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研究生:陳美琪
研究生(外文):Mei-Chi Chen
論文名稱:溫度效應對紅麴菌生產色素暨monacolinK之影響
論文名稱(外文):The influence of temperature shift on pigment and monacolin K production by Monascus spp.
指導教授:賴龍山賴龍山引用關係
指導教授(外文):Long-Shan Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:應用化學系碩士班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:色素monacolin K紅麴菌溫度效應
外文關鍵詞:effect of temperature shiftMonascus spp.monacolin Kpigment
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紅麴菌在食品醱酵上使用已經有數千年的歷史,可生產特殊的色素、香氣及食品添加用。近年來,研究發現其二次代謝產物中的monacolin K,可應用於降低人體內膽固醇之累積。
本研究收集十二株紅麴菌,經鑑定為M. ruber、M. pilosus與M. purpureus。以Monascus ruber BCRC 31535 為生產菌株時,使用缺乏甘油之培養基進行十二天培養後,monacolin K與紅色色素產量分別被抑制95%(4.86mg/L)與96%(OD500 5.14),顯示甘油在液態培養下有其重要性。
M. ruber BCRC 31535液態醱酵,利用降溫策略(28℃→23℃)觀察溫度效應,經過12天培養後monacolin K 可增產55%(153.76mg/L),紅色、橘色與黃色色素則分別增加17.9%、10.7%與2.3%。另一方面,M. pilosus BCRC 31527使用降溫策略(28℃→23℃)亦有類似之增產效果:monacolin K增產69% (84.94 mg/L), 紅色、橘色與黃色色素分別增加68%、70.2%與56.1%。
觀察對M. ruber BCRC 31535之降溫策略(28℃→23℃),於第1天換溫後,monacolin K 可增產62%(160.32 mg/L)。若起始溫度為33℃,培養至第10天置換為23℃,則monacolin K之產量僅餘10%(9.93 mg/L);此項觀察顯示溫度效應為紅麴菌二次代謝產物monacolin K與色素生產之重要操作因子。
本研究藉觀察Bacillus subtilis 的生長狀況來測試紅麴菌對其之抑制能力時。M. purpureus BCRC 31499、M. purpureus NCHU 002、M. purpureus NCHU 007、M. purpureus NCHU 009等四個菌株,於PDA培養三天後,對枯草桿菌均有顯著之抑制效果。
Monascus spp. have been used in food fermentation for thousands of years, and its pigment, flavor as well as taste have wide applications. Recently, monacolin K, a secondary metabolite of Monascus spp., was found to be useful as an reducing agent to reduce cholesterol in human body.
12 isolates of Monascus spp. were collected and identified as M. ruber, M. pilosus and M. purpureus in this study . When using Monascus ruber BCRC 31535 in surbmerged culture laking glycerol, the productions of monacolin K and Monascus pigments were inhibited to 95% and 96%. It is concluded that glycerol, in terms of surbmerged culture, plays an important role in the production of monacolin K.
In this research, a down shift temperature strategy was used to study the temperature effect. When applied (28℃, preculture; 23℃, production) for M. ruber BCRC 31535, the production of monacolin K at day 12 was enhanced by 55% (153.76 mg/L), while pigment productions were increased by 17.9%, 10.7% and 2.3% for red, orange and yellow pigments respectively. For M. pilosus BCRC 31527, the same strategy was found to increase the production of monacolin K by 69% (84.94 mg/L), and pigment productions increased by 68%, 70.2% and 56.1% for red, orange and yellow pigments respectively.
A slight variation of the down shift temperature strategy (28℃, preculture; 28℃, production, 1 day; then shifted to 23℃) was found to further increase monacolin K production by 62% (160.32 mg/L). Other versions of down shift temperature strategy were found to inhibit monacolin K. For example, if preculture was done at 28℃, followed by fermentation at 33℃ for 10 days, then shifted to 23℃, the production of monacolin K was reduced by 90% (9.93 mg/L). These observations indicated that temperature can be manipulated as a means to increase monacolin K production.
The inhibition of Bacillus subtilis was also investigated via culturing with the fungal strains in this study. Four among the twelve strains (M. purpureus BCRC 31499, M. purpureus NCHU 002, M. purpureus NCHU 007, M. purpureus NCHU 009) were found to significantly inhibit the growth of Bacillus subtilis on PDA after 3 days.
目錄
封面內頁
博碩士論文授權書
論文口試委員會審定書
誌謝
中文摘要…………………………………………………………… I
英文摘要…………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
目錄………………………………………………………………… Ⅴ
表目錄……………………………………………………………… Ⅷ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………… Ⅸ

第一章 緒論……………………………………………………… 1
1.1 前言……………………………………………………… 1
1.2 研究目的………………………………………………… 2

第二章 文獻回顧………………………………………………… 4
2.1 紅麴菌的簡介…………………………………………… 4
2.2 紅麴菌的次級代謝產物………………………………… 8
2.2.1 紅麴色素………………………………………………… 8
2.2.2 膽固醇合成抑制劑……………………………………… 12
2.2.3 真菌毒素citrinin…………………………………… 22
2.2.4 降血壓物質…………………………………………… 27
2.2.5 抗氧化物質…………………………………………… 28
2.2.6 降血糖………………………………………………… 28
2.2.7 麥角固醇……………………………………………… 29
2.2.8 抗疲勞功效…………………………………………… 29
2.2.9 開發作為生物性殺蟲劑……………………………… 29
2.2.10 植物生長調節劑的生合成與植物分化之研究……… 30
2.3 紅麴機能性食品……………………………………… 30
2.4 紅麴菌的培養方法…………………………………… 30

第三章 材料與方法…………………………………………… 33
3.1 菌株……………………………………………………… 33
3.2 儀器……………………………………………………… 34
3.3 藥品……………………………………………………… 35
3.4 培養方法………………………………………………… 35
3.5 紅麴菌屬的分類………………………………………… 37
3.6 分析方法………………………………………………… 37

第四章 結果與討論…………………………………………… 42
4.1 以PDA 培養基培養紅麴菌之菌落生長型態…………… 42
4.2 培養基成分對M. ruber BCRC 31535生產二次代謝
產物之影響……………………………………………… 46
4.3 紅麴菌液態醱酵製備紅麴色素暨 monacolin K之
生產…………………………………………………………47
4.4 探討18℃∼33℃之間的培養溫度對M. ruber BCRC
31535及M. pilosus BCRC 31527生產色素暨
monacolin K之影響……………………………………… 51
4.4.1 培養時間對紅麴色素與 monacolin K含量之影響………53
4.5 二階段變溫測試……………………………………………59
4.6 紅麴菌與枯草桿菌進行抑制測試…………………………63

第五章 結論………………………………………………………72
參考文獻………………………………………………………………74

附錄
附錄一 十大死因…………………………………………………… 88
附錄二 甘油之簡介………………………………………………… 89
附錄三 衛生署核發紅麴健康食品許可證一覽表………………… 90


表目錄

表3.1 本實驗中所用供試菌株及其來源…………………… 33
表3.2 儀器…………………………………………………… 34
表4.1 在不同溫度定溫培養12天後觀察 M.ruber BCRC
31535與 M.pilosus BCRC 31527之培養液最終pH
值、細胞乾重、 monacolin K與色素產量……………56
表4.2 紅麴菌與枯草桿菌進行結抗之比較與液態定溫
箱培養於28℃在12天後偵測 monacolin K與色
素之產量…………………………………………………71

圖目錄

圖2.1 紅麴菌之生活史…………………………………………7
圖2.2 紅麴色素的結構…………………………………………11
圖2.3 膽固醇的生合成路徑……………………………………17
圖2.4 HMG-CoA的還原反應…………………………………… 18
圖2.5 Monacolins相關化合物之構造…………………………19
圖2.6 Monacolin K合成路徑………………………………… 20
圖2.7 Monacolin K的結構…………………………………… 21
圖2.8 Citrinin的化學結構……………………………………24
圖2.9 Monascus ruber紅色色素與citrinin之生合成………25
圖2.10 紅麴菌中citrinin的生合成路徑………………………26
圖2.11 Dimerumic acid的化學結構……………………………32
圖3.1 紅麴菌屬的分類體系之簡索表…………………………40
圖3.2 Monacolin K 標準品之校正曲線………………………41
圖4.1 紅麴菌M. ruber、M. pilosus與M. purpureus培
養於PDA培養基在24℃定溫培養箱培養14天後之
菌落型態…………………………………………………44
圖4.2 紅麴菌M. ruber、M. pilosus與M. purpureus培
養於PDA培養基在24℃定溫培養箱培養14天與28
天後之型態…………………………………………… 45
圖4.3 M. ruber BCRC 31535培養於不同成分培養基
中,在28℃的定溫培養箱中在第12天偵測色素
與 monacolin K之產量…………………………………48
圖4.4 在28℃定溫培養箱培養12天後,紅麴菌M.
ruber、M. pilosus與M. purpureus培養液色
素之產量…………………………………………………49
圖4.5 在28℃定溫培養箱培養12天後,紅麴菌M.
ruber、M. pilosus與M. purpureus培養液
monacolin K之產量…………………………………… 50
圖4.6 M. ruber BCRC 31535 在28℃定溫培養箱培養
0~14天,測定pH 值、細胞乾重、紅色色素與
monacolin K…………………………………………… 57
圖4.7 M. ruber BCRC 31535在不同溫度(18℃、23℃
、28℃與33℃)定溫培養 0~16天,測定pH值、
細胞乾重、色素與 monacolin K………………………58
圖4.8 M. ruber BCRC 31535分別於0~10天進行28℃生
產培養後置換到23℃,第12天取樣偵測pH值、
色素及 monacolin K………………………………… 65
圖4.9 M. ruber BCRC 31535分別於1~10天進行23℃生
產培養後置換到28℃,第12天取樣偵測pH值、
色素及 monacolin K……………………………………66
圖4.10 M. ruber BCRC 31535分別於0~10天進行18℃生
產培養後置換到23℃,第12天取樣偵測pH值、
色素及 monacolin K……………………………………67
圖4.11 M. ruber BCRC 31535分別於1~10天進行18℃生
產培養後置換到28℃,第12天取樣偵測pH值、
色素及 monacolin K………………………………… 68
圖4.12 M. ruber BCRC 31535分別於0~10天進行33℃生
產培養後置換到23℃,第12天取樣偵測pH值、
色素及 monacolin K……………………………………69
圖4.13 紅麴菌抑制枯草桿菌生長三天後之觀察………………70
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