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研究生:林子誠
論文名稱:由Stroop叫色作業探討注意力的發展
指導教授:林美珍林美珍引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:Stroop中文叫色作業Stroop干擾效果注意力中性作業練習自動化處理的相對速度整合性不和諧作業分離性不和諧作業注意區域位置不確定性閱讀速度
外文關鍵詞:Stroop Chinese taskStroop interferenceStroop effectattentionneutral taskpracticeautomaticityrelative speed of processingintegrated incongruent taskseparated incongruent taskattended locationlocational uncertaintyreading speed
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本研究以Stroop中文叫色作業,測驗兒童和成人在Stroop作業之練習和刺激向度分離等情形下,其干擾效果的變化情形。共執行兩個實驗,實驗一中的受試者先接受中性刺激和不和諧刺激的測驗,然後對兩類作業練習8日,其後再測驗一次,探討受試者在練習前、後之干擾效果的變化情形。另一組受試接受實驗二中,中性刺激、整合性不和諧刺激和分離性不和諧刺激等作業的測驗,藉以比較整合性干擾和分離性干擾的差異。兩組受試者皆接受文字閱讀的速度測驗。
結果發現,小學二年級兒童的Stroop干擾效果最大,六年級兒童次之,成人最小,這與之前文獻上所載的研究一致,同時也證實,練習確能降低干擾效果,但仍不能使其完全消失,且練習後,三組受試間的干擾效果已無顯著差異。在實驗二的結果顯著,刺激向度分離的干擾效果仍然存在,但比整合性干擾效果小,且受試者間的分離性干擾也沒有顯著差異。而所有受試的閱讀速度均快於叫色速度。
The study was used the Stroop Chinese task to examine the course of the Stroop interference among second, sixth grade children and adults. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, participants were tested with neutral and incongruent tasks and practiced with the same tasks for the following 8 days. They were tested neutral and incongruent tasks again. Then examined the course of the Stroop interference among children of second, sixth grade children and adults, they were test with neutral and incongruent tasks again. Then examine the course of the Stroop interference in between children and adult during before and after practice. The other group of participants took part in experiment II. They were presented with three tasks consist of neutral, integrated and separated incongruent tasks. Then examine the difference of the interference among children of second, sixth grade and adult during integrated and separated incongruent tasks. Two groups of participants were presented word reading speed of task.
The finding of the study was Stroop interference increased from the adults through the sixth grade children and finally to the second grade children is in line with previous finding. We have confirmed that although interference decreases with practice, it is very resistant to eradication. After practice, the interference between children and adults is not significant difference. In the experiment II, it was that separated Stroop stimulus showed interference, and the amount was relatively small. The interference of separated Stroop task among children of second, sixth grade and adults were not significant difference. All participants took longer to name color than to read words.
摘要 ………………………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
圖目錄 ……………………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
表目錄 ……………………………………………………………………… Ⅳ

壹、緒論
一、研究動機……………………………………………………………… 1
二、研究目的……………………………………………………………… 6
三、名詞釋義……………………………………………………………… 7

貮、文獻探討
一、Stroop的經典研究…………………………………………………… 9
二、解釋Stroop效果的探討
(一)處理的相對速度(relative speed of processing)……… 12
(二)自動化(automaticity) ……………………………………… 13
(三)平行模式(parallel models):獲取跡證
(evidence)做決定………………………………………………16
(四)平行分配處理模式
(parallel distributed of processing model)…………… 17
三、Stroop作業的年齡差……………………………………………… 21
四、練習對Stroop作業的影…………………………………………… 24
五、刺激向度整合和分離效…………………………………………… 27



參、研究架構……………………………………………………………… 30

實驗一、不同年級小學生與成人受試在Stroop中文叫色作業
的干擾效果及練習效果………………………………………… 33
1. 練習前Stroop干擾效果…………………………………………… 36
2. 練習後Stroop干擾效果…………………………………………… 40
3. Stroop干擾之練習效果…………………………………………… 43
4. 文字閱讀速度……………………………………………………… 47

實驗二、刺激向度之整合或分離對不同年級小學生及成人受
試在Stroop中文作業之干擾效果 ………………………………… 35
1. 整合性干擾效果…………………………………………………… 54
2. 分離性干擾效果…………………………………………………… 57
3. 整合性與分離性干擾效果之比較………………………………… 59
4. 文字閱讀速度……………………………………………………… 62

肆、綜合討論 …………………………………………………………… 41
一、結果之摘要…………………………………………………………… 65
二、討論…………………………………………………………………… 67

伍、建議…………………………………………………………………… 74

參考文獻…………………………………………………………………… 75
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