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研究生:何國謙
研究生(外文):Kuo-Chien He
論文名稱:植物覆蓋和土壤性質與蚯蚓活動關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of the Relationship Among Vegetation, Soil Properties and Earthworm Activities
指導教授:林俐玲林俐玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Ling Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:水土保持學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:水土保持學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:蚯蚓植物土壤性質滲透土壤沖蝕
外文關鍵詞:EarthwormVegetationSoil propertiesInfiltrationSoil erosion
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本研究選取台灣中部地區之崩塌地、崩塌堆積地、植生復育地及農地果園等16處作為調查地點,探討植物覆蓋與土壤性質對於蚯蚓族群之影響。並以台灣常見的土後腔環蚓(Metaphire posthuma)與堆肥常用的養殖品種赤子愛勝蚓(Eisenia foetida)作為實驗材料,以探討這兩種蚯蚓是否具有幫助植物生長、改善土壤性質與減少土壤流失的功能。
研究結果顯示,蚯蚓族群的大小常決定於是否有充足的食物,在植生覆蓋率高、枯枝落葉豐富、植物種類豐富、植被多層次,與有機質含量高、中性土壤的地方具有較豐富的蚯蚓族群。但本研究調查發現,土壤石礫含量亦為蚯蚓族群很重要的限制因子,土壤中過高的含石率限制了蚯蚓族群的發展。
蚯蚓對植物影響方面,土後腔環蚓與赤子愛勝蚓皆有增加植物種子發芽率的效果,經土後腔環蚓處理尤其明顯。但土後腔環蚓具有食取種子的行為,而赤子愛勝蚓則無。因此雖然土後腔環蚓會增加種子發芽率,但亦有少部分的種子與幼苗因被其拖入土壤深處而死亡。
蚯蚓對土壤影響方面,土後腔環蚓與赤子愛勝蚓皆有增加土壤保水能力、降低土壤總體密度與增進土壤團粒構造的能力。但這兩種蚯蚓處理並未改變土壤酸鹼度,並造成土壤有機質含量下降。另外赤子愛勝蚓具有增加土壤滲透率,減少土壤流失量的功能;但土後腔環蚓增加土壤滲透率的效果並不顯著,且因增加土壤初始水分含量而造成土壤流失量增加。
Sixteen landslide, vegetation treatment, and agriculture areas were selected for investigation of accommodate effect of vegetation and soil properties on earthworm population. Metaphire posthuma and Eisenia foetida were selected as experimental material to understand the two earthworm species effect on seed germination, soil properties, and soil erodibility.
The result indicated that earthworms’ group size is often related to food sufficiency. There are more abundant earthworm population living at those areas with high vegetation cover, abundant litter mulching, plant’s diversity, multiple vegetation cover layers, high organic matter content, and neutral pH. Furthermore, gravel content in soil is an important limiting factor for earthworm population. If there are high gravel content in soil, earthworm population will be limited.
Both Metaphire posthuma and Eisenia foetida can improve plant seeds’ germination, especially for significant Metaphire posthuma. However, seeds may also be ingested and pulled into deep soil by Metaphire posthuma. Actually, seeds will die if they have been injured by digestion or can’t break through deep soil cover.
Metaphire posthuma and Eisenia foetida both can promote soil water holding capacity, soil structure, and soil porosity. But both have no effect on soil pH and reduce organic matter content. Furthermore, Eisenia foetida can promote infiltration, and reduce soil erosion. But Metaphire posthuma’s ability of promote infiltration are not significant, and result in soil erosion increased due to higher initial soil moisture.
目  錄
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅱ
目錄 Ⅲ
表目錄 Ⅳ
圖目錄 Ⅴ
照片目錄 Ⅵ

第一章 前言 1
第二章 前人研究 4
第三章 研究材料與方法 22
  3-1 探討蚯蚓族群大小之研究材料方法 23
  3-2 探討蚯蚓對植物與土壤影響之研究材料方法 29
  3-3 土壤性質分析與土壤滲透率 41
第四章 結果與討論 44
  4-1 植物覆蓋與土壤性質對於蚯蚓族群之影響 44
  4-2 蚯蚓對植物、土壤性質與土壤沖蝕性之影響 55
第五章 結論與建議 64
參考文獻 67
附錄一 蚯蚓飼養失敗經驗 80
附錄二 試驗過程與蚯蚓飼養時的問題 83
表 目 錄
表3.1 各試驗地之基本資料 24
表3.2 各試驗地周圍之土地利用狀況與植生處理 25
表3.3 試區之土壤基本性質 31
表3.4 高狐草之性質 33
表4.1 調查樣區之土壤物理性質 45
表4.2 現地調查資料 46
表4.3 各處理之土壤水分含量 57
表4.4 各處理之土壤性質 58
表4.5 各處理之團粒粒徑 58
表4.6 各處理之滲透率 59
圖 目 錄
圖1.1 蚯蚓生態棲位 3
圖1.2 蚯蚓與植物的關係 3
圖3.1 研究流程圖 22
圖3.2 各試驗地之地理位置圖 26
圖3.3 各因子對蚯蚓族群影響之研究流程圖 28
圖3.4 南投縣國姓鄉九份二山位置圖 29
圖3.5 蚯蚓影響土壤與植物之研究流程 36
圖4.1 蚯蚓數量與土壤含石率關係 48
圖4.2 蚯蚓數量與 pH 關係 48
圖4.3 蚯蚓數量與有機質關係 50
圖4.4 修正後蚯蚓數量與有機質關係 50
圖4.5 蚯蚓數量與植生覆蓋率關係 51
圖4.6 蚯蚓數量與枯枝落葉敷蓋率關係 52
圖4.7 蚯蚓數量與植物種數關係 53
圖4.8 發芽率試驗結果 56
圖4.9 沖蝕試驗結果 63
照 片 目 錄
照片3.1 現地調查蚯蚓情形 27
照片3.2 土樣來源位置圖 30
照片3.3 現地採樣情形 30
照片3.4 土後腔環蚓及其糞球 32
照片3.5 赤子愛勝蚓及其糞球 32
照片3.6 人工降雨器設備 35
照片3.7 人工降雨器之針管 35
照片3.8 放置蚯蚓情形 38
照片3.9 放置種子情形 38
照片3.10 發芽箱 38
照片3.11 TDR 38
照片3.12 飼養箱與放置蚯蚓情形 40
照片3.13 沖蝕試驗收集泥砂情形 40
照片3.14 入滲試驗 43
照片4.1 發芽率試驗情形 55
照片4.2 發芽率試驗各處理之土壤表面情形 56
照片4.3 降雨沖蝕情形 63
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