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研究生:馮嘉惠
論文名稱:冷戰後美國對中國戰略態勢之研究-兼論雙邊軍事交流
指導教授:賴岳謙賴岳謙引用關係朱新民朱新民引用關係黃奎博黃奎博引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:151
中文關鍵詞:軍事交流美中關係美國戰略亞太政策
外文關鍵詞:Military ContactU.S.-Sino Relation
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美國對中國的定位到底是敵?是友?或亦敵亦友?中美的外交關係面臨擺盪起伏,而兩國的軍事交流更是讓人霧裡看花。因軍事交流身於外交及國防的交集處,因此為探討兩國軍事交流,必先釐清華府全球戰略意向及對北京的外交政策,方能了解兩國軍事交流的目的並進而預測其未來走向。

華滋(Kenneth Waltz)體系論提到,強權的興衰可決定國際政治運作的方式,國際結構組成,並進而影響國家的行為。冷戰時期,美國及蘇聯實力相當,國際社會一分為二,依照兩強所領導的價值觀而運作。在當時,美國戰略以發展軍事實力,保障本國及盟邦安全,避免兩極失去平衡為目標。除發展自身實力外,並以合縱連橫的方式,尋求他國的合作共同對抗蘇聯。

七0年代,蘇聯迅速擴張其勢力,美國擔心兩極就此失去平衡,恰於此時中蘇關係彽朝,美國利用此機會進行中美關係正常化。蘇聯持續擴張帶來的威脅,促使美國開啟對華軍事轉移,希望利用中國優勢地緣位置,以增加其國防實力的方式,牽制蘇聯的發展。從八0年代開啟的中美軍事交流目的很單純,一切以共同對抗蘇聯為目的。

一九八九年東歐變天,繼而蘇聯解體,國際政治成為美國獨霸的世界。華府將其全球戰略由對抗蘇聯,過渡為維持單極優勢領導。美國軍事國防存在的目的也由維持兩極平衡,轉變為維持經濟於區域存在的後盾。布希政府時期以「世界新秩序」為新全球戰略,強調透過美國領導,國際合作的方式達成美國治下的和平。亞太戰略方面,以扇形理論維持在區域內存在,避免單一國家控制區域內綜合資源,同時藉由與扇沿國家的互動,打造一個符合自身利益存在的安全環境。因中國自七0年代開始只是美國策略性聯盟的夥伴,在蘇聯這個共同敵人消失後,美國遲遲無法決定對這個世界第二大的共產國家該採取什麼態度,尤其是兩國軍事交流。老布希政府時期發生的天安門事件,恰好替美國暫停對華軍事交流找到一個藉口。自一九八九年六月,美方中止了八0年代開始大量的軍售、裝備合作及高層互訪。

美國自冷戰結束後發展的單極優勢領導全球戰略觀一直延續至今。在柯林頓時期名為「交往與擴大」,透過安全性合作、選擇性介入及預防外交等方式,建構起美國領導的國際社會。在亞太政策上,沿用布希政府策略,更名為「新太平洋共同體」,以政治、經濟及軍事三管齊下方式,防止美國影響力無法進入區域,降低區域強權如俄羅斯、中國對美國的挑戰。在對華政策方面,美國本身即充滿矛盾,一方面是冷戰後失去敵人的沒方向感作祟,亟需尋求一替代的假想敵,一方面又需要中國在區域及全球安全議題共同合作,在兩者拉力下出現柯林頓政府時期對華「全面交往」及「建設性戰略伙伴」政策。

無論是「全面交往」或「建設性戰略伙伴」,都是美國希望透過「異中求同、求同存異」,爭取中國在區域、全球議題的支持,如北韓問題及武器不擴散議題。更深化的目的在於透過將中國拉入國際社會,運用融入、同化的方式,以影響甚至改造北京當局。兩國的軍事交流可視為美國對中國軍事現代化的疑慮、對武器擴散的關心以及對區域安全關注的綜合產物。一九九三年中美「全面性交往」提供兩國重新開啟軍事交流的基礎。然因失去實質的目的,如共同對抗敵人,僅存策略目的,如上述對中國軍事現代化疑慮…等,使得雙方軍事關係在面臨李登輝訪美、中國駐南斯拉夫大使館遭到轟炸兩次外交瓶頸後慘遭挫敗。

小布希上任第一年,美國便面臨了九一一恐怖攻擊,為了共同反恐的需要,美國放棄強硬單邊的全球戰略觀,將國土安全提升至戰略第一位,並爭取全球打擊恐怖主義的支持。在亞太政策上,除區域盟國外,亦相當注重與大國,如俄羅斯、中國及印度的交往互動。美中關係此時也從二00一年四月中美軍機擦撞陰霾中解凍,美國放棄稱呼中國為「戰略競爭者」,改稱「建設性的合作關係」。

中美「建設性合作關係」亦是種「異中求同,求同存異」的手段。兩國關係是否真的好轉,由當時一連串政府對華評估報告書中,證明美國對中國仍懷有強大的戒心。當時美國對中國的友善,不過是反映了專心反恐的需要,希望中國在各議題與之合作,尤其是維持區域的安定。軍事交流就是最好的印證,雖然九一一事件後兩國軍事交流大增,但細就其項目多為消極的嚇阻、預防衝突發生,就深度上與前兩任政府時期幾乎無異。

觀察一九八九至二00四年,中美軍事交流廣度展開,但深度並未增加。究其原因可歸為因兩國互相帶有高度戒心,而軍事交流不過是求取降低衝突發生的產物。在華府及北京仍相互定位不明、彼此疑慮的情況下,預料未來兩國軍事交流仍難有重大的突破。
第一章 導論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究範圍與限制 3
第三節 研究途徑與方法 4
第四節 研究架構 8
第二章 布希政府時期 9
第一節 布希政府時期美國全球戰略 9
第二節 美國亞太戰略 16
第三節 美中關係與美中軍事交流 22
第四節 小結 34
第三章 柯林頓政府時期 37
第一節 交往與擴大的全球戰略 37
第二節 美國亞太戰略:新太平洋共同體 43
第三節 美國對華政策 46
第四節 美中軍事交流及其變因 53
第五節 小結 63
第四章 小布希政府時期 68
第一節 美國全球戰略 68
第二節 美國亞太戰略 74
第三節 美中外交關係 78
第四節 美中軍事交流的實質與目的 83
第五節 小結 90
第五章 結論 95
參考文獻 108
附錄 1989-2004美中外交關係與軍事交流 129
一、 中文部分

(一) 專書
Michael Phillsbury著。《中共對未來安全環境的辯論》國防部史政編譯局譯。台北:國防部史政編譯局,民90年。

田斌、傅高義。《與中國共處 21世紀的美中關系》。北京:新華出版社,1998年。

布里辛斯基著(Zbigniew Brzezinski)。《大棋盤》,林添貴譯。台北:立緒出版,民87年。

朱伯松編,丁永康著。《二十一世紀出東北亞國際政治新秩序:持續與變遷,新世紀亞太情勢與區域安全》。台北:政治大學國關中心出版,民92年。

江祿煜。《從杜魯門到柯林頓美國五十年來的政治外交和國防》。香港:開益出版,1998年。

李文志。《後冷戰時代美國的亞太戰略》。台北:憬藝出版,民86年。

李雲龍。《中美關系中的人權問題》。北京:新華出版社,1998年。

林正義編。《中美關係專題研究1995-1997》。台北:中央研究院美國文化研究所,
民年。

易君博。《政治理論與研究方法》。台北:三民書局出版,民73年。

周煦。《冷戰後美國的東亞政策1989-1997》。台北:生智出版,民88年。

岡棟俊。《美國對華政策50年》。廣州:廣東人民出版,2001年。

胡禮忠。《從望廈條約到克林頓訪華中美關系1844~1996》。福州:福建人民,1996
年。

邵玉銘。《美國介入台海危機決策過程之研究》。台北:國際關係研究中心,民88年。

范建民編。《努力建立中美建設性的略夥伴關係:江澤民主席對美國進行國事訪
問》。北京:世界知識出版發行,1998年。

席來旺。《美國的決策及其中國政策透析》。北京:九洲圖書出版社,1999年。

陳有為。《天安門事件後中共與美國外交內幕一位中國大陸外交官的歷史見證》。台北:正中,民88年。

郭偉峰。《中美關係 敵友莫測 Friend or foe The unfathomable China-US relations》。香港:中國評論文化,2001年。

梅孜編譯。《美國總統國情諮文選編》。北京:時事出版社出版,1996年。

賀俊起主編。《國防的多維結構》。北京:國防大學出版,1989年。

張亞中、孫國祥。《美國的中國政策:圍堵、交往、戰略夥伴》。台北:生智出版,民88年。

裘兆琳編。《中美關係專題研究1992-1994》。台北:中央研究院美國文化研究所,民年。

裘兆琳編。《中美關係專題研究1998-2000》。台北:中央研究院美國文化研究所,民年。

楚樹龍。《冷戰后中美關系的走向》。北京:中國社會科學出版發行中央研究院美國文化研究所,2001。

楊建成主編。《美國在西太平洋的政策與戰略利益》。台北:中華學術院南洋研究 所出版,民75。

劉連第。《中美關系的軌跡1993年-2000年大事縱覽》。北京:時事出版,2001年。

劉連第編。《中美關係重要資料選編》。北京:時事出版,1996年。

潘錫堂。《美國對中共政策的回顧與展望:中共外交與兩岸關係》。台北:五南出版,民83年。

霍斯堤(K. J. Holsti)著。《國際分析架構(International Politics, A Framework for Analysis)》,譚溯澄、李偉成譯。台北:幼獅出版,民84年。

關中。《美國與中共充滿變數和矛盾的關係》。台北:民主文教基金會,民81年。
瓊斯基(Noam Chomsky)著。《9-11》,丁連財譯。台北:大塊文化出版,民92年。

蘭普頓(David M. Lampton)著。《同床異夢:處理1989至2000年之中美外交》,計秋楓譯。香港:中文大學出版,2001年。

(二) 期刊
Dipanka Banerjee著,林敏譯。〈美國的亞太安全政策〉。《國防譯粹月刊》,第24卷第5期,民86年5月,頁4-16。

丁樹範。〈中共對美國戰區飛彈防禦計畫的態度〉。《問題與研究》,第38卷第11期,民88年11月,頁1-18。

王偉光。〈困境與選擇-冷戰後中國對美外交〉。《戰略與管理》,2003年第3期,頁77-79。

宋久光。〈美國戰略安全何處去〉。《美國研究》,第6卷第3期,1992年1月。頁50-54。

宋鎮照。〈美國霸權在亞太地區之挑戰〉。《美歐月刊》,第11卷第3期,民85年3月。頁23-39。

林智雄。〈美國發展「全國飛彈防禦系統」,對「中」美關係之影響〉。《陸軍學術月刊》,第37卷第432期,民90年8月。頁88-95。

邱坤玄。〈蘇聯變局後美國與中共的關係〉。《美國月刊》,第7卷第1期,民81年1月,頁40-45。

邱坤玄。〈試論柯林頓政府的「新太平洋共同體」〉。《美國月刊》,第9卷第3期,民83年3月,頁19-29。

周煦。〈新世紀的中(共)美關係〉。《國際關係學報》,第15期,民89年12月,頁69-90。

周煦。〈克林頓政府的亞太政策〉。《國際關係學報》,第8期,民82年6月,頁1-23。

周煦。〈冷戰後美國與中共的軍事關係〉。《國際關係學報》,第13期,民87年12月,頁1-32。

周慶安。〈美艦訪港見證中美關係陰晴〉。《亞洲週刊》,第16卷第20期,民91年5月13日-5月19日,頁28-29。

金燦榮。〈鮑威爾北京行v.s.中美關係--信任一小步,關係一大步〉。《兩岸雙贏》,第32期,民90年9月,頁34-38。

高永光。〈布希的外交政策與中美關係〉。《美國月刊》,第3卷第9期,民78年1月,頁32-37。

袁潤,〈布希政府的外交政策走向〉。《國際政治》,2001年第4期,頁80-82。

莫大華。〈從一九九六台海飛彈危機檢視美國的國家安全與軍事戰略〉。《美歐月刊》,第11卷第9期,民85年9月,頁53-73。

許志嘉。〈九一一事件後美國對中共政策的調整〉。《問題與研究》,第42卷第3期,民92年5月-6月,頁79-102。

陳一新。〈軍售、中美關係與「一個中國」的原則〉。《中央月刊》,第25卷第10期,民81年10月,頁40-49。

陳一新。〈從布希外交團隊與領導風格看美國外交與兩岸政策〉。《遠景季刊》,第2卷第1期,民90年1月,頁1-33。

陳英。〈「鬥而不破」的中共與美國關係〉。《中共研究》,第36卷第6期,民91年6月,頁40-49。

陳偉華。〈論「先制」--美國戰略思維之轉變與實踐〉。《國防雜誌》,第18卷第6期,民91年12月,頁30-41。

馮啟人。〈一個中國:中美關係「正常化」之癥結〉。《海峽評論》,第111期,民89年3月,頁33-35。

彭錦鵬、黎建彬。〈迷思或現實﹣﹣論中美關係之相互利益〉。《美國月刊》, 第4卷第11期,民79年3月,頁43-50。

張平。〈「中」美關係現狀及發展趨勢〉。《中共研究》,第38卷第3期,民91年,頁 66-75。

張登及。〈從宏觀歷史視野解讀美「中」軍機碰撞事故--一次對「現狀霸權」與「新興大國」共容性的考驗〉。《共黨問題研究》,第27卷第5期,民90年5月,頁 104-106。

張敏謙。〈美國全球戰略剖析〉。《美國研究》,第14卷第4期,2000年,頁7-39。

張清敏。〈中美關係中的美國對華技術轉讓問題〉。《戰略與管理》,1999年第4期,頁19-25。

張麟徵。〈前瞻胡布會後的中美關係〉。《海峽評論》,第151 卷,民92年,頁20-23。

楊青。〈大國的逐鹿:21世紀初世界軍事形勢展望〉。《國際政治》,2001年第5期,頁112-115。

楊日旭。〈論中共軍售與美國對策〉。《美國月刊》,第8卷第5期,民82年5月,頁115-126。

趙大興。〈美國對臺政策與中美關係〉。《海峽評論》,民86年2月,頁11-16。

劉寧榮、王健民。〈考克斯報告考驗中美關係〉。《亞洲週刊》,第13卷第23期,民88年6月7日-6月13日,頁30-32。

蔡瑋。〈布希政府的中共政策〉。《美國月刊》,第4卷第10期,民79年2月,頁76-81。

鄭端耀。〈飛彈科技管制體系之分析〉。《問題與研究》,第34卷第1期,民84年1月,頁66-79。

閻學通。〈冷戰後的繼續-冷戰後的主要國際政治矛盾〉。《戰略與管理》,2000年第3期,頁58-66。

(三) 報紙
人民日報
大陸情勢週報
中央日報
中時晚報
中國時報
民生報
世界日報
自由時報
香港大公報
香港文匯報
經濟日報
解放軍報
聯合報
聯合晚報
環球時報

(四) 網路
人民網www.people.com.cn
中時電子報http://news.chinatimes.com
中國新聞網www.chinanews.com.cn
新華網www.xinhuanet.com.cn


二、 英文部分
(一) 專書
Allen, Kenneth W. and McVadon, Eric A. eds. China’s Foreign Military Relations (Washington D.C.: The Henry L. Stimson Center, 1999).

Baker, James A. III. The Politics of Diplomacy—Revolution, War and Peace, 1989-1992 (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995).

Baldwin, David A. Neorealism and Neoliberalism : The Contemporary Debate (New York : Columbia University Press, 1993).

Carter, Ashton B. and Perry, William J. Preventive Defense: A New Security Strategy for America (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute Press, 1999).

Flanagan, Stephen J. and Marti, Michael E. eds. The People’s Liberation Army and China in Transition (Washington D.C.: National Defense University Press, 2003).

Guihong, Zhang. U.S. Security Policy Toward South Asia After September 11th and Its Implication for China: A Chinese Perspective ( Washington D.C.: Stimson Press, January 2003).

Harding, Harry. A Fragile Relationship: The United States and China since 1972 ( Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institute, 1992).

International Institute for Statistic Studies, “China’s Military Expenditure,” The Military Balance 1995/96 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Jaffe, Lorna S. The Development of the Base Force (1989-1992) (Washington, D.C.: Joint History Office, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, July 1993).

Kegley, Charles W. Controversies in International Relations Theory: Realism and the Neoliberal Challenge (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995).

Kegley, Charles W. and Eugene R. Wittkopf. American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991).

Khalizad, Zahmay M., Shulsky, Abram N., and Cliff Roger eds. The United States and a Rising China: Strategic and Military Implications (Santa Monica: Rand Press, 1999).

Khalilzad, Zalmay and Orletsky, David eds., The United States and Asia: Toward a New U.S. Strategy and Force Posture (Santa Monica: Rand Press, 2001).

Kissinger, Henry A. Diplomacy (Simon & Schuster, N.Y. 1994).

Lilley, James R. and Shambaugh, David eds. China’s Military Faces the Future (New York: M. E. Sharpe Pub., 1999).

Macridis, Roy C. Foreign Policy in World Politics (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1985).

Metzger, Thomas A. and Myers Ramon H. eds. Greater China and U.S. Foreign Policy (Calif: Hoover Institution press., 1996).

Morgenthau, Hans J. Politics Within Nations, 6th ed., (New York: Knopf, 1985).

Myers, Roman H., Okserberg, Michel C., and Shambaugh David eds. Making China Policy (Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).

Neuchterlein, Donald E. America –Over Committed: United States National Interest in the 1980s, (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1985).

Neuchterlein, Donald E. America Recommitted: United States National Interests in a Restructured World, (KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1991).

Nixon, Richard. Seize the Moment (New York: Simon & Schuter, 1992).

Nye, Joseph S. Peace in Parts: Integration and Conflict in International Organization (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971).

Qingshan, Tan. The Making of U.S. China Policy: From Normalization to the Post-Cold War Era (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher, 1992).

Orlesky, David T., Larson, Eric V., and Leuschner, Kristin. Defense Planning in a Decade of Change: Lessons from the Base Force, Bottom-Up Review, and Quadrennial Defense Review (Santa Monica: RAND, 2001).

Oye, Kenneth A. Eagle in A New World: American Grand Strategy in the Post Cold War (New York : HarperCollins Publishers, 1992).

Rosenau, James N. ed. International Politics and Foreign Policy: A Reader in Research and Theory (New York: Free Press, 1969).

Russett, Bruce ed. Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for Post- Cold War World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).

Scobell, Andrew and Wortzel, Larry M. eds. China’s Growing Military Power: Perspectives on Security, Ballistic Missiles, and Conventional Capabilities (U.S. Army War College Press, 2002).

Shambaugh, David. Modernizing China’s Military: Progress, Problems, and Prospects (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002).

Simon, Sheldon ed. East Asian Security in the Post-Cold War Era (New York: ME. Sharpe Press, 1993).

Spanier, John. American Foreign Policy since World War II (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 10th, 1985).

Stoessinger, John G.. Why Nation’s Go to War (New York: St Martin’s Press, 6th edition 1993).

Tellis, Ashley J. and Swaine, Michael D. Interpreting China’s Grand Strategy: Past, Present , and Future (Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand, 2000).

The World Almanac 1993, (New York: World Almanac, 1993).

Waltz, Kenneth. Man, the State, and War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959).

Waltz, Kenneth. Theory of International Politics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979).

Wortzel, Larry M. Planning for the Future: The Role of U.S. Forces in Northeast Asian Security (Washington D.C.: The Heritage Foundation, July 26, 2000).

(二)期刊
Art, Robert J. “A Defensible Defense: America’s Grand Strategy after the Cold War,” International Security, Vol.15, No. 4 (Spring 1991), pp. 5-53.

Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Winston Lord, “East Asia and Pacific: U.S. Policy and Assistance,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 4, No. 21 (May 24, 1993).

Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Winston Lord, “China: Most-Favored-Nation Status,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 4, No. 24(June 14, 1993).

Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Winston Lord, “Vision for a New Pacific Community,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 4, No. 36(September 6, 1993).

Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Winston Lord, “U.S. Policy Toward China: Security and Military Consideration,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 6, No. 43(October 23, 1995).

Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Winston Lord, “Overview of Trip to East Asia and the Pacific and the APEC Meeting,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, No. 45 (November 7, 1994).

Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Winston Lord, “Intellectual Property Rights and U.S.-China Relations,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 6, No. 13 (March 27, 1995).

Bachman, David. “The United States and China: Rhetoric Reality,” Current History, Vol. 100, No.647 (September 2001).

Baker, James A. “American in Asia: Emerging Architecture for A Pacific Community,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, No.5 (1991/92), pp.1-18.

Bandow, Dong. “Keeping the Troops and Money at Home,” Current History, Vol. 93, No.579 (January 1994).

Berstein, Richard and Munro, Ross H. “The Coming Conflict with America,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 76, No. 2(March/ April, 1997), pp. 18-32.

Bolton, John. “The End of NATO?” The World Today, Vol.56, No. 6 (Jun 2000), pp. 12-13.

Bosworth, Stephen W. “The United States and Asia,” Foreign Affairs, Vol.71, No.1 (1991/92), pp. 113-129.

Brookes, Peter T. R. “Strategic Realism: The Future of U.S.- Sino Security Relations,” Strategic Review, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Summer 1999), pp.53-56.

Calleo, David P. "Transatlantic folly: NATO vs. the EU" World Policy Journal, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Fall 2003), pp. 17-24.

Chanda, Nayan. “See No Evil,” Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol.158, No.22 (August 10, 1995).

Canrong, Jin. “The US Global Strategy in the Post-Cold War Era and Its Implication for Chinas-United States Relations: a Chinese Perspective,” Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 10, No. 27 (May 2001), pp.309-316.

Carter, Ashton B. “Adapting U.S. Defense to Future Needs,” Survival, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Winter1999-2000), pp.101-123.

Chu, Wellington. “Increased Military Sales to China: Problems and Prospects ,” Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 39 Issue 2 (Winter 1986), pp.130-141.

Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 26, No. 4 (January 29,1990).

Davis, Zachary S. “China’s Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy-Boom or Bust for the NPT Regime?” Asian Survey, Vol: 35, No. 6 (June 1995), pp.587-603.

Department Spokesman Richard Boucher, “President Decision on Military Sales to China,” Department of States Dispatch, Vol. 4, No.1 (January 4, 1993), p.9-11.

Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs Kent Wiedemann, “Asia and Pacific Subcommittee,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 6, No. 30 (July 24, 1995).

Dong, Yuan Jing. “Sino-US Military Relations Since Tiananmen: Restoratio, Progress, and Pitfalls,” Parameters (Spring 2003), pp. 49-54.

Doyle, Michael W. “Liberalism and World Politics,” American Political Science Review, Vol.80, No.4 (December 1986), pp. 1151-1170.

“Executive Order 12890-Conditions For Renewal of Most-Favored-Nation Status for the PRC in 1994,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, No. 21, (May 31, 1993).

Fukuyama Francis. “The End of History?” National Interest, No. 16 (Summer 1989), pp.3-18.

Garthoff, Raymond L. “American-Soviet Relations in Perspective,” Political Science Quarterly, Vol.100, No.4 (Winter 1985-1986), pp.541-560.

Gill, Bates. “China’s Hollow Military,” The National Interest, No. 56 (Summer 1999), pp. 55-62.

Godwin, Paul H. B. and Medeiros, Evans S. “China, America, and Missile Defense: Conflicting National Interests,” Current History, Vol.3 (2000).

Haass, Richard “Paradigm Lost,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 74, No. 1(January/February 1995), pp. 43-58.

Heymann, Philip B. “Dealing with Terrorism: An Overview,” International Security, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Winter 2001/02), pp.24-38.

Hornik, Richard. “Bursting China’s Bubble,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73, No. 3 (May/June 1994), pp. 28-42.

“House Supports Visa for Taiwan’s President,” Congressional Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 18 (May, 1995), p.1253.

Hunter, Robert E. “Starting at Zero: U.S. Foreign Policy for the 1990s,”The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Winter 1992), pp. 27-44.

Huntington, Samuel P. “America’s Changing Strategic Interests,”Survival, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1 (January/ February 1991), pp. 1-15.

Huntington, Samuel P. “The Clash of Civilizations? ” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3(Summer 1993), pp.22-49.

Ikenberry, John G.. “American Grand Strategy in the Age of Terror,” Survival, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Winter 2001-02), pp.19-34.

Klare, Michael T. “The Next Great Arms Race,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3(Summer 1993), pp.136-152.

Kleykamp, David L. “The Political Economic of United States Most Favored Policy Toward China,” Tamkang Journal of American Studies, Vol. X, No. 1 (Fall 1993), pp. 1-18.

Krauthammer, Charles. “The Unipolar Moment,” Foreign Affairs: America and the World, Vol.70, No. 1 (1990/91), pp.23-33.

Kristof, Nicholas D. “The Rise of China,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 5 (November/December 1993), pp.59-74.

Lake, David A. “Powerful Pacifist: Democratic States and War,” American Political Science Review, Vol.86, No.1 (March 1992), pp.24-37.

Lampton, David M. “America’s China Policy in the Age of Finance Minister: Clinton Ends Linkage,” The China Quarterly, Vol. 139, (September 1994).

Lampton David M. “Small Mercies: China and America after 9/11,” The National Interest, No.66 (Winter 2001/02), pp.106-113.

Layne, Christopher. “From Preponderance to Offshore Balancing: America’s Future Grand Strategy,” International Security, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer 1997), pp.86-124.

Layne, Christopher. “Kant or Cant: The Myth of Democratic Peace ” International Security, Vol. 19, No.2 (Fall 1994), pp. 5-49.

Layne, Christopher. “The Unipolar Illusion: Why New Great Powers Will Rise?” International Security, Vol. 17, No.4 (Spring 1993), pp.6-51.

Layne, Christopher. and Schwarz, Benjamin, “American Hegemony Without An Enemy,” Foreign Policy, No. 92(Fall 1993), pp.5-23.

Mansfield, Edward D. and Snyder, Jack. “Democratization and the Danger of War,” International Security, Vol.20, No.1 (Summer 1995), pp. 5-38.

Mathews, Jessica T. “September 11, One Year Later: A World of Change,” Policy Brief (August 2002).

Maoz, Zeev and Russett, Bruce. “Normative and Structural Causes of Democratic Peace, 1946-1986,” American Political Science Review, Vol.87, No.3 (September 1993), pp.624-638.

Mastanduno, Michael. “Preserving the Unipolar Moment: Realist Theories and U.S. Grand Strategy after the Cold War,” International Security, Vol.21, No.4 (Spring 1997), pp.49-88.

Montaperto, Ron.“China as a Military Power, Strategic Forum, No. 56 (December 1995).

Morgenthau, Hans J. “Another ‘Great Debate’: The National Interest of the United States,” American Political Science Review, Vol. 46, No. 4(December 1952), pp.971-973.

Munro, Ross H. “Awakening Dragon: The Real Danger in Asia is from China,”Policy Review, No. 62 (Fall 1992).

Nacht, Alexander. “U.S. Foreign Policy Strategies,” The Washington Quarterly Vol. 18, No. 3 (Summer 1995), pp.195-210.

Nye, Joseph S. “What New World Order?” Foreign Affairs, Vol.71, No.2 (Spring 1992), pp. 83-96.

Nye, Joseph S. “Redefining the National Interest,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 4 (July/ August), pp. 22-35.

Posen, Barry R. “The Struggle Against Terrorism: Grand Strategy, Strategy, and Tactics,” International Security, Vol. 26, No. 3 (Winter 2001/02), pp.39-55.

Posen, Barry R. and Ross, Andrew L. “Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategy,” International Security, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Winter1996/97), pp.5-53.

President George Bush, Speech at Texas A and M University Commencement, Weekly Compilation of Presidential Document, Vol. 2, No. 20 (May 12, 1989), pp.699-702.

President George Bush, “Remarks at Maxwell Air Force Base War College in Montgomery, Alabama, April 13, 1991,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documentation, Vol.27, No. 16(April 22,1991), pp.431-433.

President George Bush, “Remarks to General Dynamics Employees in Fort Worth, Texas, September 2, 1992,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 28, No. 36 (September 7, 1992).

President George Bush, “America's Role in the World,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch Vol, 4 (January 1993), pp.13-15.

President George Bush, “I Want to Keep Contact; I do not Want Isolation,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 26, No. 4 (January 29,1990), pp. 89-93.

President George Bush, Department of States Dispatch, Vol.3, No.31 (August 3, 1992).

President George Bush, “Remarks to General Dynamics Employees in Fort Worth, Texas, September 2, 1992,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 28, No. 36 (September 7, 1992), pp.1556-1557.

President George Bush, Department of States Dispatch, Vol.3, No.37 (September 14, 1992).

President William Clinton, “Building a New Pacific Community,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 4, No. 28 (July 12, 1993).

President William Clinton, “Fundamentals of Security for a New Pacific Community,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 4, No. 29(July 19, 1993).

Rachman, Gideon. “Containing China,” The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Spring 1996), pp.129-140.

Rice, Condoleezza. “Promoting the National Interest,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 1(January/ February 2000), pp.45-62.

Rose, Richard. “Comparing Forms of Comparative Analysis,”Political Studies(1991), pp. 444-462.

Ross, Robert S. “Beijing as a Conservative Power,”Foreign Affairs, Vol. 76, No. 2 (March/April 1997), pp.33-44.

Roy, Denny. “The China Threat Issue: Major Arguments,” Asian Survey, Vol. 36, No. 8 (August 1996), pp.758-771.

Roy, Denny. “Hegemon on the Horizon,” International Security, Vol. 19, No. 1(Summer 1994), pp149-168.

Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney,“The Military We Need in the Future,”Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol.59, No.1 (October 15, 1992),pp. 11-14.

Secretary of Defense William Perry, “The Sino-U.S. Relationship and Its Impact on World Peace,”U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, No. 44(October 31, 1994).

Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright, “China on the Threshold of a New Era,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 8, No. 5(June 24, 1997).

Secretary of State Warren Christopher, “Comprehensive Engagement,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 6, No. 17(April 24, 1995).

Secretary of State Warren Christopher, “American Interest and the U.S.-China Relations,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 7, No. 22(May 27, 1996).

Secretary of State Warren Christopher, The United States and China: Building a New Era of Cooperation for a New Century,” U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 7, No. 30(July 22, 1996).

Secretary of State Warren Christopher, “The U.S. and China: Cooperating on Common Concerns,”U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 7, No. 31(July 29, 1996).

Statement by Department Spokesman Richard Boucher, “President Decision on Military Sales to China,”Department of States Dispatch, Vol. 4, No.1 (January 4, 1993).

Segal, Gerald. “The Coming Confrontation Between China and Japan,” World Policy Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2(Summer 1993), pp.27-32.

Shambaugh, David. “Sino-American Strategic Relations: From Partners to Competitors,” Survival, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Spring 2000), pp.97-115.

Shambaugh, David. “China or America: Which Is the Revisionist Power?” Survival, Vol.43, No.3 (Autumn 2001).

Stuart, Douglas and Tow, William. “China’s Military Turns to the West,” International Affairs, Vol.57, No. 2 (Spring 1981), pp286-300.

Tucker, Robert W. “1989 and All That,”Foreign Affairs, Vol.69, No.4, (Fall 1990), pp.93-114.

Under Secretary for Economic and Agriculture Affairs of the Department of State Robert B. Zeollick, “U.S. Relations with Asia and the Pacific: A New Era,” Department of States Dispatch, Vol.3, No.31 (August 3, 1992), pp.706-707.

Walt, Stephen M. “The Case for Finite Containment: Analyzing U.S. Grand Strategy,” International Security, Vol. 14, No.1 (Summer 1989), pp.5-49.

Walt, Stephen M “Beyond bin Laden: Reshaping U.S. Foreign Policy,” International Security, Vol.26, No.3 (Winter 2001/02), pp. 56-78.

Wortzel, Larry M. “China Pursues Traditional Great Power Status,” Orbis, Vol. 38, No. 2 (Spring 1994), pp. 157-176.

Xiang, Lanxin. “Washington’s Misguided China Policy,” Survival, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Autumn 2001), pp. 7-30.

三、 官方文件
Assistant Secretary of Defense Joseph S. Nye, Press Release (December 12, 1995).

Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Stanley O. Roth , U.S.-China Relations and the China Policy Act of 1997 (September 17, 1997).

Director of Central Intelligence, The Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons Of Mass Destruction an Advanced Conventional Munitions(July/December,1996).

Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations of Senate, U.S. and Chinese Policies Toward Occupied Tibet (102nd Congress, July 28, 1992).

James A. Kelly, United States Policy in East Asia and the Pacific: Challenges and Priorities, Testimony before the Subcommittee on East Asia and Pacific. House Committee on International Relations, AIT BG-2001-7, July 2, 2001.

Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Military Strategy, (1991, 1992, 1993 and 1995).

Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Military Net Assessment (JMNA) (1991 and 1992).

Joint Chiefs of Staff Henry Shelton, Joint Vision 2020 (May 2000).

President George Bush., Remarks to the Asia Society in New York City ( November 12, 1991).
President George W. Bush, The President’s State of the Union Address ( January 29, 2002).

President George W. Bush, Remarks by the President at 2002 Graduation Exercises of the United States Military Academy (West Point: June 1, 2002).

Office of Homeland Security, National Strategy for Homeland Security (July 2002).

President William J. Clinton, Remarks on American Security in a Changing World, (George Washington University, Washington D.C., August 5, 1996.)

President William J. Clinton, Remarks by President Clinton in Address on China and the National Interest (October 24, 1997).

President William J.Clinton, U.S.-China Relations in the 21st Century (The White House Office of Press Secretary, June 11, 1998).

Robert Sutter, Increased Military Sales to China: Arguments and Alternatives, Congressional Research Service, Report No.81-121 F (20 May, 1981).

Robert Sutter, CRS Report for Congress 96-66F (The Library of Congress: January 16, 1996).

Schifter, Discussion of Human Rights Issues (Telegram 40377 from the Embassy in Beijing, December 19, 1990).

Secretary of Defense William Perry, Engagement Is Neither Containment Nor Appeasement, Speech at Washington State China Relations Council (October 30, 1995).

Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Confirmation Hearing before the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Service (January 11, 2001).

Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Senate Armed Service Committee Testimony (June 28, 2001).

Secretary of State Warren Christopher, American Interests and the U.S.-China Relationship ( May 17, 1996).

Secretary of State-Designate Madeleine K. Albright, Statement before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (January 8, 1997).

Secretary of State-Designate Madeleine K. Albright (January 24, 1997).

Secretary of State Colin Powell, Testimony before Senate Foreign Relations Committee (January 17, 2001).

Shirley Kan, China’s Military: Roles and Implications for U.S. Policy Toward China, CRS Report for Congress (3 October, 1991).

Shirley A. Kan, CRS Report for Congress: Taiwan Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990, RL30957.

The Commission on America’s National Interest, America’s National Interests (July 2000).

The White House, China’s MFN Status: Summary of the Report and Recommendations of Secretary of State Warren Christopher (May 26, 1994).

The White House, A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, (February 1996).

The White House, President’s Remarks to the Pacific Basin Economic Council, (May 20, 1996).

The White House, A National Security Strategy for A New Century (May 1997).

The White House, President Discuss National Missile Defense (December 13, 2001).

The White House, The National Security Strategy of The United States of America (September 2002).

U.S. Bureau of Export Administration, U.S. Technology Transfers to the People’s Republic of China (January 1999).

U.S. Congress, Crisis In the Taiwan Strait: Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy, 104th Congress, 2nd Session ( March 14, 1996)

U.S. Congressional Quarterly Almanac (1989, 1991 and 1992).

U.S. Congressional Record (March 9, 1995, and March 21, 1996)

U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Foreign Trade Highlights 1992(Except) (June 1993).

U.S. Department of Defense, East Asia Strategy Initiative: Report to Congress (1990).

U.S. Department of Defense, The Base Force: A Total Force (September 25, 1991).

U.S. Department of Defense, A Strategic Framework for the Asian Pacific Rim: Report to Congress (1992).

U.S. Department of Defense, Report on the Bottom-Up Review (October 1993).

U.S. Department of Defense, East Asian Strategy Report 1995 (February 1995).

U.S. Department of Defense, Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review (May 1997).

U.S. Department of Defense, The United States Security Strategy for the East Asian- Pacific Region 1998 (July 1997).

U.S. Department of Defense, Quadrennial Defense Review Report (September 2001).

U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Posture Review 2002 (Excerpt).
U.S. Department of Defense, Military Power of the People’s Republic of China: Annual Report (2002, 2004).

U.S. Department of State, Remarks by Secretary of State Warren Christopher and Chinese Vice Premier Qian Qichen (April 21, 1996).

U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, The Enlargement of NATO: Why Adding Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic to NATO Strengthens American National Security (1998).

U.S. General Accounting Office, Force Structure: Issues Involving the Base Force (Washington, D.C., January 1993). Report NO. GAO/NSIAD-93-65.

U.S. House of Representative, Select Committee, U.S. National Security and Military/ Commercial Concerns with the People’s Republic of China, Vols. 1-3 (Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 25, 1999)

U. S. National Intellegence Council, “East Asia and the United States: Current Status and Five-Year Outlook,” (September 2000).

U.S. Navy Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Command Dennis C. Blair,, Before the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on East Asia and Pacific And Subcommittee on Middle East and South Asia (February 27, 2002).

(三) 報紙
Christian Science Monitor
International Herald Tribune
Los Angles Times
The New York Times
The Straits Times
Wall Street Journal
Washington Post

(四) 其他
ABC News
CNN News
Kissinger’s Record of World Events, New Digest, November 1991.
United States Information Agency, USIA News.
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5. 邱坤玄。〈蘇聯變局後美國與中共的關係〉。《美國月刊》,第7卷第1期,民81年1月,頁40-45。
6. 邱坤玄。〈試論柯林頓政府的「新太平洋共同體」〉。《美國月刊》,第9卷第3期,民83年3月,頁19-29。
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