sutton, P. M., and Mishra, P. N., Biological fluidized beds for water and wastewater treatment, Water Environment and Technology, pp. 52-56, August (1991).
Tan, K., et al., Degradation kinetics of perchlorate in sediments and soils, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 151, pp. 245-259 (1999).
Tillotson, S. L., et al., Relation between Biochemical Severity and Intelligence in Early Treated Congenital Hypothyroidism: a Threshold Effect, BMJ, Vol. 309, pp. 440-445 (1994).
Tripp, A. R., and Clifford, D., Modeling ion exchange treatment of perchlorate in groundwater, AWWA 2002 Inorganic Contaminants Workshop, San Diego, CA (2002).
Urbansky, E. T., Review and discussion of perchlorate chemistry as related to analysis and remediation. Bioremed J., 2, pp. 81-95 (1998).
Urbansky, E. T., Perchlorate in the Environment, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York (2000).
Urbansky, E. T., and Schock, M. R., Issues in managing the risks associated with perchlorate in drinking water, J. Environ. Manage., 56, pp. 79-95 (1999).
Urbansky, E. T., et al., Survey of Fertilizers and Related Materials for Perchlorate (ClO4-) - Final Report, EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (2001).
USEPA, Public Health Goal for Chemicals in Drinking Water, Perchlorate, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Environmental Protection Agency (2004).
USEPA, Announcement of the analytical method (EPA Method 314.0) and laboratory approval process to support perchlorate monitoring for the unregulated contaminant monitoring rule, Washington, DC, USEPA Notice (2000a).
Van Ginkel, et al., Purification and characterization of chlorite dismutase: A novel oxygen generating enzyme, Arch. Microbiol., 166, pp. 321-326 (1996).
Vieira, A., The removal of perchlorate from waters using ion exchange resins, M. S. thesis, Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (2000).
Waller, A. S., et al., Perchlorate reducing microorganisms isolated from contaminated sites, Environ. Microbiol., 6, pp. 517-527 ( 2004).
Waterweek, Perchlorate detected in lake mead water, AWWA, Denver, September 1 (1997).
Wu, J., Biodegradation times of perchlorate, chlorate, and abundance of (per)chlorate microorganisms in soil and water samples, M.S. Thesis, the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (2000).
Wu, J., et al., Persistence of perchlorate and the relative numbers of perchlorate and chlorate respiring microorganisms in natural waters, soils, and wastewater, Bioremed. J., 5, pp. 119-130 (2001).
Xu, J. Y., et al., Microbial degradation of perchlorate: principles and applications, Environ. Eng. Sci., 20, pp. 405-422 (2003).

Yu, L., et al., Uptake of Perchlorate in Terrestrial Plants, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety (2003).
Zawtocki, C., et al., Dash of oil and let marinate, Pollut. Eng., pp. 30-34, May (2004).
Zhang, W. X., Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: An overview, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (2003).
Zhang, H., et al., Perchlorate reduction by a novel chemolithoautotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Environ. Microbiol., 4, pp. 570-576 (2002).
Zhong, Z., et al., Evaluation of in-situ biodegradation of perchlorate in a contaminated site, In A. Leeson et al., Bioremediation of inorganic compounds: the Sixth International In-situ and On-site Bioremediations Symposium, 6, pp. 257-265 (2001).
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔