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研究生:江昌嶽
研究生(外文):Chang-Yue Chiang
論文名稱:利用中空纖維液相微萃取結合氣相層析電子捕獲偵測器檢測工業廢水中硝基苯類之研究
論文名稱(外文):Determination of nitrobenzene compounds in industrially waste water using hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatogrophy electron capture detection
指導教授:何武雄何武雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu-Hsiung Ho
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:化學系
學門:自然科學學門
學類:化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:中空纖維液相微萃取硝基苯類
外文關鍵詞:hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME)nitrobenzene compounds
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  • 被引用被引用:0
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摘要
對於分析工業廢水中有機污染物質來說,液相微萃取為一操作簡單且具有效率之樣品前處理方法。本研究利用液相微萃取結合氣相層電子捕獲偵測器來建立水溶液中六種硝基苯類之萃取及分析方法。研究中分別探討萃取溶劑之影響、樣品攪拌速率、萃取時間、鹽類之添加、萃取溫度及樣品之pH值等因素對萃取之影響,找出實驗之最佳化條件:同時藉由實驗之線性關係、偵測極限及再現性等對此方法作進一步之確認。最後,將此技術應用於分析工業廢水中微量硝基苯類之殘留。
於分析水中六種硝基苯類之實驗結果顯示利用充滿3μl之甲苯的中空纖維薄膜進行萃取,不添加任何鹽類,萃取同時並以磁石攪拌,轉速為870 rpm,萃取時間為20分鐘,萃取溫度35℃,控制溶夜pH值等於7,當萃取完畢時即以微量注射針吸取中空纖維薄膜內之萃取液,並隨即注入1μl之萃取液至氣相層析儀進行分析,此方法所得濃縮倍率為149-300,且使用標準水溶液所測得硝基苯類線性範圍0.05-4μg/l,線性相關係數大於0.9992,偵測極限介於0.003-0.019 μg/l,相對標準偏差介於2.27-5.49%。而利用此方法萃取工業廢水則產生好的精密度(RSDs)(小於6.01%,n=5) 和偵測極限(LODs)介於0.007-0.037μg/l,S/N=5 ,且工業廢水中六種硝基苯類回收率添加2μg/l介於80.9-100%。
在這實驗的結果中證明中空纖維液相微萃取是快速、準確和穩定樣品前處理方法,這方法也提供良好的濃縮倍率來進行萃取於工業廢水中的硝基苯類的分析。
Abstract
A simple and efficient liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique using a hollow-fibre membrane, in conjunction with gas chromatographic-electron capture detection compounds in industrial wastewater sample has been developed for the extraction and analysis of six nitrobenzene compounds(1-Chloro-4-nitrobenzene, 4-Chloro-2-nitrotoluene, 2,5-Dichloronitrobenzene, 1,2-Dinitrobenzene, 1,2,3-Trihloro-4-nitrobenzene, 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene). Parameters such as extraction solvent, agitation of the sample, salt addition, extraction time, extraction temperature and pH were controlled optimized.The confirmation of the developed method could be made by using linearity correlation coefficients, limits of detection, and reproducibility in research period. Finally, this technique could be used in analyzing residual trace of nitrobenzene compounds in industrial waste water. Overall, extraction of six nitrobenzene compounds was spiked into 3 ml of water sample. The method used 3μl of toluene as extraction solvent, 20 min extraction time with pH 7, stirring at 870rpm, temperature 35℃ and no salt addition. The enrichment factors of this method were from 149 to 300. The procedure resulted in a linear calibration range from 0.05-4μg/l(correlation coefficients,r2>0.9992). Limits of detection were in the range of 0.003-0.019 μg/l. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) at 0.1 and 1μg/l of spiking levels were in the range 2.27-5.49%. The utilization of this procedure in the extraction of a industrial wastewater also gave good precision (RSDs<6.01%,n=5) and LODs(0.007-0.037μg/l,S/N=5 ).Recoveries of six nitrobenzene compounds from industrial wastewater at a spiking level of 2μg/l were between 80.9 and 100%. The results demonstrated that hollow fibre protected LPME was a fast, accurate, and stable sample pretreatment method that gave very good enrichment factors for the extraction of nitrobenzene compounds from aqueous or industrial wastewater.
目錄
目錄 III
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1研究動機 1
1-2硝基苯類簡介 1
1-3硝基苯類毒理性質 9
1-4分析樣品前處理技術 12
1-4-1液相-液相萃取(liquid-liquid extraction,LLE) 12
1-4-2固相萃取(solid-phase extraction,SPE) 15
1-4-3固相微萃取(solid-phase microextraction,SPME) 16
1-4-4 液相微萃取(liquid-phase microextraction,LPME) 19
1-4-5樣品前處理技術總結 32
1-5氣相層析儀-電子捕獲偵測器(GC-ECD) 33
1-5-1注入器(injector) 33
1-5-2層析管(column) 33
1-5-3偵測器(detector) 34
1-6研究目的 36
第二章 實驗材料與研究方法 37
2-1研究流程步驟 37
2-2實驗藥品、器材與藥品 38
2-3藥品配製 41
2-4器材之清洗與維持 45
2-4-1玻璃器皿之清洗及矽烷化 45
2-4-2磁石之清洗 47
2-4-3氣相層析儀之維持 47
2-5工業廢水之採集與前處理 47
2-5-1工業廢水之採集 47
2-5-2工業廢水之前處理 48
2-6液相微萃取裝置之建立及操作 48
2-6-1萃取纖維的選擇 48
2-6-2聚丙烯中空纖維之之清洗 48
2-6-3液相微萃取之萃取過程 49
2-7氣相層析分析條件之探討 50
2-7-1層析管柱的選擇 50
2-7-2 ECD感度之調整 51
2-7-3毛細管柱插入注入口與偵測器之深度 51
2-7-4分析方式與關閉分流時間之選擇 52
2-7-5載流、輔助氣體大小之選擇 52
2-7-6氣相層析儀分析條件之設定 52
2-7-6-1氣相層析儀-電子捕獲偵測器 52
2-7-6-2氣相層析質譜儀 53
2-8液相微萃取實驗參數及最佳化條件之探討 54
2-8-1萃取溶劑之選擇 54
2-8-2攪拌速率對萃取之影響 54
2-8-3萃取時間之探討 55
2-8-4添加鹽類對萃取之影響 55
2-8-5溫度對萃取之影響 56
2-8-6 pH值對萃取之影響 56
2-9分析方法之確認 56
2-9-1硝基苯類標準混合丙酮溶液之校正曲線及精密度 56
2-9-2硝基苯類標準品水溶液的校正曲線之線性關係及偵測極限 57
2-9-3液相微萃取分析硝基苯類標準品水溶液之K值與Enrichment factors 57
2-9-4液相微萃取分析硝基苯類標準品水溶液的精密度 57
2-9-5液相微萃取分析硝基苯類真實樣品水溶液的校正曲線之線性關係、偵測極限及精密度 58
2-9-6硝基苯類真實樣品水溶液之回收率 59
2-9-7硝基苯類真實樣品水溶液之測定 59
第三章 結果與討論 60
3-1氣相層析條件最佳方法之確認 60
3-2液相微萃取前處理方法之参數探討 60
3-2-1萃取溶劑之選擇 60
3-2-2攪拌速率對萃取之影響 64
3-2-3萃取時間之探討 66
3-2-4添加鹽類對萃之影響 68
3-2-5溫度對萃取之影響選擇 70
3-2-6 pH值對萃取之影響選擇 72
3-3分析條件與方法之確認 74
3-3-1以直接進樣分析硝基苯類標準品混合丙酮溶液之校正曲線及精密度 74
3-3-2硝苯類標準品水溶液的校正曲線之線性關係及偵測極限 80
3-3-3液相微萃取分析硝基苯類標準品水溶液之K值及Erichment factors 84
3-3-4液相微萃取分析硝基苯類標準品水溶液的精密度 87
3-3-5液相微萃取分析硝基苯類真實樣品水溶液的校正曲線之線性關係、偵測極限及精密度 88
3-3-6硝基苯類真實樣品水溶液之回收率 94
3-3-7硝基苯類真實樣品水溶液之測定 95
第四章 結論 97
第伍章 參考文獻 98
第六章 附錄 105

表目錄
表1-1. 歐洲共同組織公告優先列管之有機污染物 4
表1-2. 六種分析物的化學結構 5
表1-3. 六種分析物的理化性質 6
表1-4. 六種硝基苯類在工業上主要用途 7
表1-5. 以LD50及TLm來表示健康危害等級 10
表1-6. 為一般工業界常採用之LD50與LC50 10
表1-7. 為本實驗六種分析物的毒理性質 11
表1 8. LPME的應用 31
表1-9. 前處理技術,優缺點之比較 32
表2-2. 玻璃器皿矽烷化 46
表3-1. 五種萃取溶劑之理化性質 63
表3-2. 以直接進樣分析硝基苯類丙酮溶液之線性關係(r2)與相對標準偏差 77
表3-3. 純水中硝基苯之線性範圍、線性方程式、線性相關係數及偵測極限 83
表3-4. 各硝基苯類之液相微萃取分配係數(K)與濃縮倍率(Enrichment factors) 86
表3-5. 液相微萃取分析硝基苯類標準品水溶液之精密度 87
表3-6. 真實樣品中硝基苯類化合物之線性範圍、線性方程式、線性相關係數及偵測極限 93
表3-7. 液相微萃取分析硝基苯類真實樣品水溶液之精密度 93
表3-8. 添加標準品濃度為2ppb的回收率 94

圖目錄
圖1-1. 硝基苯結構 2
圖1-2. 氯硝基苯結構 2
圖1-3. 1-氯-4-硝基苯及衍生物在農藥上的應用 8
圖1-4 . SPME採樣模式:(a)直接萃取;(b)頂空萃取;(c)薄膜保護萃取 18
圖1-5. 單滴微萃取之裝置及萃取程序 20
圖1-6. 新加坡H.K.Lee教授利用這種單滴溶劑萃取方式發展成靜態(static)及動態(dynamic)萃取二種模式 21
圖1-7. 新加坡H.K.Lee教授所發明之單滴溶劑萃取的裝置 22
圖1 8. Stig.Pedersen-Bjergaard設計之LLLME裝置圖 23
圖1 9. H.K. Lee設計之液相微萃取(LPME)裝置 24
圖1-10. 二相(two-phase)液相微萃取之原理 24
圖1-11. 三相(three-phase)液相微萃取之原理 27
圖1-12. 氣相層析儀之基本構造 33
圖 1-13. 電子捕獲式偵測器 ..……………………………………35
圖 2-1. HF-LPME-GC/ECD應用於廢水中硝基苯類分析之研究流程圖 .…………………………………..………..37
圖2-2. 本實驗中空纖維液相微萃取(HF-LPME)裝置 50
圖2-3. DB-5 MS之靜相結構 51
圖3-1. 以GC/ECD最佳條件分析所得之層析圖 61
圖3-2. 萃取溶劑之選擇 63
圖3 3. 分析物在有機相、水相間之平衡 65
圖3-4. 攪拌速率對萃取之影響 66
圖3-5. 萃取時間對萃取之影響 68
圖3-6. 添加鹽類對萃取之影響 70
圖3-7. 溫度對萃取之影響 71
圖3-8. pH對萃取之影響 73
圖3-9. 分析濃度1 ppm之混合硝基苯類標準品丙酮溶液之GC-ECD層析圖 75
圖3-10. 分析濃度0.01ppm之混合硝基苯類標準品丙酮溶液之GC-ECD層 76
圖3-11. 直接注入分析丙酮溶液中1-C-4-NB之校正曲線 77
圖3-12. 直接注入分析丙酮溶液中4-C-2-NT之校正曲線 78
圖3-13. 直接注入分析丙酮溶液中2,5-DCNB之校正曲線 78
圖3-14. 直接注入分析丙酮溶液中1,2-DNB之校正曲線 79
圖3-15. 直接注入分析丙酮溶液中1,2,3-TC-4-NB之校正曲線 79
圖3-16. 直接注入分析丙酮溶液中1-C-2,4-DNB之校正曲線 80
圖3-17. 液相微萃取分析濃度1 ppb之混合硝基苯類標準品水溶液之GC-ECD層析圖 81
圖3-18. 液相微萃取分析濃度0.01 ppb之混合硝基苯類標準品水溶液之GC-ECD層析圖 82
圖3-19. 液相微萃取法分析純水中1-C-4-NB之校正曲線 83
圖3-20. 液相微萃取法分析純水中4-C-2-NT之校正曲線 84
圖3-21. 液相微萃取法分析純水中2,5-DCNB之校正曲線 84
圖3-22. 液相微萃取法分析純水中1,2-DNB之校正曲線 85
圖3-23. 液相微萃取法分析純水中1,2,3-TC-4-NB之校正曲線 85
圖3-24. 液相微萃取法分析純水中1-C-2,4-DNB之校正曲線 86
圖3-25. 為添加標準品濃度為2 ppb之硝基苯類真實樣品水溶液之GC-ECD 89
圖3-26. 液相微萃取法分析真實樣品水溶液中1-C-4-NB之校正曲線 90
圖3-27. 液相微萃取法分析真實樣品水溶液中4-C-2-NT之校正曲線 90
圖3-28. 液相微萃取法分析真實樣品水溶液中2,5-DCNB之校正曲線 91
圖3-29. 液相微萃取法分析真實樣品水溶液中1,2-DNB之校正曲線 91
圖3-30. 液相微萃取法分析真實樣品水溶液中1,2,3-TC-4-NB之校正曲線 92
圖3-31. 液相微萃取法分析真實樣品水溶液中1-C-2,4-DNB之校正曲線 92
圖3-32. 為液相微萃取法分析真實樣品之GC-ECD層析圖 96
附錄圖1-1. 質譜圖 105
附錄圖1-2. 1-C-4-NB之質譜圖 106
附錄圖1-3. 4-C-2-NT之質譜圖 106
附錄圖1-4. 2,5-DCNB之質譜圖 107
附錄圖1-5. 1,2-DNB之質譜圖 107
附錄圖1-6. 1,2,3-TC-4-NB之質譜圖 108
附錄圖1-7. 1-C-2,4-DNB之質譜圖 108
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