(3.237.20.246) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/17 16:30
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:馬玉玫
論文名稱:TheEffectofDifferentApproachestoRepetitionStrategyInstructionontheListeningComprehensionofJuniorHighSchoolStudentsinTaiwan
指導教授:陳振寬陳振寬引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英語教學碩士在職專班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:listeninhg comprehensionrepetition strategylearning strategy
外文關鍵詞:listeninhg comprehensionrepetition strategylearning strategy
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:231
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:11
本研究旨在探討不同方式的複誦教學對台灣國中生聽力理解、 聽的字彙、了解自己說的英語和英語之間的差異及自發性的練習聽和說四方面之影響。本研究結果希望對英文老師在複誦教學上有所啟示和幫助。
台北市某國中二年級兩班共64位學生參與這項研究,他們被分為實驗組和控制組。學期初,受試者接受全民英檢初級聽力前測,依據該成績, 分成實驗組和控制組兩組群,該兩組群又細分為高中低三組群。受試者在接受全民英檢初級聽力前測後,施以不同之複誦教學。實驗組之教學方式為讓學生先聽一段文章或一段對話,第二次則聽完句子再跟著複誦所聽到的句子,第三次則看著聽力稿再複誦一次並從中了解自己所複誦的句子或片語和所聽到的有何不同。控制組之教學方式為傳統的複誦教學;方式為讓學生先看著聽力稿聽一段文章或一段對話,第二次則聽完再跟著聽力稿複誦,第三次則亦看著聽力稿再複誦一次, 並從中了解自己所複誦的句子或片語和所聽到的有何不同。16週之後,他們接受聽力後測。除接受後測外,實驗組還接受問卷調查和訪談。
實驗結果顯示實驗組的聽力方面之進步大於控制組。其中實驗組平均數差異檢定以達到顯著水準(t=2.666, p=.010);實驗組三組中,以中組群及低組群進步最多,平均數差異檢定以達到顯著水準(中組群t=3.318, p=.003; 低組群t=.283, p=.016)。此外從問卷調查和訪談得知:實驗組大部份的學生對此教學法皆持肯定的態度。且中組群及高組群對聽的字彙、了解自己說的英語和英語之間的差異及皆持正面的看法。低分組則較希望老師能適時的說明及指導。但在自發性的練習聽和說的能力只有高組群持正面的看法。本文根據研究結果,提出英語教學上之運用以及未來研究之建議。
The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of different approaches to “listen and repeat” strategy teaching on listening comprehension of junior high school students in Taiwan. “Listen and repeat” activity is often practiced in English class; however, its skill and training are often neglected by most English teachers and thus less studied. In this study, an experiment is conducted to examine the effect that different procedures of repetition strategy instruction have on listening comprehension, on the awareness of the gap between students’ output and the aural input, on “sound-to-script” vocabulary, and on students’ automaticity in listening and speaking.
Sixty-four students, taught by the researcher, from two classes of 8th grade at a junior high school in Taipei City, participate in this study. They are divided into the experimental group and the control group. At the beginning of the semester, the researcher gives the two classes an English listening comprehension test at the GEPT elementary level. According to their scores in the test, the subjects are further divided into high, middle, and low proficiency levels. Then, the experimental and the control groups are taught in different methods. The control group is taught to "listen and repeat" with the listening scripts; the experimental group is taught to “listen and repeat” after the aural stimuli only and later to check the listening scripts to see if there is any gap between the listening input and their oral output and if there is any gap between their listening vocabulary and the written vocabulary.After 16 weeks, all of the subjects take a listening comprehension posttest. In addition to the listening comprehension test, the experimental group is also asked to fill in a questionnaire. Later, some interviews are conducted.
The results show that “listen and repeat” after the aural stimuli indeed enhances the subjects’ listening comprehension ability. The experimental group significantly outperforms the control group (t=2.666, p=.010). Besides, in terms of proficiency levels, the experimental middle and low subgroups significantly outperform those of the control group (experimental middle subgroup: t=3.318, p=.003; experimental low subgroup: t=.283, p=.016).
Moreover, the questionnaire and interview results show that most of the students like this way of “listen and repeat” practice though it is cognitively demanding and challenging. Furthermore, experimental middle and high subgroups benefit more from the strategy. They can better notice the gap between their output and the aural input and have better correspondence between their listening vocabulary and the written vocabulary. But the strategy facilitates only high proficiency students’ automaticity in listening and speaking. The low subgroup, on the other hand, needs teachers’ instructions and feedback more.
Based on the above results, some pedagogical implications for English teachers and suggestions for learning strategy instructions are provided at the end of the study
Page
Acknowledgements ..iii
Table of Contents ..iv
List of Tables viii
List of figures ..xi
Chinese Abstract .xii
English Abstract xiv
CHAPTER
1. INTROUDCTION .1
1.1 Motivation .1
1.2 Significance and Purpose of the Study .5
1.3 Research Questions .6
1.4 Definition of Terms .7
2. LITERATURE REVIEW .9
2.1 Language Learning Strategy .9
2.1.1 The Importance of Language Learning Strategies 11
2.1.2 Language Learning Strategy Instruction
as Cognitive Processes 11
2.1.3 The Procedures of Learning Strategy Instruction 13
2.1.4 The Importance of Teachers’ Awareness
of Strategy Instructions 14


2.2 Repetition 15
2.2.1 Repetition Strategies 17
2.2.1.1 Memorization 17
2.2.1.2 Imitation 18
2.2.1.3 Inferencing Strategies 19
2.3 Repetition, Shadowing, and Tracking 21
2.4 Relationship between Comprehension and Production 22
2.5 Input-to-Intake Phenomenon 23
2.6 Summary 25
2.7 Previous Studies Related to Strategy Use and Repetition Strategy 27
2.8 Hypotheses 30
3. METHODOLOGY 31
3.1 Subjects 31
3.2 Instruments 34
3.2.1 GEPT Elementary Listening Test 34
3.2.2 Materials 35
3.2.3 Questionnaires 36
3.2.4 Face-to-face Interview 37
3.3 “Listen and Repeat” Strategy Instruction 38
3.3.1 “Listen and Repeat” Strategy Instruction
for the Control Group 39
3.3.2 “Listen and Repeat” Strategy Instruction
for the Experimental Group 39
3.4 Procedures 40
3.5 Data Analysis 43
4. RESULTS and DISCUSSION 44
4.1 The Pre-test and Post Results 44
4.1.1 The Effect of Repetition Instruction on Overall Performance 44
4.1.2 The Effect of Repetition Instruction
on “Picture Description” Part 49
4.1.3 The Effect of Repetition Instruction
on “Question or Statement Response” Part 53
4.1.4 The Effect of Repetition Instruction
on “Short Conversation” Part 57
4.2 The Results of the Questionnaire Survey 61
4.2.1 Perception on Listening 62
4.2.2 Perception on the Awareness of Aural Input
and Students’ Output 64
4.2.3 Perception on Sound-to-Script Words 66
4.2.4 Perceptions on Students’ Automaticity
in Listening and Speaking 69
4.3 Interview Reports 72
4.3.1 Responses to Listening in Classroom Practice 72
4.3.1.1 Responses to Listening in “Picture Description” Part 73
4.3.1.2 Responses to Listening
in “Question or Statement” Part 74
4.3.1.3 Responses to Listening in “Short Conversation” Part 74
4.3.1.4 Summary 75
4.3.2 Responses to the Awareness of Aural Input
and Students' Output 76
4.3.3 Responses to "Sound-to-Script" Vocabulary 77
4.3.4 Responses to Students' Automaticity
in Listening and Speaking 78
4.4 Summary 78
5. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS and SUGGESTIONS 83
5.1 Findings and Suggestions 83
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 85
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research 87
REFERENCES 89
APPENDIXES 107
APPENDIX A 107
APPENDIX B 109
















LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table 2-1 Instructional Procedures 14
Table 3-1 Number of the Students and the Genders of the Students 32
Table 3-2 Statistics of Subjects' English Listening Comprehension Test 33
Table 3-3 Independence Samples t-Test of Subjects' English
Listening Test at the GEPT Elementary Level 33
Table 3-4 The Number of the Students
at Different Language Proficiency Levels 34
Table 4-1 Statistics of Overall Performance 45
Table 4-2 Paired Samples t-test for Progress in Overall Performance 45
Table 4-3 Independent Samples t-test for Progress
in Overall Performance 46
Table 4-4 Statistics of Overall Performance
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 47
Table 4-5 Paired Samples t-test for Progress in Overall Performance
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 47
Table 4-6 Independent Samples t-test for Progress
in Overall Performance in terms of proficiency levels 48
Table 4-7 Statistics of "Picture Description" Performance 49
Table 4-8 Paired Samples t-test for Progress
in "Picture Description" Part 50
Table 4-9 Independent Samples t-test for Progress
in “Picture Description” Part 50
Table 4-10 Statistics of "Picture Description" Part
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 51
Table 4-11 Paired Samples t-test for Progress in “Picture Description”
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 52
Table 4-12 Independent Samples t-test for Progress
in “Picture Description” in Terms of Proficiency Levels
Table 4-13 Statistics of "Question or Statement Response"
Performance 52
Table 4-14 Paired Samples t-test for Progress
in "Question or Statement Response" Part 52
Table 4-15 Independent Samples t-test for Progress
in "Question or Statement Response" Part 55
Table 4-16 Statistics of "Question or Statement Response" Part
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 55
Table 4-17 Paired Samples t-test for Progress
in "Question or Statement Response" Part
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 56
Table 4-18 Independent Samples t-test for Progress
in "Question or Statement Response" Part
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 57
Table 4-19 Statistics of "Short Conversation" Performance 58
Table 4-20 Paired Samples t-test for Progress
in "Short Conversation" Part 58
Table 4-21 Independent Samples t-test for Progress
in "Short Conversation" Part 59

Table 4-22 Statistics of "Short Conversation" Part
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 59
Table 4-23 Paired Samples t-test for Progress in "Short Conversation"
Part in Terms of Proficiency Levels 60
Table 4-24 Independent Samples t-test for Progress
in "Short Conversation" Part
in Terms of Proficiency Levels 61
Table 4-25 Responses to Questions 1, 3, 7 & 10 62
Table 4-26 Responses of Different Proficiency Levels
to Questions 1, 3, 7, & 10 63
Table 4-27 Responses to Questions 2, 4 & 11 65
Table 4-28 Responses of Different Proficiency Levels
to Questions 2, 4 & 11 65
Table 4-29 Responses to Questions 5, 6, 7 & 4 67
Table 4-30 Responses of Different Proficiency Levels
to Questions 5, 6, 7 & 14 68
Table 4-31 Responses to Questions 8, 9, 10, 12 & 13 69
Table 4-32 Responses of Different Proficiency Levels
to Questions 5, 6, 7 & 14 70







LIST OF FIGURES

Page
Figure 3.1 Procedures for conducting the study 42
Acton, W. (1984). Changing fossilized pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 18. No.1, March.
Adachi, K. (1997). Shadowing. Japan Forum Vol. 35. No1, January-March
http://exchange.state.gov.forum/vols/vol35/no1/p46.htm
Anderson-Hsieh, J. (1990). Teaching suprasegmentals to international teaching assistants using field-specific materials. English for Specific Purposes, 9, 195-214.
Anderson-Hsieh, J. (1992). The relationship between native speaker judgments of nonnative pronunciation and deviance in segmentals, prosody, and syllable structure. Language Learning, 42(4), 529-555.
Anderson, J. R. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive Psychology and its Implications. (3rd Ed.) New York: W.H. Freeman.
Bachman, L. F. & Palmer, A. S. (2004). Language Testing in Pracitce. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Bai, H. B. (1994). The Teaching and Learning of English Stress and Intonation in Taiwan Junior High School. Unpublished Thesis. Department of English:
National Cheng-Chi University.
Baltra, A. (1986). Computer assisted language learning: What is it all about? Paper presented at a conference at the University of California, Irvine.
Barak, R. (1997). The Case for Explicit, Teacher-led, Cognitive Instruction. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. March 24-28.
Basil, M. D. (1992). Attention to and memory for audio and video information in television scenes. ERIC Document Reproductive Service. ED 347 592.
Bialystok, E. (1981). The role of conscious strategies in second language proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 65, 34-35.
Bialystok, E. (1983). Some factors in the selection and implementation of communication strategies. (p.p.100-118). In Strategies in Interlanguage Communication, (Eds.) C. Ferch and G. Kasper. Longmans.
Breen, M. P. (1985). Authenticity in the Language Classroom. Applied Linguistics, 6(1), 60-70.
Brown, H. D. (1970). English relativization and sentence comprehension in child language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Brown, H. D. (1990). Listening to spoken English.(2nd ed.). New York: Longman.
Brown, H. D. (1994). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Second Edition: White Plains, NY: Longman, Forthcoming.
Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching (4th Ed.).
White Plains, NY: Addison Wesley Longman.
Brown, G. & Yule, G. (1983). Teaching the Spoken Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Buck, G. (2001). Assessing listening: Cambridge University Press.
Call, M. E. (1985). Auditory short-term memory, listening comprehension, and the input hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 765-781.
Carell, P. L. (1987). A view of written text as a communicative interaction: Implications for reading in a second language. In J. Devine, P.L. Carrell, & D. E. Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 13-24.
Chamot, A. U. (1998). Teaching learning strategies to language students. (ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED 433 719).
Chamot, A. U. & O’Malley, J. M. (1987). The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21(2), 227-249.
Chang, F. C. (1996). Junior college students’ knowledge and performance of the pronunciation of American English. Proceedings of the 13th ROCTEFL, 351-359.
Chang, Y. L., Chang, T. S. & Kuo C. H. (1992). Listening difficulties and learner strategies of non-native speakers. Proceedings of theNinth International Symposium on English Teaching. Taipei: Crane.
Chao, Y. G., & Wang, W. Y. (2002). Senior High School Students’ Listening Comprehension Strategy Use. Papers from Proceedings of the Nineteenth Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China. Taipei: Crane
Chaudron, C. (1983). Simplification of Input: Topic Reinstatements and their effects on L2 learners’ recognition and recall. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 17. No.3
Cheng, C. H. (2002). Effects of Listening Strategy Instruction on Junior High School Students. A master thesis submitted to Department of English, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan.
Chiang, Y. R. (2000). A Study of the Effect of Various Approaches to Vocabulary Presentation on the Listening Comprehension of University Students in Taiwan. A master thesis submitted to Department of English, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan.
Chung, Y. L. (2002). The Effect of repetition on listening comprehension: A study of college students learning English in Taiwan. A master thesis submitted to Department of English, National TamKang University, Taiwan.
Clark, E. V. (1993). The lexicon in acquisition. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
Clark, H. H., & Clark, E. V. (1977). Psychology and language. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Clarke, M. A. (1982). On Bandwagons, Tyranny and Common Sense. TESOL Quarterly, 18(4), 437-488.
Cole, M. & Cole, S. R. (1996). The development of children.(3rd ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Corder, S. P. (1967). The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics 5 (4): 161-170.
Crabtree, M. & Powers, J. (1991). Language Files. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
Cross, J. (2002). “Noticing” in SLA: Is it a valid concept? Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Vol .6. No.3
http:www-writing.berkeley.edu/TESL-EJ/ej23/a2.html
Cunningham, F. M. (1999). Improving Adult English Language Learners’ Speaking Skills. Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 435 204.
Dulay, H. C. & Burt, M. K. (1973). Should we teach children syntax? Language Learning 23, pp. 235-252: New York State Department of Education.
Duffy, L., Roehler, M., Meloth, M., Vavrus, L, Book, C., Putnam, J, & Wesselman, R. (1986). The relationship between explicit verbal explanation during reading skill instruction and student awareness and achievement: A study of reading teacher effects. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 237-52.
Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (1997). SLA Research and Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, N. (1995). The psychology of foreign language acquisition: Implications for CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 8, 103-128.
Faerch, C. & Kasper, G. (1980). Processes and strategies in foreign language learning and communication. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin 5 (1), 47-118.
Gagne, R. M. (1977). The conditions of learning. (3rd edition.) New York: CBS college Publishing.
Gathercole, V. C. (1988). Some myths you may have heard about first language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly 22, 407-435.
Gass, S. (1992). Integrating research areas: A framework for second language studies. Applied Linguistics, 9, 198-217.
Gilbert, J. (1995). Pronunciation practice as an aid to listening comprehension. In D. Mendelsohn and J. Rubin(Eds.), A guide for the teaching of second language listening.(pp. 97-112). San Diego, MA.: Dominie Press.
Gillette, B. (1994). The role of learner goals in L2 success. In J. Lantolf & G. Appel, (Eds.).Vygotskian approaches to second language research.(pp.195-214). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Goh, C. C. M. (1998). Strategic processing and metacognition in second language listening. PhD. Thesis, Lancaster University, Lancaster UK.
Goh, C. C. M. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems. System, 28 (1), 55-75.
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/system
Graber, D. A. (1990). Seeing is remembering: How visuals contribute to learning from television news. Journal of Communication, 40(3), 134-155.
Graves, M. F. & Graves, B. B. (1994). Scaffolding reading experiences to promote success for students learning English as a foreign language. The Tenth Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China,1-14.Taipei:Crane.
Green, J. M. (1991). Language learning strategies of Puerto Rican university students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of TESOL-Puerto Roco.
Green, J. M., & Oxford, R. L. (1995). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency, and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 261-297.
Grunewald, M. (1999). The teaching of language techniques: Is it possible in Japan. Teacher Belief, Teacher Action. Jalt 99 Connecting Research and the Classroom: Processings of the 25th JALT International Conference on Language Teaching and Learning. pp. 47-53.
Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. Modern Language Journal, 72, 293-294.
Hsiao, Y. P. (1997). The Effects of Cognitive Styles and Learning Strategies in a Hyermedia Environment: A Review of Literature.
http://www.usq.edu.au
Huang, S. C. (1997). Taiwanese Senior High School Students’ EFL Learning: Focus on Learning Strategies and Learning Beliefs. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Company.
Huang, S. C. (2000). English Learning Strategy Training: Process, Activities, and Effect. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.,Ltd.
Huang, S. J. (1996). Memorization and recitation in EFL teaching. A master thesis submitted to Department of English, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
Huang, S. C. (2001). Designing English Learning Strategy Training Activities. English Teaching and Learning, 26, 2, 45-62
Huang, T. L. (2003). The Effect of Listening Strategy Instruction for Junior High School Students in Taiwan. A master thesis submitted to Department of English, National Normal University, Taiwan.
Hughes, A. (1989). Testing for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambrige University Press.
Ingram, D. (1974). The relationship between comprehension and production. In R. L. Schiefelbusch & L.L. Lloyd (Eds), Language perspective-acquistion, retardation, and intervention (pp.313-334). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
Jau, R. F. (1993). Semantic Mapping and its effect on listening comprehension. The 10th conference on English teaching and learning in the Republic of China.
Jones, H. R. (1997). Beyond “listen and repeat”: pronunciation teaching materials and theories of second language acquisition. System. Vol 25, No, 1, 103-112.
Jones, R. H., Rusmin, R. & Evans, S. (1994). Self-assessment of pronunciation by Chinese tertiary students. In Language Awareness in Language Education: Proceedings of the International Language in Education Conference
Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and Effort. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.
Kaur, K. (1992). Theory and Practice in TESL. The English Teacher Vol XXI October 1992
http://education.curtin.edu.au/iier/iier8/glew.html
Kelly, P. (1991). Lexical ignorance: the main obstacle to listening comprehension with advanced foreign language learners. IRAL, 24(2), 135-149.
Kemper, D. (1996). The intention to both memorize and understand: another approach to learning? Higher Education, 31, 341-354.
Kinoshita, C. Y. (2003). Integrating language learning strategy into ESL/EFL lessons. The Internet TEST Journal, Vox, IX, No.4, April
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kinoshita-Strategy.html
Koren, S. (1995). Foreign language pronunciation testing: a new approach. System, 23, 387-400.
Krashen, S. D. (1980). The input hypothesis. The Georgetown University Round Table on languages and Linguistics, James E. Alatis(Ed.) 168-180. Washington, D.C. Georgetown University Press.
Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Krashen, S. D. (1987). Applications of psychological research to the classroom. In M. H. Long, & J. C. Richards (Eds.) Methodology in TESOL: A book of reading (pp. 33-44). Boston, Mass.: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Lee, H. M. (1997). A study of the listening comprehension strategies of junior college EFL students in Taiwan. Proceedings of the Fourteenth ROC TEFL(pp.193-214).Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co.,Ltd.
Lee, H. M. (2001). The Role of Practice in Successful EFL Listening Achievement for Taiwanese University English Majors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.
Lee, R., McCune, L., & Patton, L.(1970). Physiological responses to different modes of feedback in pronunciation testing. TESOL Quarterly 4,117-122.
Lenneberg, E. H. (1962). Understanding language without ability to speak: A case report. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65 (5), 419-25.
Li, J. I. (2000). What does pronunciation have to do with listening? Papers from Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China Taipei: Crane
Lin, Y. L. (2003). Repetition as a Means of Measuring EFL Listening Comprehension.
Department of English: National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Lo, W. L. (2004). The Effect of Lexical Inferencing in Vocabulary Learning and Reading Comprehension. A master thesis submitted to Department of English, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.
Long, D. R. (1989). Second language listening comprehension: a schema-theoretic perspective. Modern Language Journal, 73(1), 32-40
Long, M. H. (1983a). Does Second Language Instruction Make a Difference? A Review of Research. TESOL Quarterly, 17(3), 359-382.
Long, M. H. (1983b). Native speaker/non-native speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input. Applied Linguistics,4(2),126-141.
Loschky, L. (1994). Comprehensible input and second language acquisition: What is the relationship. Studies in Second Language Acquistion,16,303-323.
Lund, R. J. (1991). A comparison of second language listening and reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal,75(2), 196-204.
Lynch, T. (1998). Theoretical perspective on listening. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics., 18, 3-19.
Maken, M. A. & Ferguson, C. A. (1987). Phonological universals in language acquistion. In Interlanguage Phonology,(Eds.) G. Ioup and S.H. Weinberger,pp.3-22. Newbury House, Cambridge.
McLaughlin, B. & Heredia, R. (1996). Information processing approaches to research on second language acquisition and use. In R. Ritchie and T. Bhatia (Eds.): A Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. pp.213-218. San Diego: Academic Press.
McLaughlin, B., Rossman, T., & McLeod, B. (1983). Second Language Learning as an Information-processing Perspective. Language Learning, 33, 135-157.
Meisel, J. (1997). Linguistic simplification: a study of immigrant workers’ speech and foreign talk. In Corder, S.& Roulet, E(Eds.) The notions of simplification, interlanguage and pidgins, and their relation to second language, pp.88-113. Droz, Geneva.
Mendelsohn, D. (1983). There are strategies for listening. (ERIC Document Reproductive Service No. ED 246648).
Mendelsohn, D. (1995). Applying learning strategies in the second/foreign language listening comprehension. In D. Mendelsohn & J. Rubin(Eds.), A Guide for the Teaching of Second Language Listening. San Diego, CA: Dominie Press.
Meyer, R. (1984). Listen my children, and you will hear---. Foreign Language Annuals, 17, 343-344.
Milheim, W. (1996). Interactivity and computer-based instruction. Journal of Eductional Technology Systems, 24(3), 225-233.
Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information, Psychological review, 63, 81-97.
Moore, M. & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education: A system view. Balmont,CA:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
http://ouln.org/deguide
Morley, J. (2005). Current perspectives on improving aural comprehension. ESL Magazine. www.eslmag.com
Mueller, G. A. (1980). Visual contextual cues and listening comprehension: An experiment. Modern Language Journal, 64, 335-340.
Murphy, T. (1995). Conversational Shadowing. Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Second Language Research in Japan. Niigata: International University of Japan.
Myikos, M., & Oxford, R. (1993). A Factor Analytic Study of Language-learning stategy use: Interpretations from information-processing theory and social psychology. The Modern Language Journal, 77(1), 11-22.
Nunan, D., & Miller, L. (1995). New way in teaching listening. Alexandria, VA:TESOL.
Oller, J. W. (1989). Language Tests at School: A Pragmatic Approach . Longman, London.
Olson, D. R. (1977). From Utterance to Text: The Bias of Language in Speech and Writing. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 257-280
O’Malley, J. M. (1987). The effects of training in the use of learning strategies. In Wenden, A., and Rubin, J (Eds.), Learner Strategies in Language Learning. Great Britain: Prentice Hall.
O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series. New York: Cambridge University Press.
O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach. Reading, MA. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc.
O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1995). Language Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 10, 418-437.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kupper, L., & Russo, R. P. (1985a). Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning, 35(1), 21-46.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Russo. R. P., & Kupper, L. (1985b). Learning strategy applications with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 19(3), pp.557-584.
Oxford, R. L. (1989). Use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training. System, 17(2), 235-247.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Oxford, R. L. (1992). Language learning strategies in a nutshell: Update and ESL suggestions. TESOL Journal Winter, 18-22.
Oxford, R., Crookall, D. (1989). Research on language learning strategies: method, findings, and instructional issues. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 403-419.
Oxford, R., & Crookall, D., Cohen, A., Lavine, R., Nyikos, M., & Sutter, W. (1990). Strategy training for language learners: Six situational case studies and a training model. Foreign Language Annals, 22(3),197-216.
Oxford, R. L., & Nyikos, M. (1993). A factor analytic study of language-learning strategy use: Interpretation from information-processing theory and social psychology. The Modern Language Journal, 77(1), 11-22.
Oxford, R. L. (1993). Research on second language learning strategies. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics,13, 175-187.
Oxford, R., Lavine, R. Z., & Crookall, D.` (1989). Language learning strategies, the communicative approach, and their classroom implications. Foreign Language Annuals 22, 29-39.
Park, G. (1997). Language learning strategies and English proficiency in Korean university students. Foreign Language Annals, 30(2), 211-221.
Pennington, M. C. (1996). Phonology in English Language Teaching: An International Approach. Longman, London.
Pica, T. (1994). Resaerch on negotiation: What does it reveal about second-language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? Language learning, 44, 493-527.
Prator, C. (1991). Corner stones of method and names for the profession. In Celce-Murcia(Ed) Teaching English, Helinle & Helinle, 11-22.
Pressley, M., Levin, J. R.& Ghatala, E. S. (1984). Memory strategy monitoring in adults and children. Journal of Verbal Learning Behavior, 23, 270-288.
Prokop, M. (1989). Learning strategies for second language users: An analytical approach with case studies. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Qian, D. (1996). ESL vocabulary acquisition: Contextualization and decontextualization. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 53(1), 120-142.
Ramirez, J. (1994). Adults learning literacy: The role of private speech in reading comprehension. pp.305-330. In. V. John-Steiner, C. Panovsky & L. W. Smith, (Eds.) Socialcultural approaches to language and literacy: An interactionist perspective.
Reid, J., (1987). The teaching style preferences of ESL students. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 87-111.
Richards, J. C. (1983). Listening comprehension: approach, design, procedure. TESOL Quarterly, Vol.17, No.2, 219-214.
Rivers, W. M. (1968). Teaching foreign-language skills. Chicago: University of Chiago Press.
Rivers, W. M. (1996). Listening comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 50, 196-204.
Rixon, S. (1990). Developing Listening Skills. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
Robinson, P. (1995). Attention, memory and noticing hypothesis. Language Learning 45(2), 283-331.
Robinson, P. (2001). Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Express.
Rost, M. (1990). Listening in language learning. New York: Longman Group UK Limited.
Rounds, P. L. (1992). Reading aloud. TESOL Quarterly, 26(4), 787-790.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the “Good Language Learner” Can Teach Us. TESOL Quarterly Vol. 9, No. 1, 41-51
Rubin, J. (1987). Learner strategies: Theoretical assumptions, research history, and typology. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.) Learning Strategies in Language Learning(pp.15-30). Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall International.
Rubin, J., & Thompson, I. (1982). How to Be a More Successful Language Learner. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Rubin, J. (1994). A Review of second language listening comprehension research. Modern Language Journal, 78(2), 99-126.
Rubin, J. (1995).The contribution of video to the development of competence in listening. In D. Mendelsohn and J, Rubin (Eds.). A guide for the teaching of second language listening.(pp.151-65). San Diego, CA: Dominie Press.
Schmidt, R. (1990). The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning. Applied Linguistics, 11,129-158.
Schmidt, R. (1990). Attention. In Robinson P. (Eds.) Cognition and Second Language Instruction .pp.3-32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Express.
Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness and Foreign Language Learning: A Tutorial on the Role of Attention and Awareness. In R. Schmidt(Eds.) Attention and Awareness in foreign language teaching and learning(Technical Report No.9)(pp.1-64).
Schmeck, R. R. (1988). Individual differences and learning strategies. In C.E. Weinstein, E.T. Goetz, & P. A. Alexander (Eds.) Learning and Strategies: Issues in assessment instruction, and evaluation (pp.171-191).
http://education.gsu.edu/ctl/FLC/Foundations/Overview.pdf
Schwartz, A. M. (1998). Listening in a foreign language. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 433 723)
Selinker, L., (1972). Interlanguage. International review of applied linguistics. 10(3), 209-231.
Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing:II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127-190.
Shook, D. J. (1999). What Foreign Language Reading Recalls Reveal About the input-to-intake phenomenon. Applied Language Learning, Vol. 10, Nos 1& 2,
39-76.
Skehan, P. (1988). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (1997). Task type and task processing conditions as influences on foreign language performance. Language Teaching Research, 1, 185-211.
Skehan, P., & Foster, P. (2001). Cognition and Tasks. In Robinson P.(Ed.), Cognition and Second Instruction (pp.183-205). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, N.V. (1973). The acquisition of phonology: A case study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Snow. B. G. & Perkins. K. (1979). The Teaching of Listening Comprehension and Communciation Activities. TESOL Quarterly Vol .13, No.1 March.
Spolsky, B., Sigurd, B., Sato, M., Walker, E. & Arterburn, C. (1968). Preminary studies in the development of techniques for testing overall second language proficiency. Language Learning, Special Issue 3, 79-101.
Stern, H. H. (1992). Issues and opinions in language teaching. English: Oxford.
Stevick, E. W. (1996). Memory, meaning & method-a view of language teaching. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Stroller, F. (1988). Films and videotapes in the ESL/EFL classroom. ERIC Document Reproductive Service. ED 299 835.
Swain, M. (1995).Three functions of output in second language learning. In G. Cook and G. Seidhofer (Eds.) Principles and practices in applied linguistics: studies in honor of H.G. Widdowson (pp.125-44). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Swain, M., & Lapkins, S. (1995). Problems in output and cognitive processes they generate. A step towards second language learning. Applied linguistics ,16, 371-391.
Taimai, K. (1997). Shadowing as a powerful listening tool: Why does it work? A presentation given in March to the Hiroshima branch of JALT reported on The Language Teacher 21, (5), 72.
Tannen, D. (1989). Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. Cambridge University Press.
Teng, H. C. (1997). An investigation of EFL listening strategies by Taiwanese college students. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on English Teaching. Taipei: Crane.
Teng, H. Y. (2002). Chinese students’ performance in the pronunciation of English tense and lax vowels. MA. Thesis, National Taiwan Normal University.
Thompson, I. (1995). Assessment of second/foreign language comprehension. In D.J. Mendelson & J. Rubins (Eds.). A Guild for the teaching of second language listening(pp.31-58). San Diego, CA: Dominie Press.
Thompson, I. & Rubin, J. (1996). Can strategy instruction improve listening comprehension? Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), 331-342.
Tomlin, R. & Villa,V. (1994). Attention in Cognitive Science and Second Language Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 183-203.
Tseng, J. L. (2003). Oral Reading and Silent Reading—The Effects on Taiwanese EFL Senior High School Students’ Comprehension. A master thesis submitted to Department of English, National Normal University, Taiwan.
Underwood, M. (1989). Teaching listening. London: Longman.
Vigil, N. A. & Oller, J. W. (1976). Rule fossilization: a tentative model. Language Learning 26, (2), 281-295.
Vygotsky, L. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wang, W. Y. (2002). Effects of gender and proficiency on listening comprehension strategy used by Taiwanese EFL senior high school students—a case study. MA. Thesis, National Changhua Normal University, Taiwan.
Weinstein, C. E., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M.C. Wittrock(Eds.), Handbook of Research on Teaching(3rd.,pp.315-327). New York: Macmillan.
Wenden, A. (1987a). Incorporating learner training in the classroom. In A.Wenden and J. Rubin.(Eds).Learner strategies in language learning(pp.159-68). N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Wenden, A. (1987b). Conceptual background and utility. In A. Wenden. & J. Rubin(Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning(pp.3-14). London Prentice-Hall.
Wickens, C. (1984). Processing resources in attention. In R. Parasuraman and D. R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of attention(pp.63-102). New York: Academic Press.
Wright, A. (1989). Pictures for language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yang, N. D. (1993). Beliefs about language learning and learning strategy use: A study of College Students of English in Taiwan. Proceedings of the Tenth ROC TEFL (pp.193-214). Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Yang, N. D. (1995). Effective awareness-raising in language learning strategy training. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Long Beach, CA.(ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED 392 278)
Yang, N.D. (1996). Teaching students how to learn: A language learning project. Proceedings of the Thirteenth ROC TEFL (pp.195-204).Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Yen, I. C. (1988). Listening Difficulties Encountered by College Students in Taiwan. English Teaching and Learning, 12(4), 62-72.
Yordon, J. E. (1993). Roles in interpretation. USA, Wm. C. Brown Communications, Inc.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文
 
1. 李素貞、郭憲文、戴玉慈,(民86),中部三縣市長期照護機構與照護人力特性之調查,公共衛生,24(3),179-189。
2. 楊素蘋、張瑩如(民81),護理長工作壓力及其因應之探討,長庚護理,3(2),60-68。
3. 舒曼姝、王琪珍(民82),護理人員照顧癌症患者臨床工作壓力之探討,護理研究,1(4),351-358。
4. 楊麗珠、趙淑員(民89),臺灣各級醫療機構病患服務員人口特徵與工作背景探討,護理雜誌,47(4),22-29。
5. 李明書(民84),工作壓力及其管理策略之探討,勞工行政,74,22-28。
6. 黃義良(民88),國小兼任行政工作教師的工作壓力與調適方式之研究,未發表的碩士論文,屏東:國立屏東師範學院國民教育研究所。
7. 吳盈江(民82),臨床護士的工作壓力頻率與感受量表之編修,護理研究,1(2),113-125。
8. 毛家舲、李引玉(民81)精神科護士的壓力感受與因應行為,護理雜誌,39(1),107-118。
9. 陸洛(民86),工作壓力之歷程:理論與研究的對話,中華心理衛生學刊,10(4),19-51頁。
10. 胡瑞桃(民89),加護單位護理人員對其工作壓力來源之反應與調適,長庚護理,11(2),20-30。
11. 林財丁(民84),工作壓力的生理、認知歷程和心裡分析,企銀季刊,18,119-126。
12. 李選(民78),臨床護理人員壓力感、疲潰與自我主見度之探討,護理雜誌,36(1),85-98。
13. 葉兆祺(民89),國民小學實習教師工作壓力與因應方式之研究,彰化師大教育學報,1,61-92。
14. 劉玉華(民90),EQ管理與壓力,社教資料雜誌,277,1-2。
15. 蔡欣玲、陳梅麗、王瑋(民85),醫學中心護理人員工作壓力之相關因素探討,榮總護理,13(3),263-268。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔