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研究生:王傑兒
研究生(外文):Wang Chieh-Erh
論文名稱:依地震紀錄之線上時變結構系統識別
論文名稱(外文):On-line Time-varying Structural Identification Based on Earthquake Records
指導教授:林其璋林其璋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Chi-Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:151
中文關鍵詞:系統識別時變結構損害評估地震紀錄
外文關鍵詞:System IdentificationTime-varying StructureDamage AssessmentEarthquake Records
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當結構物受強震作用後,構件、接頭降伏或支點變位皆會降低整體結構系統之勁度,甚至造成不穩定而影響結構安全,上述之結構勁度降低程度及位置皆非人力憑目視直覺所能全面察覺,所以結構損害若單由結構表面狀態來判定並不可靠,必須發展精確、可靠且實用的損害評估方法來作為結構修補的參考。在強震作用下結構物若發生損壞,可藉系統識別方法診斷出結構動態特性的改變並進行損害評估,以判定結構是否損壞、損壞程度及損壞位置。
在本文中,首先驗證隨機遞減法的理論基礎,並配合亞伯拉罕時域參數識別技巧來進行只量測輸出之系統識別。接著,探討SRIM系統識別技巧識別線性非時變系統,並且進一步延伸SRIM識別法配合視窗移動(稱WSRIM)進行線性時變系統參數識別。由土壤-結構互制理論瞭解,結構動態反應中不只包含上部結構之特性,亦含有土壤特性,故欲由結構動態反應來推求上部結構動態參數,結構系統模式應計入土壤結構互制效應的影響。由於強震監測系統中樓版反應通常為不足量測,故使用振態內差技巧用來推算未量測樓層位置的振態值,並配合勁度估算法來推算出各樓層勁度改變量,以便評估損害的程度及位置。
文中除以數值模擬驗證本文方法之準確性外,並應用中央氣象局結構物強震監測系統實測地震記錄,考慮土壤結構互制效應,探討建築結構受地震作用下動態參數隨時間之變化,以評估結構受震過程中之損壞程度。國立中興大學土木環工大樓為中部地區唯一裝設強震監測系統之建築物,在921地震中遭受中度損壞,本文依本大樓921主震與後續餘震地震加速度記錄識別模態參數與底層層間勁度之歷時變化,並與損害調查結果比較,驗證所發展的系統參數識別方法及勁度評估法之準確性及可靠度。
When a structure is subjected to strong earthquake excitation, the yielding of structural elements and connections and the movement of supports will reduce the stiffness and instability of the structural system, and further, probably cause the permanent structural damages. Such structural damages usually cannot be identified fully and quantitatively through visual inspections. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an accurate, reliable and practical damage assessment technique for the retrofit of structure. The occurrence, degree, and location of structural damage due to strong ground motions are the most important information for structural damage assessment. Based on the change of the structural dynamic properties through system identification, the structural damage can be identified.
In this dissertation, first of all, the theory of structural parameter identifications using combined random decrement method and Ibrahim time domain system identification technique based on structural output responses is verified. Then, the System Realization using Information Matrix (SRIM) method for identifying a linear time-invariant system is discussed. To apply this method on a time-variant system, the SRIM method combined with a moving time-window, called WSRIM, is extended. According to the soil-structure interaction (SSI) theory, it is known that the seismic response of structure is relative to not only the superstructure but also the soil where the superstructure built on. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the SSI effect to determine the inputs and outputs of the target system so that the desired system parameters can be accurately identified. Practically, because only partial floor response measurements are used, a mode shape interpolation technique is used to calculate the unknown mode shape values. Followed is a stiffness estimation method used to estimate the change of story stiffness of torsionally-coupled buildings in order to evaluate the degree and location of damage.
Both numerical and real earthquake response measurements from several floors and foundations are utilized to verify the accuracy of the proposed on-line system identification technique. The seven-story Civil and Environmental Engineering Building in National Chung-Hsing University campus is the only instrumented building by the Central Weather Bureau in Central Taiwan. It experienced moderate structural damage during the 921 Chi-Chi earthquake. This dissertation shows the real-time modal parameters of this school building based on its acceleration response records during the 921 Chi-Chi earthquake main shock and its after-shocks. Compared with the on-site investigations, it is proved that the proposed system identification technique is useful for real-time dynamic property and damage assessment of buildings.
謝 誌 I
摘 要 II
ABSTRACT III
LIST OF CONTENT V
LIST OF FIGURE VII
LIST OF FIGURE VIII
CHAPTER 1 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 General Remark 1
1.2 Literature Review 4
1.3 Outlines 9
CHAPTER 2 12
SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE 12
2.1 Output-only Parameter Identification 12
2.1.1 Random Decrement Method 12
2.1.2 Ibrahim Time Domain Technique 24
2.2 Linear Time-invariant and Time-variant Structural Identification 27
2.2.1 System Identification Using the Information Matrix (SRIM) 27
2.2.2 Structural Modal Parameters Identification 33
2.2.3 WSRIM Technique 35
CHAPTER 3 37
DYNAMICS OF IRREGULAR BUILDING SYSTEM 37
3.1 Torsionally Coupled Muilti-Story Superstructure 37
3.2 Irregular Building-Soil Interaction System 46
CHAPTER 4 55
STRUCTURAL DAMAGE ASSESSMENT 55
4.1 Mode shape Interpolation 55
4.2 Estimation of Structural Stiffness 57
4.3 Numerical Verification 61
CHAPTER 5 67
STRUCTURAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION 67
5.1 Off-line System Identification 67
5.2 Soil-structure Interaction Effect 68
5.3 On-line System Identification 70
5.3.1 SISO Case Study 70
5.3.2 MIMO Case Study 71
CHAPTER 6 82
DIAGNOSIS OF REAL RC BUILDING 82
6.1 The Building and The Strong Monitoring System 82
6.1.1 Building Structural System Characteristics 82
6.1.2 The Strong Motion Monitoring System 83
6.2 Real Earthquake Records Analysis 83
6.2.1 921 Chi-Chi Earthquake at NCHU 83
6.2.2 Coordinate Transformation 84
6.3 Structural Parameter Identification 85
6.3.1 Off-line System Identification 85
6.3.2 On-line System Identification 86
6.4 Structural Damage Assessment 88
6.4.1 Structural Story Stiffness Evaluation 88
6.4.2 Practical Damage Investigation 88
CHAPTER 7 120
CONCLUSION 120
REFERENCES 123
APPENDIX 132
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