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研究生:鍾松剛
研究生(外文):Song-Kong Chong
論文名稱:全球移動式網路之安全性研究
論文名稱(外文):A STUDY OF SECURITY IN GLOBAL MOBILITY NETWORKS
指導教授:黃明祥黃明祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Shiang Hwang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:網路與通訊研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:不可否認性服務身份╱位置匿名認證資訊保密GSM3G
外文關鍵詞:privacynon-repudiationidentity/location anonymousAuthentication
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在全球移動式網路中,為了提供個人無線通訊漫遊服務,認證和資訊保密技術是兩個傳統關鍵性的議題。近年來,漫遊用戶(roamer)的身份匿名和服務的不可否認性成為另一個在個人通訊系統(Personal Communication Systems, PCSs)中備受矚目的焦點。
無線網路的特性使得攻擊者可以很容易地匿藏他們的行蹤,以避開合法實體(legitimate entities)的偵測,因此攻擊者可以輕易地為所欲為。泛歐數位式行動電話系統(Global System for Mobile Communication,GSM)面臨著上述的議題。第三代行動通訊系統(3G)雖然在一定的程度上改善了GSM的弱點,然而它依然留下許多可以改進的空間。

在本論文中,我們將會回顧一系列與GSM和3G相關的安全
議題,其中包括認證(authentication)、資訊保密(privacy)、身份╱位置匿名(identity/location anonymous)、不可否認性服務non-repudiation services)等各項議題。其中最重要的是,我們為GSM和3G新增了一個新的安全需求(security requirement):所屬網絡(home network)在認證系統中應該是部分被信任(partial trusted)的}。我們在GSM和3G的安全機制中考慮此一需求,其中主要的原因是,我們相信所屬網路為了利益而可能將其用戶(subscriber)的認證金鑰(authentication key)洩漏給他人,導致合法用戶的權益受到侵害。我們建議各種與GSM和3G相關的安全議題應考慮此一新的安全需求。在本論文中,我們將提出一個新的防護機制來糾正上述的問題。
In global mobility network (GLOMONET), authentication and privacy techniques are two traditional critical issues to provide a personal communication user with global roaming
services. Recently, a roamer''s identity/location anonymous becomes another focus point in Personal Communication Systems (PCSs). The characteristics of wireless network cause attackers are able to hide themselves from detection of legitimate entities. Therefore the attacks become free from all inhibitions. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and confront with the issues shown as above. Although the Third Generation (3G) communication systems solve some of these problems, however, they still leave many areas for improvement.

In this thesis, we will review a serial of researches which are related to the following issues: authentication, privacy, identity/location anonymous and non-repudiation
services in GSM and 3G. Most important of all, a new security requirement, emph{home network should be partial trusted in an authentication scheme} is appended. We believe that a home network may profit by leaking the authentication key of its subscribers to some other people. The results may cause the rights and interests of the legitimate subscribers be infringed. We recommend that the security issues which related to GSM and 3G should consider this new requirement. In this thesis, a new defense scheme shall be proposed to remedy all of these weaknesses.
Table of Contents
中文摘要 (Abstract in Chinese) ii
Abstract iv
誌謝 (Acknowledgements) vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Security Issue Categories 3
1.2 The Motivation 6
1.3 The Thesis Architecture 8
2 Related Theories 9
2.1 Discrete Logarithm Problem 9
2.2 RSA Public Key Cryptosystem 10
3 The GSM architectures 12
3.1 The Authentication Scheme 14
3.2 The Confidentiality Scheme 16
3.3 The Subscriber Identity/location Confidential 16
4 The UMTS Architectures 19
4.1 The Authentication Scheme 20
4.2 The Con‾dentiality Scheme 24
4.3 The Integrity protection 25
4.4 The Subscriber Identity/location Confidentiality 26
4.5 The Comparisons between GSM and UMTS 27
5 Literatures Review 28
5.1 The User Tra±c Confidentiality Schemes 28
5.2 The Authentication Schemes 30
5.3 Identity/location Confidentiality Schemes 36
5.4 Non-repudiation Services 37
6 Proposed Schemes 40
6.1 The Common Registration Phase 42
6.2 The Authentication and Key Agreement scheme for GSM 44
6.3 The Authentication and Key Agreement scheme for UMTS 48
7 Security Analysis 52
8 E±ciency Analysis 56
8.1 Computational Analysis 56
8.2 Messages Transmission Length Analysis 59
9 Comparisons 60
10 Conclusions and Future Works 65
10.1 Conclusions 65
10.2 Future Works 66
Bibliography 67
List of Tables
4.1 Comparisons between GSM and UMTS 27
6.1 Software speeds of RSA 42
7.1 Comparison of the recommendation of NIST and RSA Laboratory 53
8.1 Defined variables'' value/length 58
8.2 The length of messages transmission 59
9.1 Comparisons among the GSM authentication and key agreement schemes 61
9.2 Comparisons among the UMTS authentication and key agreement schemes 63
List of Figures
1.1 The security issues and the basic requirements 4
3.1 The GSM architecture [27] 13
3.2 Authentication scheme for GSM in roaming [27] 14
3.3 Subscriber identity/location confidentiality in GSM 17
4.1 UMTS Architecture 20
4.2 Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) in UMTS 21
5.1 Lee-Hwang-Yang''s data confidentiality scheme 29
5.2 Buttyan et al.''s authentication protocol 32
5.3 Hwang-Chang''s authentication scheme for roaming service 34
5.4 Lee-Hwang-Yang''s identity/location confidentiality scheme 36
6.1 TMSI format 43
6.2 Proposed authentication and key agreement scheme for GSM 45
6.3 Distribution of authentication vectors within one GSM serving network domain 47
6.4 Proposed authentication and key agreement scheme for UMTS 49
6.5 Distribution of authentication vectors within one UMTS serving network domain 51
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