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研究生:邱蜀娟
研究生(外文):Chiu, Shu-chuan
論文名稱:性別刻板印象威脅與自我設限
指導教授:陳皎眉陳皎眉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Jeaw-mei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:性別刻板印象刻板印象威脅自我設限自尊程度自我清晰性
外文關鍵詞:gender stereotypestereotype threatself-handicappingself-esteemself-clarity
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刻板印象威脅效果是指當個人在面臨與其能力有關的負向刻板印象時,會有測驗表現不佳的現象,由於國內尚未有刻板印象威脅的相關研究出現,過去相關的刻板印象威脅研究對自我設限策略也少有探究,對於使用自我設限策略後是否讓自己表現不佳的風險更高亦少探討。因此,本研究除了探究個人在威脅情境中的「測驗表現」外,他(她)在情境中的「自我設限策略」之因應行為、及其自我設限策略的使用對測驗表現的影響亦是本研究關注的議題。
本研究為3(刻板印象威脅:威脅組女性、無威脅組女性、威脅組男性)×4(自我設限線索:宣稱組、行為組、宣稱行為組、以及不告知組)的實驗設計。其中,在刻板印象威脅部分,威脅組受試被告知「男性在此測驗中的表現比較好」,無威脅組受試被告知「男、女性的數學表現無差異」。在設限線索部分,宣稱組受試被告知「宣稱性自我設限對測驗表現有負向影響」,行為組受試被告知「行為性自我設限線索對測驗表現有負向影響」,宣稱行為組受試被告知「宣稱性與行為性自我設限皆對測驗表現有負向影響」。主要依變項有三:數學測驗分數、練習題的答題數目(行為性自我設限之指標)、宣稱性自我設限問卷分數(宣稱性自我設限之指標)。研究對象採用國立政治大學的大學女生158名與男生75名。
研究結果發現,不論設限線索的有效與否,處於威脅情境中的女性受試幾乎都比較傾向使用「宣稱性自我設限策略」以進行因應,其測驗表現也較差。另外,在威脅情境中,自尊越低的女性受試越傾向使用「宣稱性自我設限策略」。但不同「刻板印象威脅」組別的受試在測驗表現上無差異,亦即刻板印象威脅效果的現象並未在本研究獲得驗證,而各組在「行為性自我設限」的使用上亦無顯著差異。最後,研究者針對上述結果進行討論,並對本研究的限制與對未來研究的建議提出說明。
第一章 研究動機與目的-----------------------------------------1

第二章 文獻探討-----------------------------------------------7
第一節、刻板印象威脅效果的意義與相關研究---------------------7
第二節、自我設限的意義與相關研究----------------------------12
第三節、自尊程度的個別差異意義與相關研究--------------------17
第四節、研究問題與假設--------------------------------------21

第三章 研究方法----------------------------------------------23

第四章 研究結果----------------------------------------------27
第一節、樣本資料的描述性統計--------------------------------27
第二節、性別刻板印象威脅與自我設限線索對「測驗表現」與「自我
設限策略」的影響------------------------------------30
第三節、威脅組女性之自尊程度、自我清晰性與相關依變項的關係--43

第五章 總結與討論--------------------------------------------48
第一節、總結------------------------------------------------48
第二節、討論------------------------------------------------50
第三節、本研究的限制與對未來研究的貢獻----------------------55

參考文獻------------------------------------------------------59


附錄----------------------------------------------------------68
附錄一 各組指導語------------------------------------------69
附錄二 自尊程度與自我清晰性量表----------------------------72
附錄三 操弄檢核項目----------------------------------------75
附錄四 情境焦慮量表----------------------------------------76
附錄五 宣稱性自我設限量表----------------------------------77
附錄六 困難度操弄檢核項目----------------------------------78
附錄七 數學練習題------------------------------------------79
附錄八 正式測驗--------------------------------------------83
附錄九 基本資料--------------------------------------------87
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