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研究生:王姿嵐
研究生(外文):Tzu-Lan Wang
論文名稱:推薦式廣告與產品涉入度對廣告效果之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Impact of Endorsement Advertising and Product Involvement on Advertising Effectiveness
指導教授:蔡明勳蔡明勳引用關係
指導教授(外文):作者未提供
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:設計創作研究所碩士班
學門:設計學門
學類:其他設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:推薦式廣告廣告效果涉入度
外文關鍵詞:involvementadvertisement effectsSpokesperson advertisement
相關次數:
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
廣告的表現手法有很多,推薦式廣告則是近幾年廣告主最喜歡的表現手法之一,台灣地區廣告亦常引用推薦廣告,例如在女性清潔用品方面,好自在邀請張艾嘉代言,以親身體驗做見證,這是台灣首次把衛生棉廣告搬上電視,並以知名女性為代言人(中天電視網,2004)。因此廣告主選定以代言人的形式來傳達訊息時,如何適當的挑選出符合產品特色、品牌個性及受矚目與歡迎的代言人,是一門重要的學問。
本研究以信用卡及蕃茄汁分別為高、低涉入度產品,並且加入不同推薦人類型之變項,共有六組實驗組合,對大學生進行廣告態度、產品態度、推薦人態度及購買意願之問卷調查,共回收198份有效問卷。主要的資料統計分析方法為變異數分析、T檢定、迴歸分析。

研究結果發現:
(1) 在低涉入度產品廣告中,廣告態度、產品態度、推薦人態度、購買意願上,以明星為代言人有最佳的效果;而在高涉入產品廣告中,則以典型消費者為代言人有最佳的效果;以專家為代言人在各廣告效果方面其測試結果,效果普遍偏低,皆不及明星及典型消費者代言人。
(2) 低涉入度的產品皆有較佳的廣告態度、產品態度、推薦人態度、購買意願。
(3) 研究發現設計背景的有無,在廣告態度中有顯著的差異;設計背景的有無,在產品態度、推薦人態度、購買意願中,並無明顯差異。
There are many ways to present advertisements. The personal endorsement is one of the most popular techniques in recent years and is also used a lot in Taiwan’s advertisements. For example, P&G invited Sylvia Chang as a spokesperson of women’s personal hygiene, using her own personal experience to endorse their product. It was the first time that a tampon advertisement was shown on television with a celebrity as a spokesperson. (CtiTV, 2004). However it’s difficult to select a well-known popular spokesperson that fits the features and characteristics of the product when the personal endorsement is decided to communicate messages in an advertisement.

This study selected the credit card and tomato juice as high and low involvement products, and also used different types of people as spokesperson, conducted combination of six experiments. After making a survey of college students’ perception towards the advertisement, the product, the spokesperson and their willingness to purchase the product, 198 responses were obtained. The main used statistical analyses are Variance analysis, T-distribution, and Regression analysis.

The study found:
(1) In the advertisements of the low involvement product, looking at the attitude towards the advertisement, the product and the spokesperson, and the willingness of the consumer to purchase, having a celebrity as a spokesperson gave the best result. While in high involvement product, having the typical consumer as a spokesperson gave the best result. While using specialists as a spokesperson gave the lowest effect, no where near as effective as having a celebrity or an ideal consumer as a spokesperson.
(2) In the advertisements of the low involvement product, the attitude towards the advertisement, the product, and the spokesperson were the best and a more willingness of the consumer to purchase the product.
(3) The study found having a background in design had an effect on the attitude toward the advertisement but not towards the product, the spokesperson or the willingness to purchase.
目 次

誌 謝.......................................................................................................................ⅱ
中文摘要.................................................................................................................ⅲ
英文摘要.................................................................................................................ⅳ
目 次.......................................................................................................................ⅴ
表 次.......................................................................................................................ⅶ
圖 次.......................................................................................................................ⅹ
第一章 緒論
1.1研究背景與動機..........................................................................................1
1.2研究目的......................................................................................................3
1.3研究流程......................................................................................................4
第二章 文獻探討
2.1廣告概念......................................................................................................5
2.2推薦式廣告..................................................................................................8
2.3態度理論......................................................................................................20
2.4廣告效果評估..............................................................................................25
2.5涉入理論......................................................................................................32
第三章 研究方法
3.1研究變數......................................................................................................39
3.2操作性定義..................................................................................................40
3.3研究假設......................................................................................................42
3.4研究設計......................................................................................................44
3.5資料收集......................................................................................................52
3.6信度與效度分析..........................................................................................56
第四章 資料分析與結果
4.1廣告態度......................................................................................................62
4.2產品態度......................................................................................................68
4.3推薦人態度..................................................................................................74
4.4購買意願......................................................................................................80
4.5變異數檢定總表..........................................................................................84
4.6產品涉入度與推薦人類型平均值總表......................................................85
4.7研究假設檢定..............................................................................................86
第五章 結論與建議
5.1研究結果......................................................................................................88
5.2研究發現......................................................................................................90
5.3研究限制......................................................................................................91
5.4後續研究......................................................................................................92
參考文獻..................................................................................................................93
附錄一 前測問卷..................................................................................................98
附錄二 正式問卷..................................................................................................101
附錄三 實驗廣告..................................................................................................105
附錄四 坊間代言人廣告蒐集..............................................................................111
表 次

表2-1廣告的定義...................................................................................................5
表2-2各類推薦式廣告蒐集...................................................................................9
表2-3訊息來源可信度構面...................................................................................15
表2-4推薦式廣告回顧...........................................................................................17
表2-5態度定義.......................................................................................................20
表2-6層級效果模式的內容...................................................................................29
表2-7產品涉入度的衡量.......................................................................................38
表3-1研究假設總表...............................................................................................42
表3-2本研究之廣告實驗設計...............................................................................44
表3-3明星代言人票選結果(信用卡)....................................................................46
表3-4明星代言人票選結果(蕃茄汁)....................................................................46
表3-5涉入各衡量構面及對應題項......................................................................50
表3-6涉入量表的測量..........................................................................................50
表3-7正式問卷的構成說明..................................................................................51
表3-8各廣告實驗組有效問卷的回收..................................................................53
表3-9樣本性別分佈..............................................................................................53
表3-10樣本年齡分佈............................................................................................53
表3-11樣本年級分佈............................................................................................54
表3-12樣本就讀學院分佈....................................................................................54
表3-13樣本戶籍地分佈........................................................................................54
表3-14樣本每月所得分佈....................................................................................55
表3-15樣本設計與非設計背景分佈....................................................................55
表3-16信度分析參考範圍表................................................................................56
表3-17本研究信度分析........................................................................................56
表4-1二因子變異數分析總表..............................................................................60
表4-2廣告態度的多變量變異數分析表..............................................................62
表4-3產品涉入度在廣告態度的平均值..............................................................63
表4-4產品涉入度變異數分析..............................................................................63
表4-5產品涉入度、推薦人類型的廣告態度平均值..........................................64
表4-6設計與非設計對廣告態度的顯著性(獨立樣本T檢定)...........................65
表4-7設計與非設計的廣告態度對購買意願的顯著性(成對樣本T檢定).......65
表4-8設計與非設計的廣告態度對購買意願的相關性(迴歸分析)...................65
表4-9產品態度的多變量變異數分析表..............................................................68
表4-10產品涉入度在產品態度的平均值............................................................69
表4-11產品涉入度、推薦人類型對產品態度變相的差異性(變異數分析)......69
表4-12產品涉入度、推薦人類型的產品態度平均值........................................70
表4-13設計與非設計對產品態度的顯著性(獨立樣本T檢定).........................71
表4-14設計與非設計的產品態度對購買意願的相關性(迴歸分析).................71
表4-15設計與非設計的產品態度對購買意願的顯著性(成對樣本T檢定).....71
表4-16推薦人態度的多變量變異數分析表........................................................74
表4-17推薦人類型在推薦人態度的平均值........................................................75
表4-18推薦人類型對推薦人態度的變異數分析................................................75
表4-19產品涉入度、推薦人類型的推薦人態度平均值表................................76
表4-20設計與非設計對推薦人態度的顯著性(獨立樣本T檢定) .....................77
表4-21設計與非設計的推薦人態度對購買意願的相關性(迴歸分析)..............77
表4-22設計與非設計的推薦人態度對購買意願的顯著性(成對樣本T檢定) .77
表4-23購買意願的多變量變異數分析表.............................................................80
表4-24單因子產品涉入度在購買意願的平均值.................................................81
表4-25產品涉入度對購買意願的變異數分析.....................................................81
表4-26產品涉入度、推薦人類型的購買意願平均值表.....................................81
表4-27設計與非設計對購買意願顯著性(獨立樣本T檢定) .............................81
表4-28變異數檢定總表.........................................................................................84
表4-29產品涉入度與推薦人類型平均值總表.....................................................85
表4-30研究假設檢定彙總.....................................................................................86
圖 次

圖1-1研究流程.......................................................................................................4
圖2-1平衡架構關係圖...........................................................................................12
圖2-2平衡與不平衡關係圖...................................................................................12
圖2-3平衡理論在消費者行為的範例...................................................................13
圖2-4態度主要的三成分相互影響.......................................................................22
圖2-5推敲可能模式...............................................................................................23
圖2-6廣告的層級效果模式...................................................................................26
圖2-7廣告層級效果與態度知之對照圖...............................................................27
圖2-8層級效果模式的關係圖...............................................................................30
圖2-9涉入的概念圖...............................................................................................34
圖2-10高、低涉入產品之差異.............................................................................35
圖2-11消費者的決策程序與資訊處理方式.........................................................36
圖3-1研究變數架構圖...........................................................................................39
圖3-2平面廣告佈局中各主要元素.......................................................................48
圖4-1廣告態度的估計邊緣平均數.......................................................................64
圖4-2設計與非設計的廣告意願對購買意願相關程度圖...................................66
圖4-3產品態度的估計邊緣平均數.......................................................................70
圖4-4設計與非設計的產品態度對購買意願相關程度圖...................................72
圖4-5推薦人態度的估計邊緣平均數...................................................................76
圖4-6設計與非設計的推薦人態度對購買意願相關程度圖...............................78
圖4-7購買意願的估計平均數...............................................................................82
網路資源

˙American Marketing Association.(2004). http://www.marketingpower.com/ (2004/8/19 瀏覽).
˙高華襄 編譯 (?)。〈信用卡持有率〉。《文化一周新聞網》。http://jou.pccu.edu.tw/weekly/opinion/1017/06.htm。(2004/4/28 瀏覽)。
˙奇摩搜尋排行榜 (2004/1~3月)。〈名人排行榜〉。《Yahoo!奇摩》。http://search.tw.yahoo.com/buzz/celebrities.html。(2004/4/28 瀏覽)
˙夏韻芬 編譯(2003/1/7)。〈蕃茄汁 紅色風暴 業者加開生產線〉。《中國食品GMP發展協會電子報 消費資訊》。http://www.gmp.org.tw/subnewsview.asp?id=133 (2004/4/28 瀏覽)
˙楊子毅 編譯(2004/7/30)。〈藝人代言產品凸槌 消基會:應連帶罰〉。《sina 新浪新聞》。http://news.sina.com.tw/articles/12/15/49/12154974.html (2004/8/5 瀏覽)。
˙鄭紹成 編譯(2004/5/22)。〈運動行銷 名人就是最好的賣點〉。《中天電視網》。http://www.ctitv.com.tw/new/news/news02.html?sno=59079 (2004/10/2 瀏覽)。
˙王文心 編譯(2004/8/26)。〈衛生單位不衛生〉。《台灣立報》。http://publish.lihpao.com/Feature/2004/08/26/b3/ (2004/10/2 瀏覽)。

中文書目

˙翟治平、樊志育 (2002),《廣告設計學》,台北:揚智文化。
˙柳婷 (1999),《廣告與行銷》,台北:五南。
˙張春興 (1994),《心理學》,台北:東華書局。
˙黄君慧 等譯 (2002),《消費者行為概論》,台北市:台灣培生教育。
ISBN:957-2054-61-9。John C. Mowen and Michael S. Minor (2001), Consumer behavior: a framework, USA: Person Education, Inc.
˙陳智凱 譯 (2003),《消費者行為》,台北市:麥格羅•希爾。
ISBN:957-493-723-2。Eric Arnould, Linda Price, and George Zinkhan (2002), Consumers, 2 / e, New York: NY, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
˙林建煌 (2002),《消費者行為》,台北市:智勝文化。
˙劉美琪、釵w琪、漆梅君 等譯 (2000),《當代廣告─概念與操作》,台北市:學富文化。
˙李美華、孔祥明、林嘉娟 等譯(1998),《社會科學研究方法》,台北市,時英出版社。
ISBN:957-8890-24-9。Earl Babbie (?) ,The practice of social research, 8th ed, USA.
˙潘中道、黃瑋瑩、胡龍騰 合譯(2000),《研究方法─步驟化學習指南》,台北市:學富文化。
ISBN:957-30892-5-4。Ranjit Kumar(?) ,Research-Methodology: a step-by-step guide for beginners, USA
˙詹俊坤 (1992),《不同產品類別、廣告代言人型態對消費者廣告效果之研究》,碩士論文,國立中央大學企業管理研究所。
˙練乃華 (1990),《推薦式廣告之溝通效果研究》,碩士論文,國立台灣大學商學研究所。
˙陳志劍 (1994),《推薦式廣告與比較性廣告廣告效果之研究》,碩士論文,私立淡江大學國際企業研究所。
˙陳敏郎 (2001),《廣告代言人對推薦品牌廣告效果影響之研究》,碩士論文,國立交通大學經營管理研究所。
˙彭金燕 (1999),《代言人可信度對廣告效果與購買意願影響之研究》,碩士論文,私立大葉大學事業經營研究所。
˙陳心怡 (1997),《推薦式廣告對不同涉入度產品之廣告效果》,碩士論文,國立交通大學管理科學研究所。
˙吳統雄 (1985),《態度與行為研究的信度與效度:理論、應用、反省》,民意學術專刊。

英文書目

˙ Atkin Charles, and Martin Block (1983), “Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsers,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 23, pp.57- 61.
˙ Baker, Michael and Gilbert Churchill (1977), “The Impact of Physically Attractive Models on Advertising Evaluations,” Journal of Marketing Research, 14,November, pp. 538-55.
˙ Barry, Thomas E. “The Development of the Hierarchy of Effects; An Historical Perspective.” Current Issues and Research in Advertising 10, 2(1987):253-270..
˙ Gilles Laurent and Jean-Noel Kapferer (1985), “Measuring Consumer Involvement Profiles, ” JMR, Vol. XXII, Feb., pp. 41- 53.
˙ Hider, Fritz (1958), The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, New York: Wilry.
˙ Hovland, Carl I., Irving K. Janis, and Harold H., Kelly (1953), Communication and Persuasion, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
˙ Hershey H. Friedman, Salvatore Termini, and Robert Washington (1976),”The Effectiveness of Advertisements Utilizing Four Types of Endorsers.” Journal of Advertising, 5, pp. 22-24.
˙ Hershey H. Friedman and Linda Friedman (1979), “Endorser Effectiveness by Product Type,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol.19, No.5, pp. 63-71.
˙ Judith Lynne Zaichkowsky (1986), ”Conceptualizing Involvement.” Journal of advertising, Vol.15, No.2.
˙ J. Paul Peter, Jerry C. Olson (1996), Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy, 4th ed., Homewood, Ill.: Irwin, pp.101.
˙ Kerlinger, Fred N., (1973), Foundations of Behavioural Research, 2nd ed. , Holt, Rinehard and Winston, Inc. , New York.
˙ McGuire, William J. (1985), “Attitudes and Attitude Change,” in Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 2, Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, eds., New York: Random House, pp. 233-346.
˙ Mowen, John C. and Stephen W. Brown, “On Explaining and Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorser,” Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.8, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 1980, pp.437-441.
˙ Richard E. Petty, John T. Cacioppo , and David Schumann (1983), “Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement, ”Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 10, pp. 135-146.
˙ Robert. J. Lavide and Gary A. Steiner, “A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness,” JMR, Oct1961, pp.59-62.
˙ Roobina Ohanian (1990), ” Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers’ Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness,” Journal of Advertising , Vol.19, No.3
˙ William Wells, John Burnett, Sandra Moriarty (1998), Advertising: principles& practice(1989-1998), New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
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