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研究生:張宗盛
研究生(外文):Chang, Tsung-sheng
論文名稱:論國內規章對技師服務貿易自由化之影響-以資格驗證及認許為中心
指導教授:楊光華楊光華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang, Connie Guang-hwa
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:國際貿易研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:貿易學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:技師服務服務貿易總協定國內規章市場開放認許GATS第6.6條
外文關鍵詞:Engineering ServicesGeneral Agreement on Trade in ServicesDomestic RegulationMarket AccessRecognitionGATS Article VI:6
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技師服務具有高度專業性與技術性,且與一國基礎建設具重大關係,攸關人民生命財產安全,往往受到各國政府之管制。各國為確保技師服務提供之品質,通常對於技師服務進行證照管制,令技師服務之提供限於取得該國技師資格與執業執照者始得為之。有關技師資格與核發執業執照之規定通常散落於各國國內規章中,該等國內規章之適用勢必將對技師服務貿易產生影響。
在世界貿易組織(World Trade Organization,以下簡稱WTO)之服務貿易總協定下(General Agreement on Trade in Services),WTO會員基於自願性之基礎對各項服務部門之市場開放提出承諾,技師服務屬於專業服務之範疇,亦包含於會員可能提出開放承諾之範圍內。由於各會員國內規章之規定並不須納入會員服務貿易特定承諾表內,因此若欲了解技師服務貿易自由化之情形,除須檢視各國對於技師服務所為之開放承諾外,亦應瞭解國內規章對於技師服務貿易所造成之限制。
本文以技師資格相關之國內規章為出發點,探討國內規章對於技師服務貿易自由化所產生之影響,並針對目前國際間有關技師資格之相互認許進行討論,最後對於未來技師服務貿易自由化提出建議。
Engineering services, with high professional specialty and technical background, plays an essential role in national infrastructure and is fatal to public security. To ensure the quality of the services provided, national governments usually implement the license regulation on engineering services. Only those who obtain the engineer qualification and acquire the license can practice their own specialty. The requirement for engineer qualification and license issuing, containing in the domestic regulations, will definitely have the impact on trades of engineering services.
Under the General Agreement on Trade in Services of the World Trade Organization (hereinafter the “WTO”), WTO members make market-access commitments on a number of service sectors on the basis of voluntary. Since engineering services belongs to the category of professional services, it may also be the subject included in the commitments made by members. Since members have no obligations to inscribe domestic regulations in their schedules of specific commitments, with the purpose to understand the practical trade liberalization of engineering services, we should not simply focus on the commitments made by members, the limitation to trade of engineering services caused by domestic regulations should also be taken into consideration.
This thesis initiates with the relevant domestic regulations of engineer qualification, observing how those regulations would affect the trade liberalization of engineering services. It accordingly discusses the nowadays international mutual recognition system of engineer qualification, and ends with some suggestions and thoughts regarding the future trade liberalization of engineering services.
第一章�緒論 2
第一節�研究背景 2
第二節�研究架構 3
第二章�技師服務之概說與GATS之相關規定 4
第一節�概說 4
第二節�與技師服務相關之GATS規定 6
第一項�服務提供之模式 6
第二項�特定承諾 7
第三項�國內規章 11
第三章�WTO會員對技師服務承諾開放之情形 13
第一節�特定承諾表所呈現之情形 13
第一項�市場開放之承諾情形 14
第二項�國民待遇之承諾情形 20
第三項�小結 23
第二節�國內規章對於開放之限制 24
第一項�美國 24
第二項�澳洲 26
第三項�加拿大 27
第三節�小結 31
第四章�技師服務貿易自由化之展望 33
第一節�國際間推動技師服務相互認許之情形 33
第一項�認許機制之簡介 33
第二項�國際間技師服務相互認許之案例 37
第二節�GATS第6.6條之實踐:以澳洲海外專業技師資格評估制度為例 44
第一項�GATS第6.6條 44
第二項�澳洲海外專業技師資格評估制度 45
第三節�未來推動技師服務貿易自由化之建議 48
第五章�結論 50
參考文獻 52
中文部分
1.張新平,「世界貿易組織下之服務貿易」,月旦,1996年。
2.羅昌發,「國際貿易法」,元照,2002年2月。
3.謝季壽、陳振川、曾惠斌,各國專業技師資格相互認許制度之研究,行政院公共工程委員會委託研究, 2002年。
4.鄭明淵、王慶煌、魏衍、林正平、張倩瑜,歐美日韓各國營建產業制度與政策研究,行政院公共工程委員會委託研究, 2002年11月。
5.張新平,WTO專業服務自由化之新趨勢,月旦法學雜誌,第98期,頁147-148,2003年7月。
6.李得璋,我國技師考試制度與國際接軌之研究,建築師、技師之教育、考試、訓練、職業管理制度與國際接軌研討會,考選部,2005年4月。
7.巫垂晃,各國專業工程師資格考試制度及實務經驗現況,建築師、技師之教育、考試、訓練、職業管理制度與國際接軌研討會,考選部,2005年4月。

英文部分
1.Xiao Guang, China, UK mutually recognize engineering qualifications, China Daily (September 9, 1997)
2.Engineers Mobility Forum, Memorandum of Understanding to Establish an EMF International Register of Professional Engineers (June 16, 2000)
3.European Federation of National Engineering Associations, Guide to The FEANI Register (October, 2000)
4.Service Providers on the Move: Mutual Recognition Agreements, OECD Doc. TD/TC/WP(2002)48/FINAL (February 6, 2003)
5.Aaditya Mattoo & Pierre Sauvé, Editors, Domestic Regulation and Service Trade Liberalization, The World Bank and Oxford University Press (2003)
6.The Institution of Engineers Australia, Overseas Qualifications Assessment Kit (September, 2004)

WTO文件
1.Trade in Professional Services, Note by the Secretariat, GATT Doc. MTN.GNS/W/67 (August 25, 1989)
2.Services Sectoral Classification List: Note by the Secretariat, GATT Doc. MTN.GNS/W/120 (July 10, 1991)
3.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Antigua and Barbuda, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/2 (April 15, 1994)
4.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Austria, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/7 (April 15, 1994)
5.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Canada, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/16 (April 15, 1994)
6.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Cote D’ivoire, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/23 (April 15, 1994)
7.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Czech Republic, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/26 (April 15, 1994)
8.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Dominican Republic, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/28 (April 15, 1994)
9.Schedule of Specific Commitments of European Communities and their Member States, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/31 (April 15, 1994)
10.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Hungary, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/40 (April 15, 1994)
11.Schedule of Specific Commitments of India, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/42 (April 15, 1994)
12.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Indonesia, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/43 (April 15, 1994)
13.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Japan, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/46 (April 15, 1994)
14.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Malaysia, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/52 (April 15, 1994)
15.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Mexico, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/56 (April 15, 1994)
16.Schedule of Specific Commitments of New Zealand, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/62 (April 15, 1994)
17.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Pakistan, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/67 (April 15, 1994)
18.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Peru, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/69 (April 15, 1994)
19.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Singapore, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/76 (April 15, 1994)
20.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Slovak Republic, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/77 (April 15, 1994)
21.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Switzerland, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/83 (April 15, 1994)
22.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Liechtenstein, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/83-A (April 15, 1994)
23.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Thailand, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/85 (April 15, 1994)
24.Schedule of Specific Commitments of the United States of America, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/90 (April 15, 1994)
25.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Slovenia, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/99 (August 30,1995)
26.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Sierra Leone, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/105 (August 30, 1995)
27.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Botswana, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/109 (August 30,1995)
28.Schedule of Specific Commitments of United Arab Emirates, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/121 (April 2, 1996)
29.Communication from the United States of America, Notification Pursuant to Article VII.4 of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, WTO Doc. S/C/N/52 (February 10, 1997)
30.Schedule of Specific Commitments of the Republic of Bulgaria, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/122 (May 21, 1997)
31.Guidelines for Mutual Recognition Agreements in the Accountancy Sector, adopted by the Council for Trade in Services, WTO Doc. S/L/38 (May 28, 1997)
32.Schedule of Specific Commitments of Republic of Panama, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/124 (October 1, 1997)
33.Architecture and Engineering Services, Background Note by the Secretariat, WTO Doc. S/C/W/44 (July 1, 1998)
34.Schedule of Specific Commitments of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/128 (December 15, 2000)
35.Guidelines for the Scheduling of Specific Commitments Under the General Agreement on Trade in Services, adopted by the Council for Trade in Services, WTO Doc. S/L/92 (March 28, 2001)
36.Schedule of Specific Commitments of The People’s Republic of China, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/135 (February 14, 2002)
37.Schedule of Specific Commitments of the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/136 (February 15, 2002)
38.Communication from Japan, Draft Annex on Domestic Regulation, Informal Paper, JOB(03)/45/Rev.1 (May 2, 2003)
39.Communication from the European Community and its Member States, Proposal for Disciplines on Licensing Procedures, WTO Doc. S/WPDR/W/25 (July 10, 2003)
40.Schedule of Specific Commitments of the Kingdom of Nepal, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/139 (August 30, 2004)

網站資料
1.http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=9&Lg=1
2.http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_/whatis_e/tif_e/org6_e.htm
3.http://www.ncees.org/licensure/licensure_for_engineers/
4.http://www.ccpe.ca/e/files/eieap_classchinese.pdf
5.http://ppi2pass.com/ppi/PPIInfo_pg_myppi-faqs-foreign.html
6.http://www.ccpe.ca/e/imm_incanada_1.cfm
7.http://www.ieet.org.tw/download/secretary/WA新聞稿.pdf
8.http://www.washingtonaccord.org/
9.http://www.ccpe.ca/e/mob_international_2.cfm
10.http://www.australia.or.jp/english/seifu/pressreleases/?pid=TK35/2003
11.http://www.pcc.gov.tw/~jsp/web/axtpccpgaxxx_pda_news_01show.jsp?id=209
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