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研究生:張珮甄
研究生(外文):Pei-Chen Chang
論文名稱:公平、效率及社會福利:以台灣實證為例
論文名稱(外文):Equity, Efficiency and Social Welfare:An Application of Taiwan
指導教授:林恭正林恭正引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:財稅所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:財政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:吉尼係數城鄉差異因素分解法台灣地區家庭收支調查資料社會評估函數
外文關鍵詞:social welfare functionSurvey of Family Income and ExpenditureGini indexrural-urban differenceindex decomposition
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台灣地區自1976年至2003年平均每人實質國民所得除2001年呈現負成長外,其餘各年均呈現正成長,而在同期間衡量所得分配的指標吉尼係數卻持續呈現上升的趨勢,由此可知雖然台灣在1976年至2003年間經濟呈現成長之趨勢,但是所得分配之情形卻益發惡化。在過去的相關實證研究中,主要集中在探討所得分配是否公平,甚少同時考慮所得成長,因此本文乃將所得成長及所得分配此兩種情形同時考慮,以衡量台灣自1976年至2003年社會福利水準之變化。
本文使用1976年至2003年行政院主計處家庭收支調查報告之年度原始資料,計算自1976年至2003年台灣地區之吉尼係數,再運用因素分解法,將所得分配不均度分解為來自於城鄉內部、城鄉之間及例外效果,以探討台灣地區自1976年後所得分配開始惡化之出現是否肇因於城鄉差異,結果顯示所得分配不均主要來自城市內部不均度的影響最大。
在本文中除探討台灣是否存在城鄉差異外,尚針對自1976年後台灣人均實質國民所得持續呈現上升,而所得分配情形則越趨惡化,此兩種對於社會福利有著完全相反的影響之交互作用下,運用Sen(1976)提出的社會評估函數(Social Evaluation Function, SEF)將戶均所得的成長視為效率的提升,由衡量所得不均等指數來看公平的問題,以評估台灣地區1976-2003年社會福利的變化趨勢,結果顯示,1995-2003年社會福利水準成長最為緩慢,除受所得成長減緩的影響外,所得分配不均加遽惡化也是原因之一。
The growth rate of real national income per capita in Taiwan was positive during 1976-2003 except for 2001, and meanwhile the income inequality continued to deteriorate. Previous studies which focused on weather the income distributed equally rarely considered both income growth and income inequality simultaneously. The purpose of this study has two folds: to estimate the degree of income inequalities and to evaluate the change of social welfare of Taiwan based on income growth and income distribution during 1976-2003.
The 1976-2003 Survey of Family Income and Expenditure, compiled by the Department of Government of Budget, Accounting and Statistics of Taiwan Executive Yuan, are adopted to calculate the Gini index for each year first. Then these indices are decomposed into between-group effect, within-group effect and overlapped effect to investigate whether the causes of these income inequalities are due to rural-urban difference. The result shows the inequalities of income distribution are mainly caused by the inequality of within-group effect of city.
Beside the evaluation of the impact of rural-urban difference on income inequality, this study further employs the social welfare function proposed by Sen (1976) to evaluate the trend of Taiwan social welfare during 1976-2003. The household disposable income is considered to represent the level of efficiency and the Gini index is considered to represent the degree of inequality of income distribution. The result shows that the reasons of slow growth of social welfare in the most recent period of 1995-2003 are caused not only by the slowdown of income (economic) growth, but also the rapid deterioration of income distribution.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
章節目錄 iii
圖表目錄 iv
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究架構 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
第一節 衡量所得分配相關文獻 6
第二節 衡量社會福利相關文獻 18
第三章 研究方法 22
第一節 因素分解法 22
第二節 社會評估函數 28
第四章 實證結果 31
第一節 城鄉差異 33
第二節 社會福利 40
第五章 結論 49
第一節 結論 49
第二節 研究限制與後續研究建議 50
參考文獻 52
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