(3.238.7.202) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/02 01:23
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:辜克筠
研究生(外文):Khoo Keh Yun
論文名稱:幼兒飲食頻率問卷之信度及效度之評估
論文名稱(外文):Validity and Reproducibility of Food Frequency Questionnaire for Preschool Children
指導教授:曾明淑曾明淑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzeng Min-Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:幼兒飲食頻率問卷飲食記錄效度信度
外文關鍵詞:preschool childrenfood frequency questionnairefood recordvalidityreproducibility
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:2264
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:842
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究目的為設計幼兒飲食頻率問卷並評量其信效度。研究對象為台北、台南及高雄地區48位3歲以上(33位男孩,15位女孩)就讀幼稚園全天班且母親為主要照顧者之幼兒。飲食頻率問卷食物選項以台灣地區嬰幼兒營養調查所收集幼兒各類食物攝取含括各主要營養素90% 攝取量之食物類別,共61項。飲食頻率答項採封閉式;攝取份量採開放式選項,並以半球型食物模型作為輔助工具。效度評量以幼兒三天飲食記錄為標準,由幼兒母親於家中及訪員於幼稚園秤量。信度則由相同訪員於一個月前後各訪問一次。以paired t test、Pearson correlation 及Kappa測量問卷之信度與效度。研究結果顯示,第一次飲食頻率問卷有高估營養素攝取量之趨勢。兩次飲食頻率問卷所測量幼兒各類營養素攝取量均有顯著相關(r=0.55~0.82, P<0.01),Kappa介於0.25~0.63之間。就效度而言,飲食頻率問卷與飲食記錄各類營養素攝取量相關係數由維生素B12(r=0.02)到鈣(r=0.58),Kappa則呈現較差至中度之一致性(-0.03~0.44)。由母親回憶之飲食頻率效度優於幼稚園教師。飲食的記錄可能對低教育程度母親具有學習效果,而提高第二次飲食頻率問卷之效度。效度經調整個人每日營養素攝取差異性(deattenuated)後皆有增加,尤其是在微量營養素中更為顯著。對於熱量調整(energy-adjusted),效度並未有太顯著的改變。半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷在幼兒每日平均營養素攝取結果能減低原始問卷高估之趨勢,但相關性及一致性則不太理想。不過,經個人每日攝取差異性及熱量調整後,問卷與飲食記錄所測結果之相關性皆有提升,尤其於第二次問卷中更為顯著。原始及半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷均適合台灣地區3~6歲幼兒群體營養素之評估。
The purpose of this study was to test validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for preschool children. The study recruited 48 children (33 boys, 15 girls) aged 3 years-old and above whose mothers were the main caretakers from kindergarten full-day program in Taipei, Tainan and Kaoshiung areas. In FFQ, Sixty-one Food items contributing 90% of the main nutrient intakes of preschool children based on the Infant and Preschool Children Nutrition Survey were selected. Itemized frequency selection was used, while the portion size was open-ended assisted with food models. Three-day food record, recorded by mothers at home and investigator at kindergarten, were used as a reference standard for FFQ validity. Reproducibility of FFQ was tested 1-month apart. Results showed that first FFQ overestimated overall nutrient intakes. Reproducibility of 2 FFQ interviews were highly correlated (r=0.55~0.82, P<0.01), and Kappa were between 0.25~0.63. The correlations of nutrient intakes between food record and FFQ were ranged from 0.02 (vitamin B12) to 0.58 (calcium). Kappa ranged from -0.03 to 0.44. Test of the FFQ validity and reproducibility between Northern and Southern preschool children showed no significant differences indicated that the FFQ could be applied to preschool children living in different area of Taiwan. Validity of FFQ from mother was better than that from kindergarten teacher. There might be learning effects of low educated mothers from food recording which might enhance the validity of FFQ. Adjustment for variation-within-person enhanced the correlation of most nutrient intakes computed from FFQ with those recorded in the food record, especially for micronutrients. While energy-adjusted did not really alter the crude correlation of nutrient intakes from FFQ and food record except for the carbohydrate, protein and fat in first FFQ. SFFQ tended to reduce the overestimate-effect in the original FFQ. However, SFFQ did not show a better result in correlation and agreement with food record. The correlation increased after the energy and variation-within-person adjustment, especially in second FFQ. Both FFQ and SFFQ were suitable in assessing Taiwan preschool children nutrient intakes as a group.
目錄
頁次
中文摘要 ...................................................... i
英文摘要 ...................................................... ii
目錄 .......................................................... v
表目錄 ........................................................ viii
圖目錄 ........................................................ ix
第一章 前言................................................... 1
第二章 文獻回顧............................................... 2
第一節 幼兒飲食評估....................................... 2
一、 幼兒營養現況及評估之目的........................... 2
二、 幼兒飲食評估工具之探討............................. 3
第二節 飲食評估法之探討................................... 8
一、 家戶食物盤存秤重法................................. 8
二、 飲食歷史........................................... 9
三、 飲食記錄........................................... 9
四、 二十四小時飲食回憶法............................... 10
五、 飲食頻率問卷....................................... 12
第三節 飲食頻率問卷....................................... 16
一、 飲食頻率問卷之設計................................. 16
二、 飲食頻率問卷之實施................................. 17
三、 飲食頻率問卷之誤差................................. 19
四、 飲食頻率問卷信效度之探討........................... 23
五、 飲食頻率問卷效度相關研究........................... 26
第三章 材料與方法 ............................................ 32
第一節 研究目的 .......................................... 32
第二節 研究架構 .......................................... 33
第三節 研究對象 .......................................... 36
第四節 研究材料與工具..................................... 36
一、 基本資料問卷....................................... 36
二、 食物模型輔助工具................................... 36
三、 營養素資料庫....................................... 38
第五節 研究設計........................................... 38
一、 研究流程........................................... 38
二、 聯絡事項........................................... 38
三、 訪員訓練........................................... 38
頁次
四、 幼兒飲食頻率問卷................................... 40
五、 三天飲食記錄....................................... 41
六、 建立及檢定半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷................. 41
第六節 資料處理與統計分析................................. 41
一、 資料處理........................................... 41
二、 統計分析方法....................................... 43
第五章 研究結果............................................... 45
第一節 基本資料........................................... 45
一、 幼兒之基本資料..................................... 45
二、 幼兒母親及幼稚園老師之基本資料..................... 45
第二節 幼兒熱量及各營養素攝取情形......................... 45
一、 飲食記錄所測熱量及營養素之平均攝取量............... 45
二、 幼兒飲食頻率問卷所測熱量及營養素之平均攝取量...... 46
三、 比較幼兒飲食頻率問卷與飲食記錄所測熱量及營養素平均
攝取量............................................ 46
第三節 幼兒飲食頻率問卷之信度........................... 46
一、 兩次幼兒飲食頻率問卷測得幼兒營養素之相關性........ 46
二、 兩次幼兒飲食頻率問卷測得幼兒營養素之一致性........ 47
第四節 幼兒飲食頻率問卷之效度............................ 47
一、 幼兒飲食頻率問卷與飲食記錄測得幼兒營養素之相關性... 47
二、 幼兒飲食頻率問卷與飲食記錄測得幼兒營養素之一致性... 48
第五節 台北及台南幼兒飲食攝取情形........................ 48
一、 幼兒營養素攝取量及飲食攝取情形.................... 48
二、 幼兒飲食頻率問卷信效度............................ 49
第六節 母親及幼稚園老師幼兒飲食頻率問卷信效度之比較...... 49
一、 母親及幼稚園老師幼兒飲食頻率問卷信度之比較........ 49
二、 母親及幼稚園老師幼兒飲食頻率問卷效度之比較........ 49
第七節 母親教育程度對幼兒飲食頻率問卷信效度之影響....... 49
第八節 半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷之效度................... 50
一、 半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷所測熱量及營養素之平均攝取 量............................................... 50
二、 半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷之相關性.................. 51
三、 半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷之一致性.................. 52



頁次
第六章 討論........................................... ........
第一節 幼兒熱量及營養素攝取情形...........................
一、 飲食記錄所測熱量及營養素之平均攝取量................
二、 由飲食頻率問卷所測幼兒每日熱量及營養素平均攝取量....
第二節 幼兒飲食頻率問卷之信度.............................
第三節 幼兒飲食頻率問卷之效度.............................
一、 幼兒飲食頻率問卷與飲食記錄測得幼兒營養素之相關性...
二、 幼兒飲食頻率問卷與飲食記錄測得幼兒營養素之一致性...
第四節 台北及台南飲食攝取情形.............................
第五節 母親及幼稚園老師幼兒飲食頻率問卷效度之比較.........
第六節 母親教育程度對幼兒飲食頻率問卷效度之影響...........
第七節 半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷之效度.....................
第八節 研究限制........................................... 88
88
88
88
89
89
89
91
91
91
92
92
93
第七章 結論................................................... 94
參考文獻.......................................................
附錄一 家長同意書.............................................
附錄二 幼兒基本資料問卷.......................................
附錄三 幼兒飲食頻率問卷.......................................
附錄四 幼兒飲食記錄表.........................................
附錄五 半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷...............................
附錄六 食物模型與實際食物重量轉換公式......................... 96
108
109
111
114
116
119













表目錄
頁次
表一 幼兒飲食評估相關研究文獻摘要表....................... 5
表二 各種飲食評估方法之優缺點............................. 15
表三 幼兒飲食頻率問卷信效度研究相關文獻摘要表............. 29
表四 幼兒每月攝取頻率換算單位............................. 41
表五 幼稚園3至6歲受訪幼兒之基本資料..................... 53
表六 幼兒母親與幼稚園老師基本資料......................... 54
表七 飲食記錄所測幼兒每日熱量及營養素平均攝取量........... 55
表八 飲食記錄及飲食頻率問卷所測幼兒每日熱量及營養素平均攝取量之比較 (Mean + SD) ............................... 56
表九 飲食頻率問卷營養素攝取量信度檢定(N=48)............. 57
表十 飲食頻率問卷與三日飲食記錄營養素攝取量經個人每日營養素攝取差異性調整後之相關性 .......................... 58
表十一 飲食頻率問卷與三日飲食記錄營養素攝取量經熱量及個人每日營養素攝取差異性調整後之相關性 .................... 59
表十二 飲食頻率問卷與三日飲食記錄營養素攝取量之一致性及百分比一致性............................................. 60
表十三 台北及台南幼兒由飲食記錄所測得每日熱量及營養素平均攝取量之比較 (Mean + SD) ............................... 61
表十四 台北及台南幼兒在家中各類食物攝取頻率 ................ 62
表十五 台北及台南幼兒在幼稚園各類食攝取頻率 ................ 70
表十六 台北及台南幼兒第一次飲食頻率問卷效度之比較........... 78
表十七 台北及台南幼兒兩次飲食頻率問卷信度之比較............. 79
表十八 母親及幼稚園老師兩次飲食頻率問卷信度之比較........... 80
表十九 母親及幼稚園老師兩次飲食頻率問卷效度之比較........... 81
表二十 不同教育程度之母親兩次飲食頻率問卷信度之比較......... 82
表二十一 不同教育程度之母親飲食頻率問卷效度之比較............. 83
表二十二 幼兒由飲食記錄及半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷所測得每日熱量及營養素平均攝取量 (Mean + SD) ..................... 84
表二十三 幼兒由原始及半定量化幼兒飲食頻率問卷所測得每日熱量及營養素平均攝取量 (Mean + SD) ......................... 85
表二十四 半定量化幼兒頻率問卷與三日飲食記錄營養素攝取量之相關性(N = 48) ............................................ 86
表二十五 半定量化幼兒頻率問卷與三日飲食記錄營養素攝取量之一致性及百分比一致性 (N = 48) ............................. 87
圖目錄
頁次
圖一 研究架構............................................. 34
圖二 半球狀漸進式食物模型................................. 37
圖三 方格板及厚度尺....................... ............... 37
圖四 研究流程............................................. 39
參考文獻

余雅萍,盧立卿﹙2004﹚學童版中式飲食頻率問卷之發展研究,國立台灣師範大學人類發展與家庭學系碩士論文。

行政院衛生署﹙2003﹚國人膳食營養素參考攝取量及其說明﹙修訂第六版﹚,行政院衛生署,台北市。

葉乃華(2003)飲食頻率問卷之建立及其效度研究,國立台灣大學農業化學研究所碩士論文。

劉曉薇﹙2003﹚老年人類黃酮、異黃酮與類胡蘿蔔素攝取頻率問卷效度研究,輔仁大學食品營養系碩士論文。

沈敬人﹙2000﹚台灣地區幼兒營養素攝取狀況,輔仁大學食品營養系碩士論文。

姚克明﹙2000﹚兒童之肥胖問題與對策,財團法人國家衛生研究院,台北市。

曾筱晴﹙1998﹚二十四小時飲食回憶法評估幼兒飲食攝取之效度研究,輔仁大學食品營養系碩士論文。

傅偉光、陳秀瑩、仇志強、陳景川( 1997 )台灣地區食品營養成分資料庫,食品工業發展研究所。

林佳蓉、曾明淑、詹思萍(1997)台灣地區一至六歲幼兒營養狀況調查,中華營誌22(1): 47-61。

吳美娥(1985)台北地區學齡前兒童之膳食營養狀況,中華營誌10 : 27-37。

黃伯超、魏小南、黃雪卿、游素玲(1978)台灣地區常用食品之營養成分,中華營誌 3:11。

Anderson L, Lande B, Trygg K and Hay G (2004) Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire used among 2-year-old Norwegian children. Public Health Nutr 7 (6) : 757-764.

Arsenault JE and Brown KH (2003) Zinc intake of US preschool children exceeds new dietary reference intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 78 : 1100-1107.

Bae CY, Keenan JM, Wenz J, McCaffrey DJ (1991) A clinical trial of the American Heart Association Step One Diet for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. J Fam Pract 33 : 249–54.

Basch CE, Shea S, Arliss R, Contento IR, Rips J, Gutin B, Irigoyen M and Zybert P (1990) Validation of mother’s reports of dietary intake by four to seven year-old children. Am J Pub Health 81 : 1314-1317.

Baranowski T, Mendlein J, Resnicow K, Frank E, Cullen KW and Baranowski J (2000) Physical activity and nutrition in children and youth: an overview of obesity prevention. Prev Med 31 : S1–S10.

Baranowski T and Domel SB (1994) A cognitive model of children’s reporting of food-intake. Am J Clin Nutr 59 (1) : S212-S217.

Baranowski T, Sprague D, Baranowski JH and Harrison JA (1991) Accuracy of maternal dietary recall for preschool children. J Am Diet Assoc 91 : 669-674.

Baranowski T, Dworkin R, Henske JC, Clearman DR, Dunn JK, Nader PR and Hooks PC (1986) The accuracy of children’s self-reports of diet : Family Health Project. J Am Diet Assoc 86 : 1381-1385.

Bellù R, Ortisi MT, Riva E, Banderali G, Cucco I and Giovannini M (1995) Validity assessment of a food frequency questionnaire for school-age children in Northern Italy. Nutr Research 15 (8) : 1121-1128.

Bingham SA (1994) The use of 24h urine samples and energy expenditure to validate dietary assessment. Am J Clin Nutr 59 : 227S-231S.

Bingham SA, Gill C, Welch A, Day K, Cassidy A, Khaw KT (1994) Comparison of dietary assessment methods in nutritional epidemiology : weighed records vs. 24h recalls, food frequency questionnaires and estimated diet records. Br J Nutr 72 : 619-643.

Block G (1982) A review of validations of dietary assessment methods. Am J Epidemiol 115 : 492-505.

Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Cannon J and Gardner L (1986) A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am J Epid 124 : 453-469.

Block G, Woods M, Potosky A and Clifford C (1990) Validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire using multiple diet records. J. Clin. Epidemiol 43: 1327–1335.

Blum RE, Wei EK, Rockett RH, Langeliers JD, Leppert J, Gardner JD and Colditz GA (1999) Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Native American and Caucasian children 1 to 5 years of age. Matern Child Health 3 : 167-172.

Bollella MC, Boccia LA, Nicklas TA, Lefkowitz KB, Pittman BP, Zang EA and Williams CL (1999) Assessing dietary intake in preschool children : the healthy start project – New York. Nutr Research 19 (1) : 37-48.


Boullard JE, Yuhas JA and Bollard TW (1988) Estimation of food portion sizes : effectiveness of training. J Am Diet Assoc 88 : 817-820.

Briefel RR, Flegal KM, Winn DM, Loria CM, Johnson CL, Sempos CT (1992) Assessing the nation's diet: limitations of the food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 92:959–62.

Brock K and Ellery C (1982) Quantitative dietary assessment in human populations : the development and assessment of food photographs to aid in the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Proc Nutr Soc Aust 7 : 169.

Cade J, Thompson R, Burley V and Warm D (2002) Development, validation and utilisation of food-frequency questionnaires – a review. Public Health Nutr 5 (4) : 567-587.

Chee WS, Suriah AR, Zaitun Y, Chan SP, Yap SL and Chan YM (2002) Dietary calcium intake in postmenopausal Malaysian women: comparison between the food frequency questionnaire and three-day food records. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11(2): 142-146.

Clapp JA, McPherson RS, Reed DB and Hsi BP (1991) Comparison of a food frequency questionnaire using reported vs standard portion sizes for classifying individuals according to nutrient intake. J Am Diet Assoc 91: 316–320.

Dennison BA, Jenkins PL and Rockwell HL (2000) Development and validation of an instrument to assess child dietary fat intake. Prev Med 31 : 214-224.

Domel SB, Thompson WO, Baranowski T and Smith AF (1994) Children remember what they have eaten. J Am Diet Assoc 94 (11) : 1267-1272.

Dwyer JT, Krall EA and Coleman KA (1987) The problem of memory in nutritional epidemiology research. J Am Diet Assoc 87 : 1509-1512.
Eck LH, Klesges RC and Hanson CL (1989) Recall of a child’s intake from one meal : are parents accurate? J Am Diet Assoc 89 : 784-789.

Eck LH, Klesges RC, Hanson CL and White J (1991) Reporting retrospective dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire in a pediatric population. J Am Diet Assoc 91 : 606-608.

Emmons L and Hayes M (1973) Accuracy of 24-hr recalls of young children. J Am Diet Assoc 62 : 409-415.

Engle A, Lynn LL, Koury K and Boyar AP (1990) Reproducibility and comparability of a computerized, self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 13: 281–92.

Frank GC, Berenson GS, Schilling PE and Moore MC (1977) Adapting the 24-hour recall for epidemiologic studies of children. J Am Diet Assoc 71 : 26-31.

Ganji V, Hampl JS and Betts NM (1998) Macronutrients, cholesterol, sodium and fiber intakes of 1-10 year old children by age, gender and race. Nutr Res 18 : 465-47.

Garrahie EJ, Humphrey KF, Witschi JC, Stephenson WP and Ellison RC (1991) The value of debriefing mothers of 3 to 7-year-old children when analyzing children’s food diaries. J Am Diet Assoc 91 : 710-711.

Gibson AS (1990) Principles of individual assessment. pp.11-24. Oxford university press, New York.

Goulet J, Nardeau G, Lapointe A, Lamarche B and Lemieux S (2004) Validity and reproducibility of an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire for healthy French-Canadian men and women. Nutr J 13 (1) : 13.


Gray GE, Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK and Henderson BE (1984) Assessment of three brief methods of estimation of vitamin A and C intakes for a prospective study of cancer: Comparison with dietary history. Am J Epid 119 : 581-590.

Guthrie HA and Crocetti AF (1985) Variability of nutrient intake over a 3-day period. J Am Diet Assoc 85 : 325-327.

Heath A-LM, Skeaff CM and Gibson RS (2000) The relative validity of a computerized food frequency questionnaire for estimating intake of dietary iron and its absorption modifiers. Eur J Clin Nutr 54 : 592–599.

Hertzler AA, Bowens J and Hull S (1993) Preschooler’s reporting of food habits. J Am Diet Assoc 93 : 1159-1161.

Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Sampson L and Willett WC (1999) Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 69 : 243-249.

Iannoth RJ, Zuckerman AE, Blyer EM, O’Brien RW, Finn J, Spillman DM (1994) Comparison of dietary intake methods with young children. Psychol Rep 74 : 883-889.

Karvetti RL and Knuts LR (1985) Validity of the 24-hour dietary recall. J Am Diet Assoc 85: 1437-1442.

Karkeck JM (1987) Improving the use of dietary survey methodology. J Am Diet Assoc 79 : 654-660.

Kaskoun MC, Johnson RK and Goran MI (1994) Comparison of energy intake by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire with total energy expenditure by the doubly-labeled water method in young children. Am J Clin Nutr 60 : 43-47.

Kim J, Kim Y, Ahn YO, Paik HY, Ahn Y, Tokudome Y, Hamajama N, Inoue M and Tajima K (2003) Development of a food frequency questionnaire in Koreans. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12 (3): 243-250.

Kim J, Ahn YO, Paik HY, Hamajama N, Inoue M and Tajima K (2003) Calibration of a food frequency questionnaire in Koreans. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12 (3) : 251-256.

Klesges RC, Kledges LM, Brown G and Frank GC (1987) Validation of the 24-hour dietary recall in preschool children. J Am Diet Assoc 87 : 1383-1385.

Lanigan JA, Wells JC, Lawson MS, Cole TJ and Lucas A (2004) Number of days needed to assess energy and nutrient intake in infants and young children between 6 months and 2 years of age. Eur J Clin Nutr 58 (5) : 745-750.

Larkin FA, Metzner HL and Thompson FE (1989) Comparison of estimated nutrient intakes by food frequency and dietary records in adults. J Am Diet Assoc 89 : 215–223.

Lietz G, Barton KL, Longbottom PJ and Anderson AS (2002) Can the EPIC food-frequency-questionnaire be used in adolescent populations? Public Health Nutr 5 (6) : 783-789.

Margetts BM and Nelson M (1998) Design concepts in nutritional epidemiology. 2nd edition. pp.123-169. Oxford university press, New York.

Medlin C and Skinner JD (1988) Individual dietary intake methodology : a 50-year review. J Am Diet Assoc 88 : 1250-1257.

Mertz W (1992) Food intake measurements : is there a “gold standard”? J Am Diet Assoc 92 : 1463-1465.


Moore L, Nguyen U, Rothman K, Cupples A and Curtis R (1995) Preschool physical activity level and change in body fatness in young children. Am J Epid 142 (9) : 982-988.

Morgan KJ, Johnson SR, Rizek RL, Reese R and Stampley GL (1987) Collection of food intake data : an evaluation of methods. J Am Diet Assoc 87 : 888-896.

Mullen B, Krantzler N, Grivetti L, Schutz H and Meiselman H (1984) Validity of a food frequency questionnaire for the determination of individual food intake. Am J Clin Nutr 39 : 136-143.

Munoz KA, Krebs-Smith SM Ballard-Barbash R and Cleveland LE (1997) Food intakes of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations. Pediatrics 100 : 323-329.

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on the Health Implication of Obesity (1985) Health implications of obesity : National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel Conference statements. Ann Intern Med 103 : 1073-1077.

Nelson M, Black AE, Morris JA and Cole TJ (1989) Between- and within-subject variation in nutrient intake from infancy to old age : estimating the number of days required to rank dietary intakes with desired precision. Am J Clin Nutr 50 : 115-167.

Nelson M, Atkinson M and Derbyshire S (1996) Food photography and food photographs for estimating portion size and nutrient content of meals. British J Nutr 76 : 31-49.

Nicklas TA, Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Cullen K, Rittenberry L and Olvera N (2001) Family and child-care provider influences on preschool children's fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption. Nutrition Reviews 59 : 224–235.
Nelson M, Black AE, Morris JA and Cole TJ (1989) Between- and within-subject variation in nutrient intake from infancy to old age : estimating the number of days required to rank dietary intakes with desired precision. Am J Clin Nutr 50 : 115-167.

Parrish LA, Marshall JA, Krebs NF, Rewers M and Norris JM (2003) Validation of a food frequency questionnaire in preschool children. Epidemiology 14 : 213-217.

Persson LA, Carlgren G (1984) Measuring children’s diets : evaluation of dietary assessment techniques in infancy and childhood. Int J Epidemiol 13 : 506-571.

Pietinen P, Hartman AM, Haapa E, Rasanen L, Haapakoski J, Palmgren J (1998) Reproducibility and validity of dietary assessment instruments. A self-administerd food use questionniare with portion size booklet. Am J Epidemiol 128 : 655-666.

Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Litin LB, Willett WC (1992) Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol 135 : 1114-1126.

Rockett HR and Colditz GA (1997) Assessing diets of children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 65 : 1116S-1122S.

Rothenberg E (1994) Validation of the food frequency questionnaire with the 4-day record method and analysis of 24-h urinary nitrogen. Eur J Clin Nutr 48 : 725-735.

Sampson L (1985) Food frequency questionnaires as a research instrument. Clin Nutr 4 : 171-178.

Sasaki S, Takahashi T, litoi Y, Iwase Y, Kobayashi M, Ishihara J, Akabane M, Tsugane S (2003) Food and nutrient intakes assessed with dietary records for validation study of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire in JPHC Study Cohort I. J Epidemiol 13 (1) : S23-50.

Schröder H, Covas MI, Marrugat J, Vila J, Pena A, Alcantara M and Masia R (2001) Use of a three-day estimated food record, a 72-hour recall and a food-frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment in a Mediterranean Spanish population. Clin Nutr 20 : 429-437.

Sempos CT (1992) Invited commentary : some limitations of semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Am J Epidemiol 135 : 1127-1132.

Serdula MK, Ivery D, Coates RJ, Williamson D and Byers T (1993) Do obese children becomes obese adults? A review of literature. Prev Med 22 : 167-177.

Sorenson AW, Calkins BM, Connolly MA and Diamond E (1985) Comparison of nutrient intake determined by four dietary intake instruments. J Nutr Ed 17 : 92-99.

Shea S, Basch CE, Contento IR and Zybert P (1992) Consistency of the Willet semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls in estimating nutrient intakes of preschool children. Am J Epidemiol 135 (6) : 667-677.

Taylor RW and Goulding A (1998) Validation of a short food frequency questionnaire to assess calcium intake in children aged 3 to 6 years. Eur J Clin Nutr 52 (6): 464-465.

Tee ES, Ismail Noor M, Nasir Azudin M and Idris K (1997) Food Composition and Nutrition Tables (4th edition), Malaysian Food Composition Database Programme c/o Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur.

Thompson FC and Byers T (1994) Dietary assessment resource manual. J Nutr 124 : 2245S-2317S.
Thompson FE, Moler JE, Freedman LS, Clifford CK, Stables GJ, Willett WC (1997) Register of dietary assessment calibration-validation studies: a status report. Am J Clin Nutr 65 :1142S–7S.

Tjonneland A, Overvad K, Haraldsdottir J, Bang S, Ewertz M and Jensen OM (1991) Validation of semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire developed in Denmark. Int J Epidemiol 20 : 906-912.

Treiber FA, Leonard SB, Frank G, Musante L, Davis H, Strong WB and Levy M (1990) Dietary assessment instruments for preschool children : reliability of parental responses to the 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 90 (6) : 814-820.

Tsugane S, Sasaki S, Kobayashi M, Tsubono Y, Akabane M (2003) Validity and reproducibility of the self-administered food frequency questionnaire in the JPHC Study Cohort I: study design, conduct and participant profiles. J Epidemiol 13: S2-12.

Vandenlangenberg GM, Mares-Perlman J and Brady WE (1997) Incorporating fat-modified foods into a food frequency questionnaire improves classification of fat intake. J Am Diet Assoc 97: 860-866.

Van Liere MJ, Lucas F, Clavel F, Slimani N and Villeminot S (1997) Relative validity and reproducibility of a French dietary history questionnaire. Int J Epidemiol 26: S128-S136.

Vuckovic N, Ritenbaugh C, Taren D and Tobar M (2000) A qualitative study of participants’ experiences with dietary assessment. J Am Diet Assoc 100: 1025-1028.

Warren JM, Henry CJ, Livingstone MB, Lightowier HJ, Bradshaw SM and Perwaiz S (2003) How well do children aged 5-7 years recall food eaten at school lunch? Public Health Nutr 6 : 41-47.

Welten DC, Carpenter RA, McPherson RS, Brodney S, Douglass D, Kampert JB and Blair SN (2000) Comparison of a dietary record using reported portion size versus standard portion size for assessing nutrient intake. Public Health Nutr 3(2) : 151-158.

Willet WC, Reynolds RD, Cottrell-Hoehner S, Sampson L and Browne ML (1987) Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire : comparison with a 1-year diet record. J Am Diet Assoc 87 : 43-47.

Willet WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J (1985) Reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epid 122 : 51-65.

Willett WC﹙1998﹚Nutritional epidemiology. pp.50-147. Oxford university press, New York.

Wilson AM and Lewis RD(2004)Disagreement of energy and macronutrient intakes estimated from a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day diet record in girls 4 to 9 years of age. J Am Diet Assoc 104 (3): 373-378.

Willett W and Stampfer MJ (1986) Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol, 124: 17-27.

Yarnell JWG, Fehily AM, Millbank JE, Sweetnam PM and Walker CL (1983) A short questionnaire for use in epidemiological surveys : comparison with weighed dietary records. Hum Nutr : 103-112.

Zulkifli SN and Yu SM (1992) The food frequency method for dietary assessment. J Am Diet Assoc 92 : 681–685.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔