( 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/07 11:32
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  


研究生(外文):Pao Chih-Hua
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Technology Transfer, Marketing Strategy, and Innovative Strategy on Operating Performance: The Evidence ofBiotechnology & Pharmaceutical Industry in Taiwan.
指導教授(外文):Lin Miao-QueLin Willie
外文關鍵詞:Technique TransferMarketing StrategyInnovative StrategyOperating PerformanceAnalysis Hierarchy Process (AHP)
  • 被引用被引用:20
  • 點閱點閱:1408
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:539
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:13
國內多數的生技製藥公司創立時間短營業額不高,有些公司仍在研發階段尚無上市之產品,無明顯的經營績效可供確認,復以業界因業務保密原則,對問卷填答意願偏低,是以本研究採用分析層級程序法(AHP),配合11份有效專家問卷,運用「Expert Choice 2000」工具,求取整體的一致性比率,其驗證所得結果為:(1)創新策略相較技術移轉與行銷策略是最重要因素,因創新策略能使業者與競爭者產生差異提升企業活動力;(2)創新策略中以產品創新影響經營績效之權重為最高,因產品創新能使業者降低研發成本,縮短上市時程;(3)技術移轉中以技術獨特性最足以左右經營績效,因為具有獨特性技術,善加保護其智慧財產權,可形成競爭者難以仿效之進入障礙;(4)行銷策略中以產品策略對績效之影響程度最高,因產品策略是業者針對需用藥品的目標族群,提供專門且高品質的生技產品與服務。
As the mainstream in biotechnology industry, biotechnology and pharmaceutical Industry, even though requires high capital investment, long periods for return and long product life cycle, possesses high economical effectiveness. Observing current development of domestic biotechnology industry, most companies have initially forged capabilities and techniques in R & D, but still have the necessity to enhance technique transfer, marketing and innovative capabilities so as to integrate resources for relentless competitive advantages.
Since the development of domestic biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry just initiates, financial indexes such as growth of sales and profit return cannot alone assess the real operational performance without taking into account the non-financial evaluation such as business image, quantity of patent, extent to goal achievement, and etc. Abundant prior researches concerning key factors that influence performance in biotech industry highlight dimensions of technique capability, innovation, and competitiveness, but sparsely discuss the process of biotech transfer as well as marketing and innovative strategies. While technique transfer will facilitate sustainable technique competitiveness, respond to global competition, and promote performance, marketing strategy will contribute to product sales and help the build of biotech brand. On the other hand, innovative strategy is considered the impetus of creating competitive advantages. Thus, aiming at the biotech and pharmaceutical industry, this study constructs a study framework to look into the influence of technique transfer, marketing strategy, and innovative strategy on operating performance.
While most domestic biotech and pharmaceutical companies have short history and poor sales, partial firms stagnate in R & D stage without products for launch and prominent performance for evaluate. Additionally, on account of the confidential accord, some experts are reluctant to reply to the questionnaires. Verifying the 11 valid expert questionnaires collected through Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP), this study conducts the instrument of “Expert Choice 2000” to cumulate overall consistent rate. The test outcome indicates that (1) Innovative strategy, appearing higher weights than technique transfer and marketing strategy, differentiates companies from their competitors, which in turn promotes business vigor. (2) Product innovation, with a relative higher weight in performance, will reduce R & D cost and cut down the launch time. (3) Technique distinctiveness dominates performance because that distinctive techniques and intellectual property rights will build entry barriers that are difficult to duplicate. (4) Product strategy in marketing, revealing the most influential factor on performance, not only plans for target market, but also provides appropriate biotech merchandise and services of high quality.
This study suggests that Taiwanese biotech and pharmaceutical firms can improve the performance by conducting the following strategies: (1) To strengthen the product innovative capabilities by referring to foreign companies’ R&D innovation mode (such as to reduce side effect of existed product) and by leveraging self competencies or choosing a fit transfer model. (2) To expand new market and new product; in that, firms are encouraged to engage in human clinical test for selling permission from each countries so as to broaden the sales market. (3) To introduce distinct techniques; that is, to search adequate technique objects, introduce them, and foster perennial co-operational relationships with technique providers. (4) To build professional image of product strategy: Product strategy planning should be executed along with clinical test to foster trust and trustfulness of both doctors and patients with a view to establishing outstanding biotech brand and professional image.
目 録
表次 ----------------------------------------------------------Ⅸ
圖次 ----------------------------------------------------------Ⅹ
第 壹 章 緒論 -------------------------------------------------01
第 一 節 研究背景 ----------------------------------------------01
第 二 節 研究動機與目的 -----------------------------------------03
第 三 節 研究流程 ----------------------------------------------06

第 貳 章 文獻探討 ----------------------------------------------09
第 一 節 台灣生技製藥業之現況 ------------------------------------09
第 二 節 影響生技製藥業經營績效之因素 -----------------------------19
第 三 節 技術移轉對生技製藥業經營績效之影響 ------------------------24
第 四 節 行銷策略對生技製藥業經營績效之影響 ------------------------31
第 五 節 創新策略對生技製藥業經營績效之影響 ------------------------42

第 參 章 研究設計 -----------------------------------------------49
第 一 節 分析層級程序法 ------------------------------------------49
第 二 節 影響生技製藥業經營績效之AHP 層級架構 ----------------------52
第 三 節 變數衡量及問卷設計 --------------------------------------57
第 四 節 專家問卷訪談對象與問卷回收 -------------------------------61
第 五 節 AHP之一致性比率檢定 -------------------------------------64

第 肆 章 AHP專家問卷之結果與分析 ---------------------------------67
第 一 節 專家問卷之基本資料分析 ----------------------------------67
第 二 節 影響生技製藥業經營績效之整體權重值分析 --------------------71
第 三 節 技術移轉對生技製藥業經營績效影響之權重值分析----------------76
第 四 節 行銷策略對生技製藥業經營績效影響之權重值分析----------------77
第 五 節 創新策略對生技製藥業經營績效影響之權重值分析----------------79

第 伍 章 結論與建議 ---------------------------------------------83
第 一 節 研究結論 -----------------------------------------------84
第 二 節 研究建議 -----------------------------------------------86

參考文獻 --------------------------------------------------------91
附錄一、AHP專家訪談問卷 ------------------------------------------103

1.于卓民譯,Onkvisit, S. & Shaw, J. J. (1994)著,「國際行銷學-分析篇、策略篇」,台北:華泰文化事業。
3.伊萍譯,Naisbitt, J.(1990)著,「二ΟΟΟ年大趨勢」,台北:天下遠見。
13.李文昭譯,J. Rifkin,(1999)著,「第二個創世紀」,台北:晨星出版。
30.黃俊英(2000),「行銷管理- 策略性的觀點」,台北:華泰文化事業。


1.Acsa, J. Z., L. Anselin & A. Varga(2002), “Patents and Innovation Counts as Measures of Regional Production of New Knowledge,” Research Policy, 31, pp. 1069-1085.
2.Alder, N. J.(2000), “Designing, Implementing, and Utilizing Computerized Performance Monitoring: Enhancing Organizational Justice,” Research in Personnel & Human Resources Management, 18, pp.187-219.
3.Allen, T. J.(1993), Management the Flow of Technology, Cambridge, M.A.: The MIT Press.
4.Ambrosio, E. M.(1995), “Technological Management and Transfer of Technology,” International Journal Technology Management, 10(7/8), pp.687-703.
5.Anderson, L. L. (1988), “Transaction Costs as Determinants of Opportunism in Integrated and Independent Sales Forces,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 9, pp.247-264.
6.Appiah-Adu, K. & A. Ranchhod(1998), “Market Orientation and Performancec in the Biotechnology Industry:An Exploratory Empirical Analysis,” Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 10(2), pp.197-210.
7.Aulakh, P. S. & K. Massaki(1997), “Antecedents and Performance Implications of Channel Integration in Foreign Markets”, Journal of International Business Studies, pp. 145-175.
8.Autio, E. & T. Laamanen(1995), “Measurement and Evoluation of Technology Transfer: Review of Technology Transfer Mechanisms and Indicators,” Journal of Technology Management, 10(7/8), pp.643 -664.
9.Baranson, J.(1966), “Transfer of Technical Knowledge By International Corporations to Developing Economics,” American Economics Review, 56(2), pp.259-267.
10.Bearden, W. O., T. N. Ingram & R. W. Laforge(1995), Marketing:Principle and Perspectives, Homewood, N.Y.:Irwin.
11.Bhaaradwaj, S. & A. Menon(2000),“Making Innovation Happen in Organizations: Individual Creativity Mechanisms, Organizational Creativity Mechanisms or Both?” Journal of Production Innovation Management, 17, pp.424-434.
12.Bowersox, D. J. & M. B. Cooper(1992), Strategic Marketing Channel Management, N.Y.:McGraw-Hill.
13.Bozeman, B. M.(1991), “Technology Transfer from U. S. Government and University R&D Laboratories“, Techinovation, 11(4), pp.231-246.
14.Branscomb, L. M. & F. Kodama(1993), Japanese Innovation Strategy-Technical Support for Business Visions, M.A.:University Press of America.
15.Brown, R.(1992),“Managing the“S”Curves of Innovation,”The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 9(1), pp.61-72.
16.Carneiro, A.(2000), “How Does Knowledge Management Influence Innovation and Competitiveness,” Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), pp. 87-98.
17.Cateora, P. R. & J. L. Graham(1999), International Marketing, Chicago: Richard D. Irwin.
18.Chacke, G. K.(1988), Technology Management - Applications to Corporate Markets & Military Mission , N.Y.:Praeger.
19.Chanaron, J. J. & J. Perrin(1987), “The Transfer of Research, Development and Design to Developing Countries,“ Future, 19(5) pp.503-512.
20.Chen, M.(1995), “Technological Transfer to China: Major Rules and Issues”, International Journal of Technology Management, 10(7), pp. 747-756.
21.Cho, H. D., J. K. Lee & K. K. Ro(1996), “Environment and Technology Strategy of Firms in Government R&D Programmes in Krea,“ Technovation, 16(10), pp.553-560.
22.Clark, J. & K. Guy(1998), “Innovation and Competitiveness A Review”, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 10(3), pp.363-395.
23.Cohen, W. M. & D. A. Levinthal(1990), “Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), pp.128-152.
24.Cooper, R. G.(1994), “What Distinguishes the Top Performing New Products in Financial Service”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 11(4) , pp. 281-299.
25.Cravens, D. W. (1997), Strategic Marketing Comparison of Internet & Conventional Retailers,” Management Science, 46(4), pp.563-585.
26.Cusumano, M. A., & D. Elenkov(1994), “Linking International Technology with Strategy and Management: A Literature Commentary,” Research Policy, 23(2), pp.195-215.
27.Cutler, W. G.(1991), “Acquiring Technology from Outside”, Research Technology Management, 34(3), pp.11-18.
28.D'Aveni, R. A.(1994), Hypercompetition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Maneuvering, N.Y.:Free pass.
29.Damanpour, F.(1991), “Organizational Innovation: A Meta-Analysis of Effects of Determinants and Moderators,” Academy of Management Journal, 34(3), pp.555-590.
30.Dess, G., G. Lumpkin & J. Covin(1997), “Entrepreneurial Strategy Making and Firm Performance: Tests of Contingency and Configurational Models,” Strategic Management Journal, 18(1), pp.2-23.
31.Dolan, J. G. (2000), “Business Strategy, Work Processes and Human Resource Training: Are They Congruent?” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, pp. 283-297.
32.Dolan, J. G., B. J. Jr. Isselhardt & J. D. Cappuccio(1989), “The Analytic Hierarchy Process in Medical Decision Making: A Tutorial.” Medical Decision Making, 9(1), pp. 40-50.
33.Drucker, P. F.(1981), “What is Business Ethics”, Across the Board, 16(3), pp.22-32.
34.Drucker. P. F.(1973), Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, N.Y.:Harper & Row.
35.Drucker, P. F.(1985), Innovation and Entrepreneurship, N.Y.:Harper and Row.
36.Drucker, P. F.(1993), Post-Capitalist Society, Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
37.Drucker, P. F.(1998), Harvard Business Review on Measuring Corporation Performance(paperback), M.A.:Harvard Business Review.
38.Duquette, D. J. & A. M. Stowe(1993), “A Performance Measurement Model for the Office of Inspector General,” Government Accountants, 42(2), pp.27-50.
39.Eccles, R. G. & P. J. Pyburn(1992), “Creating a Comprehensive System to Measure Performance,” Management Accounting, 74(4), pp.41-44.
40.Ettenberg, E.(2002), The Next Economy: Will You Know Where Your Customers Are?, N.Y.:McGraw-Hill.
41.Frankel, E. G.(1990), Management of Technological Change, Boston: Kluwer Academic.
42.Gabbay, M. & R. Leenders(1999), Corporate Social Capital and Liability, Boston: Kluwer Academic.
43.Garcia, M. M. & J. Briz(2000), “Innovation in the Spanish Food & Drink Industry,” International Food & Agribusiness Management Review, 3(2), pp.155-176.
44.Gaski, J. F. & J. R. Nevin(1985), "The Differential Effects of Exercised & Unexercised Power Sources in a Marketing Channel," Journal of Marketing Research, 22, pp.130-142.
45.Green, C.(1993), “Well-Dsigned Performance Measurement is The Strategy Tool for Controlling Your Business Objectives,” Manager Canadian, pp.24-27.
46.Greenly, G. E. & A. S. Matcham(1986), ” Marketing Orientation in the Service of Incoming Tourism”, European Journal of Marketing, 20(6), pp.64-73
47.Gregory, N. & V. Mohan(2000), “A Typology of Project-Level Technology Transfer process”, Journal of Operations Management, 18(3), pp. 719-737.
48.Hagedoorn, J.(1990), “Organizational Modes of Inter-firm Co-operation and Technology Transfer,“ Technovation, 10(1), pp.17-30.
49.Hall, L. A. & S. Bagchi-Sen(2002), ”A Study of R&D, Innovation, and Business Performance in the Canadian Biotechnology Industry,” Technovation, 22, pp.231-244.
50.Hameri, A.(1996), “Technology Transfer between Basic Research and Industry,“ Technobation, 16(2), pp.51-57.
51.Hamilton, W. F.(1992), “The Evolution of Corporate Capabilities in Emerging Technologies”, Interfaces, 22(4), pp.13-23.
52.Hertenstein, J. H.(2000), “Performance Measures and Management Control in new Product Development,” Accounting Horizons, 14(3), pp.303-324.
53.Higgins, J. M.(1995), “The Core Competence:Innovation”, Planning Review, 23(6), pp.32-35.
54.Hill, C. W. L. & G. R. Jones(1998), Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
55.Holstius, K.(1995), “Adjustment in International Technology Transfer,” International Journal Technology Management, 10(7/8), pp.676-686.
56.Holt, K.(1988), “The Role of the User in Product Innovation”, Technovation, 12(5), pp.53-56.
57.Hood, W., S. Young & D. Lal(1994), “Strategic Evolution with Japanese Manufacturing Plants in Europe: UK Evidence,” International Business Review, 3(2), pp.3-26.
58.Hultink, E. J. & H. S. J. Robben(1995), “Measuring New Product Success: The Difference That Ime Perspective Makes,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 12(5), pp. 392-405.
59.Hultink, E. J., S. Hart, H. S. J. Robben & A. Griffin (2000), “Launch Decision and New Product Success: An Empirical Comparison of Consumer and Industrial Products,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 17(1), pp. 5-23.
60.Irani, Z. & J. N. Sharp(1997), “Integrating Continuous Improvement and Innovation into a Corporate Culture: A Case Study”, Technovation, 17(4), pp.199-206.
61.Jakki, M., S. Sanjet & S. Stanley(2005), Marketing of High - Technology Products and Innovations, N.J.:Pearson.
62.Kalish, S. (1985) “A New Product Adoption Model with Pricing Advertising and Uncertainty,” Management Science, 31, pp.1569-1585.
63.Kaplan, R. S. & Norton, D. P.(1996), “Using the Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Management System,” Harvard Business Review, January/February, pp.75-85.
64.Keegan, W. J. & M. C. Green(1997), Principles Of Global Marketing, N.J.:Prentice-Hall.
65.Keegan, W. J.(1999), Global Marketing Management(6th ed), N.J.:Prentice-Hall.
66.Khalil, T. M.(2000), Management of Technology, N.Y.:McGraw-Hill.
67.Kim, J. S. & P. Arnold(1992), “Manufacturing competence and business performance: a framework and empirical analysis,” International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 13(10), pp.4-25.
68.Kohilo, A. K. & Jaworski, B. J.(1990), “Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications,” Journal of Marketing, 54(April), pp.1-18.
69.Kolter, P. (2002) , Marketing Management, N.J.:Prentice Hall.
70.Kolter, P.(2001), A Framework For Marketing Management, N.J.:Prentice Hall.
71.Kwaku, A. G. (1995), ”An Exploratory Analysis of The Impact of Market Orientation On New Product Performance a Contingency Approach,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 12, pp.275-293.
72.Levinson, N. S. & M. Asahi(1996), “Crossnational Alliances and International Learning,” Organizational Dynamics, 24, pp.51-63.
73.Levitt, T. (1976), “The Industrialization of Service”, Harvard Business Review, Sep.-Oct., pp.63-74.
74.Levitt, T. (2002), ”Creativity Is Not Enough,” Harvard Business Review , August, pp.137-145.
75.March, J. & H. Simon(1993), Organizations, Oxford:Blackwell.
76.McCarthy, E. Jerome(1960), Basic Marketing:A managerial Approach , Homewood, I.L.:Richard D. Irwin.
77.McCutchen Jr, W. W. & P. M. Swamidass(1996), ”Effect of R&D Expenditures and Funding Strategies on The Market Value of Biotech Firms,” Technology Management, 12, pp.287-299.
78.Mehta, R., A. J. Dubinsky & R. E. Anderson(2002), ”Marketing Channel Management and The Sales Manager,” Industrial Marketing Management, 31, pp.429-439.
79.Meyers, P. W. (1990), “Non-Linear Learning in Large Technological Firm: Period Four Implies Chaos“, Research Policy, 19, pp. 97-115.
80.Morrison, A. J. & K. Roth(1992), ”A Taxonomy of Business Level Strategies in Global Industries,” Strategic Mangement Journal, 13, pp.399.
81.Oakey, R. P.(1993), ”Predatory Networking : The Role of Small Firms in the Development of the British Biotechnology Industry,” International Small Business Journal, 11(4), pp.9-22.
82.Oates, K.(1997), “Innovation Is Everybody’s Business,” Management Services, 41(5), pp.8-13.
83.Ounjian, M. L. & E. B. Carne(1987), “A study of factors which affect technology transfer in a multilocation multibusiness unit corporation,“ IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 34(3), pp.194-201.
84.Parsons, A. J.(1992), “Building Innovativeness in Large U.S. Corporations,” The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 9(2), pp.35-50.
85.Patel, P. & K. Pavitt(1997), “The Technological Competencies of the World’s Largest Fire :Complex and Path-Dependent, But Not Mcch Variety,” Research Policy, 26(2), pp.141-151.
86.Pennings, J. M. & F. Harianto(1992), “The Diffusion of Technological Innovation in the Commercial Banking Industry”, Strategic Management Journal, 13, pp.29-46.
87.Porter, M. E.(1985), Competitive Advantage, N.Y.:Free Press.
88.Porter, M. E.(1990), The Competitive Advantage of Nations, N.Y.:Free Press.
89.Pride, W. M. & O. C. Ferrell(1991), Marketing: concepts and strategies, M.A.:Harvard University Press.
90.Raghubir, P. & C. Kim(1999), “When Do Price Promotions Affect Pre-Trial Brand Evaluation?” Journal of Marketing Research, 36(2), pp.211-222.
91.Ramani, S.(2002), “Who is Interested in Biotech? R&D Strategies, Knowledge Base, and Market Sales of Indian Biopharmaceutical Firm,” Research policy, 31, pp.381-398.
92.Robbins, S. P. (2001), Organizational Behavior, N.J.:Prentice Hall.
93.Robbins, S. P.(1996), Organizational Behavior: Concepts, Controversies and Applications, N.J.:Prentice Hall.
94.Robert, M.(1995), Product Innovation Strategy Pure and Simple, N.Y.:McGraw Hill.
95.Roberts, E. B. & R. Mizouchi(1989), ”Interfirm Technological Collaboration:The Case of Japanese Biotechnology,” International Journal of Technology Management, 4(1), pp.43-61.
96.Robinson, B. & C. Lakhani.(1975), “Dynamic Price Models for New Product Planning,” Management Science, 10, pp.1113-1122.
97.Robinson, R. D.(1988), The International Transfer of Technology – Theory Issues and Practice, M.A.:Harvard University Press.
98.Roger, M.(1998), “The Definition and Measurement of Innovation,” Melbourne Institute Working Paper, No. 10/98.
99.Rogers, D. (1983), “America’s Maturing Innovation: Off-Price Apparel Stores,” Retail & Distribution Management, 11(5), pp.29-31.
100.Saaty, T. L.(2001), ”Decision Making with The Analytic Network Process and its Super-Decisions Software The National Missile Defense example,” Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Analytic Hierarchy Process, Berne, Switzerland, August 2-4, pp.365-382.
101.Schoell, W. F. & J. P. Guiltinan(1995), Marketing: Contemporary Concepts and Practices, N.J.:Prentice Hall.
102.Schumpeter, J. A.(1934), The Theory of Economic Development, Cambridge, M.A.:Harvard University Press.
103.Sher, J. H., V. Wong & V. Shaw(1996), “Absorptive Capacity and Learning in Technology Transfer: The Case of Taiwanese IT Firms,” AIB Annual Conference, Birmingham, pp. 337-357.
104.Simon, F. & P. Kotler(2003), Building Global Biobrans: Taking Biotechnology to Market, N.Y.:Free Press.
105.Song, S. M. & M. E. Parry(1996), “What Separates Japanese New Product Winners From Losers,” Journal of Product Innovate Management, 13, pp.422-439.
106.Spalding, B. J.(1986), “How Biotechnology is Farming as a Industry,” Chemical Week, 139(23), pp.9-13.
107.Steers, R. M.(1975),“Problem in the Measurement of Organizational Effectiveness,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 20(12), pp.549-550.
108.Tan, R. R.(1996), “Success Criteria and Success Factors for External Technology Transfer Projects,” Project Management Journal, 27(2), pp.45-56.
109.Tidd, J., J. Bessant & K. Paritt(1997), Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market, and Organizational Change, N.Y.:Wiley.
110.Tidd, J. & K. Bodley (2002), “The Influence of Project Novelty on the New Product Development Process,” R&D Management, 32(2), pp.127-138.
111.Trott, P., & C. M. Hayes (1996), “The Strong Receptive R&D Environment Forward Technology Transfer Success Study in The Chemical Industry“. R&D Management, 26(1), pp.83-92.
112.Venkatraman, N. & V. Ramanujam(1986),“Measurement of Business Performance on Strategy Research: A Comparison of Approach,” Academy of Management Review, 11(4), pp.801-804.
113.Yli-Renko H., E. Autio & H. Sapienza(2001), “Social Capital, Knowledge Acquisition, and Knowledge Exploitation in Young Technology-Based Firms,“ Strategic Management Journal, 22, pp.587-613.
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔