(3.237.97.64) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/03 03:49
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林承漢
研究生(外文):Cheng-Han Lin
論文名稱:以營養鹽衰減模式推估濱水區植生緩衝帶寬度之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Width and Placement of Riparian Vegetated Buffer Strips Using Nutrient Attenuation Model
指導教授:林昭遠林昭遠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chao-Yuan Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:水土保持學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:水土保持學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:農業非點源污染濱水區植生緩衝帶七家灣溪GIS
外文關鍵詞:Agricultural nonpoint source pollutionRiparianVegetated buffer stripsChi Chia Wang StreamGIS
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:261
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
不當之坡地農業開發常使台灣溪流水質受到嚴重的影響,如何保護水質為國人必須重視之課題。眾多研究顯示緩衝帶具有緩衝污染物與攔阻泥砂等功效,在溪流兩旁設置植生緩衝帶可有效解決農業非點源污染,並達到安定河岸與景觀美化等多種益處,且對於河川之生態保育助益良多,因此在溪流兩岸設置植生緩衝帶乃目前防治農業非點源污染最經濟且普遍之措施。
七家灣溪為國寶魚櫻花鉤吻鮭之棲地,但由於農業活動頻繁與大甲溪上游山坡地的開發,配合山區豐富的雨量及旱季密集灌溉,使得農地肥料在土層中移動迅速,因此本區溪岸農業非點源污染之防治措施極為重要。本研究分別探討不同土地利用對於土層營養鹽含量衰減與移動之關係,並配合環境背景值以推求各類營養鹽所須之安全土深,利用GIS進行分析與計算,以展示符合現地條件緩衝帶配置之寬度與區位。
研究結果顯示,本區各類營養鹽所需之安全土深分別為鉀(7.39m)、鈉(6.15m)、鈣(6.33m)、鎂(4.11m)、氮(3.6m)與磷(0.98m);而在探討地層對於營養鹽衰減曲線的影響後,各類營養鹽所需之最大安全土深則變為以鎂(19.26m)最高,為了考慮地層對於營養鹽移動之影響,建議採用鎂的安全土深來做為配置植生緩衝帶之條件,表示土壤最少需要19.26m的土壤深度,才可過濾受污染的滲流水達到環境背景值之安全範圍。為有效防止各類營養鹽在七家灣溪造成污染,應以此為基準設計適當之植生緩衝帶,以維護當地之水源與生態環境。
Improper agricultural development on hillside deteriorates stream environment in Taiwan. How to protect the water quality is a very important issue. Many researches showed that the Vegetated Buffer Strips employed to intercept sediment and pollutant can be an alternative method. The Vegetated Buffer Strips along the streamside can solve the AGricultural NonPoint Source (AGNPS) pollution effectively and improve stabilization of riparian zones. It is good for conservation of ecosystem. Consequently, the Vegetated Buffer Strips is the most popular and economical way to reduce AGricultural NonPoint Source (AGNPS) pollution recently.
Chi Chia Wang Stream is the habitat of land-locked salmon. Because of agricultural activities and development on the upstream of Da Jia creek, the pollutants and nutrients transport actively with rainfall and irrigation. Therefore, it is very important to protect the water from AGNPS pollutants. This study established a model to estimate the suitable width of Vegetated Buffer Strips in different kinds of landuse placed on the Chi Chia Wang Stream riparian areas. Nutrients attenuation model and GIS were employed to analyze and calculate the safety depth.
The derived minimum safety depth for each element is potassium (7.39m), sodium (6.15m), calcium (6.33m), magnesium (4.11m), nitrogen (3.6m), phosphorous (0.98m), separately, the deepest safety depth is magnesium (19.26m) after simulation. Based on the nutrient transportation results, the soil needs 19.26m depth to reduce all the pollutants at least. In order to prevent the stream water and environment deterioration from the pollutants, the wider magnesium vegetated strip is suggested as a buffer zone to ensure pollution control effectiveness.
目 錄
頁次
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅱ
目錄 Ⅲ
圖次 Ⅴ
表次 Ⅵ
壹、前言 1
貳、前人研究 2
一、櫻花鉤吻鮭 2
二、非點源污染 5
三、植生緩衝帶之相關研究 8
四、GIS相關之研究 16
五、植生緩衝帶相關法規 17
參、研究地區與方法 19
一、研究地區概況 19
(一)地理位置 19
(二)地質與土壤 20
(三) 植生種類 20
(四)水質 21
二、研究材料與方法 23
(一)研究材料 24
(二)研究方法 24
肆、結果與討論 30
一、土層營養鹽之衰減 30
二、營養鹽衰減曲線與安全土深之推估 31
三、N、P的探討 36
四、濱水區植生緩衝帶之配置 38
五、考慮地層影響植生緩衝帶之配置 41
(一)地層分布之探討 41
(二)地層分布對於安全土深之影響 43
(三)地層分布對於緩衝帶配置之比較 46
伍、結論 50
陸、誌謝 51
參考文獻 52
附錄一 61
附錄二 62
附錄三 63
附錄四 64
附錄五 65
附錄六 66
附錄七 67
附錄八 68
附錄九 68





圖 次
頁次
圖3-1 研究地區位置圖 19
圖3-2 研究流程圖 23
圖3-3 鑽孔位置圖 24
圖3-4 高程分布圖 26
圖3-5 坡度分布圖 27
圖3-6 坡向分布圖 27
圖3-7 高入滲濱水區植生緩衝帶配置圖 29
圖4-1 武陵地區土壤剖面飽和水力傳導度 30
圖4-2 鉀離子濃度變化圖 33
圖4-3 鈉離子濃度變化圖 33
圖4-4 鈣離子濃度變化圖 34
圖4-5 鎂離子濃度變化圖 34
圖4-6 七家灣溪濱水區植生緩衝帶配置圖 39
圖4-7 七家灣溪濱水區植生緩衝帶寬度圖 40
圖4-8 植生緩衝帶左右岸配置寬度圖 40
圖4-9 地質剖面線位置圖 41
圖4-10 AA’剖面地層分布圖 42
圖4-11 BB’剖面地層分布圖 42
圖4-12 CC’剖面地層分布圖 43
圖4-13 七家灣溪濱水區植生緩衝帶配置比較圖 46
圖4-14 植生緩衝帶右岸寬度比較圖 47
圖4-15 植生緩衝帶左岸寬度比較圖 47
圖4-16 有勝溪河岸農業 49


表 次
頁次
表2-1 污染源對水質之影響 6
表2-2 植生緩衝帶對泥砂與總磷傳輸之影響 12
表2-3 植生緩衝帶減少各種污染物之比較 12
表2-4 植生緩衝帶配置寬度之回顧 14
表4-1 林地各類營養鹽之衰減曲線方程式 35
表4-2 蔬菜區各類營養鹽之衰減曲線方程式 35
表4-3 安全土深估算表 36
表4-4 有效磷與NO3-之衰減曲線方程式 37
表4-5 AA’剖面安全土深之估算 45
表4-6 BB’剖面安全土深之估算 45
表4-7 CC’剖面安全土深之估算 45
參考文獻
1.丁昭義、陳信雄,(1979),「森林緩衝帶對農藥之過濾作用」,中華水土保持學報,10(3):115-126。
2.丁昭義、陳信雄,(1981),「森林緩衝林帶寬度對農藥過濾機能之評估」,中華林學季刊,14(4):55-63
3.小島貞男,張清源譯,(1984),「翡翠水庫之水質預測與污染防治對策」,台北翡管局委託。
4.于淑芬、林永發 (2003),「武陵地區水質調查及環境監測」,p9-15。
5.「水土保持法暨相關法規」,(2004),行政院農業委員會水土保持局編印。
6.王小燕,(1997),「阿公店水庫集水區植生緩衝帶配置之研究」,國立中興大學,碩士論文。
7.李國欽,(1992),「農用化學品的衝擊」,農業與環境保育論文集,p11-20。
8.汪靜明,(1994)。「孑遺的國寶-台灣櫻花鉤吻鮭專輯」,內政部營建署雪霸國家公園管理處。
9.汪正忠,(1988),「山坡地開發逕流、對入滲及泥砂產量之影響之研究」,中華水土保持學報,19(2):261-272。
10.李珮璇,(2002),「暴雨初期沖刷對水源水質衝擊之評估」,國立台北科技大學,碩士論文。
11.吳小慧,(2000),「非點源污染最佳管理作業去除率功效評估模式之研究」,國立台灣大學,碩士論文。
12.余忠賢,(1996),「德基水庫集水區非點源污染負荷之研究」,國立台灣大學,碩士論文。
13.林昭遠,(1998),「濱水區植生緩衝帶配置之研究」,中華水土保持學報,29(3):261-272。
14.林昭遠、林文賜、張力仁,(1999),「數值地型模型應用於集水區規劃與整治之研究」,中華水土保持學報,30(2):149-155。
15.林昭遠、林文賜,(2001),「集水區資訊系統(WinGrid)入門」。
16.林曜松、梁世雄,(1986),「鮭鱒魚類生態」,自然景觀保育論文集(二)。行政院農業委員會林業特刊。
17.范正成、張尊國、鄭克聲等,(1995),「非點源污染調查及最佳管理作業之功能研究」(一),行政院環保署。
18.范正成、張尊國、鄭克聲等,(1996),「非點源污染調查及最佳管理作業之功能研究」(二),行政院環保署。
19.倪九派、傅濤、盧玉東、魏朝富,(2002),「緩衝帶在農業非點源污染防治中的應用」,環境污染與防治期刊,04:229-231。
20.郭魁士編箸,(1997),「土壤學」,中國書局。
21.孫志鴻,(1992),「地理資訊系統應用於水資源規劃管理先驅計畫」(三),經濟部水資源統一規劃委員會,p1-191。
22.莊佳慧,(1999),「指標模式應用於植生緩衝帶寬度之研究」,國立中興大學水土保持學系,碩士論文。
23.黃建智,(2002),「流域集水區非點源污染模式之研究」,國立成功大學,碩士論文。
24.陳文福、鄭新興,(1997),「遙測與GIS應用於集水區大型坡地開發之變遷分析」,中華水土保持學報,29(1):41-59。
25.陳尊賢、劉楨祺,(1996),「施肥施用及河岸森林保護帶對翡翠水庫水質之影響」,計畫編號八四科技-2.9-糧-03(2-2),p1-12。
26.曾晴賢,1996,「櫻花鉤吻鮭族群數量和生態調查」,內政部營建署雪霸國家公園管理。
27.曾晴賢,2001,「櫻花鉤吻鮭族群監測與生態調查」(四),內政部營建署雪霸國家公園管理處,p34。
28.夏禹九、黃正良、王立志、黃良鑫 (1990),「林道緩衝帶的適當寬度」,林業試驗所研究報告季刊,5(3):201-208。
29.雪霸國家公園官方網站,URL:http://www.spnp.gov.tw/
30.溫清光,(1995),「不同類型非點源污染之最佳管理控制(BMP)規範」,行政院環保署委託,成功大學環工系。
31.溫清光,余嘯雷,(1998),「施工活動非點源污染最佳管理作業規範研究」,行政院環保署委託,成功大學環工系。
32.溫清光,余嘯雷,(1998),「遊憩活動非點源污染最佳管理作業規範研究,行政院環保署委託」,成功大學環工系。
33.楊正雄,(1997),「水溫對櫻花鉤吻鮭族群之影響」,國立清華大學,碩士論文。
34.楊嘉文,(1997),「七家灣溪濱水區植生緩衝帶寬度之研究」,國立中興大學,碩士論文。
35.蔡錫安、夏漢平、崔玉炎,(2004),「廣州流溪河河岸緩衝帶生態治理的優良草種篩選試驗」,生態環境期刊,13(3):342-346。
36.賴晃宇,鄭祈全,(1997),「應用地理資訊系統與多變值統計分析於水資源涵養保安林之規劃─以台大實驗林為例」,台灣農業科學,2(4):421-441。
37.Andrew Sherpley(1995), “Fate and Transport of Nutrients: Nitrogen”, http://www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov/land/RCAarchive/wp07text.html USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Agricultural Water Quality Laboratory, Durant, Oklahoma.
38.Barfield, B.J., E.W. Tollner and J.C. Hayes, 1977, "Prediction of Sediment Transport in Grassed Media", Transaction of ASAE (77):2023, American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Josephs, MO.
39.B. Eghball, J. E. Gilley, L. A. Kramer, et al., 2000, "Narrow grass hedge effects on phosphorus and nitrogen in runoff following manure and fetilizer application". Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 55 (2):172-176.
40.Clinnick, P. F. (1985), "Buffer strip management in forest operations a review". Aust. For. 48 pp.34-45.
41.Dillaha, T.A., Sherrard, J.H., and Lee, J.D. (1986). "Long-term effectiveness and maintenance of vegetative filter strips". Bulletin -, Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 39 pp.
42.Dillaha, T.A., Reneau, R.B., Mostagnimi, S., and Lee, D. (1989). "Vegetative filter strips for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control". Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 32,513-519.
43.Dillaha, T.A. (1989). "Water quality impacts of vegetative filter strips". Paper No. 89- 2043. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, 14 pp.
44.Doyle, R.C., Stanton, G.C., and Wolf, D. C. (1977). "Effectiveness of forest and grass buffer strips in improving the water quality of manure polluted runoff". Paper No. 77-2501. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, 11 pp.
45.Edwards, W.M., Owens, L.K., and White, R.K. (1983). "Managing runoff from a small paved beef feedlot". Journal of Environmental Quality 12, 281-286.
46.Flanagan, D.C., Foster, G.R., Neibling, W.H., and Burt, J.P. (1989). "Simplified equations forfilter strip design". Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 32, 2001-2007.
47.Flanagan, D.C., Neibling, W.H., Foster, G.R., and Hurt, J.P. (1986). "Application of CREAMS in filter strip design". Paper No. 86-2043. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, 12 pp.
48.Gardner, T.W., K. Conners-Sasowski, and R.L. Day, (1990). Automatic Extraction of Geomorphometric properties from Digital Elevation Data.
49.Hayes, J.C., and Dillaha, T.A. (1992), "Vegetative filter strips application of design procedure". Paper No. 92-2103. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, pp.17.
50.Hayes, J.C., and Hairston, J.E. (1983), "Modeling the long term effectiveness of vegetative filter strips on on-site sediment controls". Paper No. 83-2081. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, pp.14.
51.Jay O’Laughlin and George H. Belt. (1995) "Functional Approaches to Riparian Buffer Strips Design. " Journal of Forestry. pp. 23-40.
52.Knisel, W.G. (ed.). (1980). CREAMS: A field-scale model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems. Conservation Research Report 20, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., pp. 643.
53.Klute, A. (ed.). (1986), Method of Soil Analysis: Part 1-Physical and Mineralogical Methods, American Society of agronomy, pp. 23-40.
54.K. H. Lee.,Isenhart T M , Schultz R C. Sediment and Nutrint removal in an established multi─species riparian buffer. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2003(1).
55.Laflen, J.M., Lane, L.J., and Foster, G.R. (1991), "WEPP, a new generation of erosion prediction technology". Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 46, pp. 34-38.
56.Lee, D., Dillaha, T.A. and Sherrard, J.H. (1989). "Modeling phosphorus transport in grass buffer strips". Journal of Environmental Engineering Division, ASCE 115, 408-426.
57.Logan, T. J., and E. O. Mclean. 1973 "Nature of Phosphorus Retention and Adsorption withu Depth in Soil Column". Soil sci. Amer. Pric. 37:351-355.
58.Logan, T. J., and E. O. Mclean. 1973 "Effects of Phosphorus Application Rate, Soil Proteries, and leaching Mode on P Movement in Soil Column". Soil sci. Amer. Pric. 37:351-355.
59.Magette, W.L., Brinsfield, R.B., Palmer, R.E., and Wood, J.D. (1989). "Nutrient and sediment removal by vegetated filter strips". Transactions of American Society of Agricultural Engineers 32, 663-667.
60.Maurizio Borin, and Elisa Bigon (2002), " Abatement of NO3–N concentration in agricultural waters by narrow buffer strips ". Environmental Pollution 117, pp. 165-168.
61.Maurizio Borin , Monica Vianello , Francesco Morari , and Giuseppe Zanin(2005), "Effectiveness of buffer strips in removing pollutants in runoff from a cultivated field in North-East Italy". Argriculture , Ecosystems and Environment, 105, pp. 101-104.
62.Mariet M. Hefting, Jeroen J. M. de Klein. "Nitrogen removal in buffer strips along a lowland stream in the Netherlands:a pilot study" Environmental Pollution, 102, S1(1998), pp. 521-526.
63.Munoz-Carpena, R., Parsons, J.E., and Gilliam, J.W (1991), "Numerical approach to the vegetative filter strip problem: 1. Overland flow". Paper No. 91-2573. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, pp. 21
64.Murielle and Bercovici. (1994), "Riparian buffer strips in the Bear Creek Watershed" Iowa State University Ames. P1-82.
65.Naiman R. J., and Decamps H, (eds). 1990 "The ecology and management of aquatic-terrestrial ecotones". Parthenon Press, UNESCO, Paris pp. 31.
66.Nikolaidis, N.P., Shen, H., Heng, H., Hu, H., and Clausen, J.C. (1993). "Movement of nitrogen through an agricultural riparian zone: distributed modeling". Water Science and Technology 28, 13-23.
67.Page, A.L., (editor). (1982), Method of Soil Analysis: Part2-Chemical and Microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, pp. 20-43.
68.Phillips, J.D., (1989). "Nonpoint source pollution control effectiveness of riparian forests along a coastal plain river". Journal of Hydrology, 110, pp. 221-237.
69.Puvis, A., Hoehn, J.P., Sorenson, V.L., and Pierce, F.J. (1989). “Farmers’ response to a filter strip program: results of a contingent valuation survey”. Journal of Soil and water Conservation 44,501-504.
70.R. Lowrance, R. K. Hubbard, R. Woodland Effects of a managed three zone riparian buffer system on shallow ground water quality in the south eastern coastal plain. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2000, 55(2):212-220.
71.Smith, C. M. (1992). "Riparian pasture retirement effects on sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen in channelized surface runoff from pastures". New Zealand Journal of Marine Freshwater Research. 23, p. 139-146.
72.Schueler T. R., 1987, "Controlling Urban Runoff : a Practical Manual for Planning and Designing Urban BMPs Repared for Washington Metropolitan Water Resources Planning Board". Department of Environmental Programs, Metroipolitan Washington Council of Government.
73.Timmons, D. R., R. E. Burwell, and R. F. Holt. 1978. "Nitrogen and Phosphorus Losses in Surface Runoff from Agricultural Land as influenced by Placement of Broadcast Fertilizer". Water Resources Research 9(3):658-667.
74.Van Dijk, P. M., F. J. P. M Kwaad and M. Klapwijk, 1996, "Retention of Water and Sediment by Grass Strips", Hydrological Processes, Vol.10, pp.1069-1080.
75.Williams, R.D., and Nicks, A.D. (1988). "Using CREAMS to simulate filter strip effectiveness in erosion control". Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 43, 108-112.
76.Xiang, W. (1993), "Application of a GIS-based stream buffer generation model to environmental policy evaluation". Environmental Management, 17, pp. 817-827.
77.Yu S.L. and D. Benelmouffok, (1990), "Field Test of Urban Best Management Practices For Controlling Stormwater Pollution". Proc. 5th Interntional. Conference on Urban Storm Drainage, Y. Iwasa and T. Sueishi, eds., University of Osaka, Japan, pp. 805-808.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔