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研究生:陳祺欣
研究生(外文):Chi-Hsin Chen
論文名稱:紅麴土司之品質評估及其抗氧化性質
論文名稱(外文):Quality Evaluation of Anka Bread and Its Antioxidant Properties
指導教授:毛正倫毛正倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeng-Leun Mau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:紅麴土司品質評估抗氧化性質機能性成分
外文關鍵詞:Anka breadquality evaluationantioxidant propertiesfunctional components
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摘 要
紅麴菌(Monascus sp.)會產生多種對人類有益的代謝產物,其具有降低膽固醇、降低血壓、抑菌活性及抗氧化等性質。為了提升烘焙食品的保健功效,本研究將紅麴菌接種於已蒸熟的白米上,因此製得之紅麴以3%之量添加於麵糰中製得紅麴土司,再針對紅麴土司的儲藏性質、呈味品質、抗氧化性質、機能性成份及官能品評加以探討,並與白土司和米土司比較。
在25°C的儲藏條件下,當儲藏到第六天時,在總生菌數上紅麴土司(5.74)明顯低於白土司(6.58)及米土司(6.12 log CFU/ml),顯示紅麴具有不錯的抑菌效果。而三種土司在質地剖析(TPA)方面,隨著儲藏天數的增加,硬度及破碎度皆有增加的趨勢,附著性、彈性、凝聚性、膠性度及咀嚼度則隨著儲藏天數的增加而降低,其中紅麴土司在凝聚度及咀嚼度的下降趨勢則比其餘兩種土司較為緩慢。同時以掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)觀察發現,三種土司隨著儲藏天數的增加,其網狀結構逐漸緊密、平滑,此些皆為澱粉回凝所致。
紅麴土司的呈味品質分析包含可溶性糖、游離胺基酸及核苷酸含量。在可溶性糖的部分,紅麴土司具有較高的甘露糖醇(1.38 mg/g)及核糖(2.63 mg/g);在游離胺基酸總含量方面,紅麴土司(3.51 mg/g)高於白土司(2.78 mg/g)及白米土司(3.17 mg/g);而核苷酸的含量則依序為紅麴土司(52.86 μg/g)>白土司(43.54 μg/g)>米土司(23.48 μg/g)。整體而言,紅麴的添加可以提高土司的鮮味及甜味,同時賦予土司較高的營養價值。
三種土司經乙醇萃取後,所得之乙醇萃經進行其抗氧化性質分析。結果顯示,在抗氧化力的部分,三種土司之乙醇萃的抗氧化力隨著濃度的增加卻有逐漸下降的趨勢;紅麴土司乙醇萃之還原力在10.0 mg/ml時為0.66,高於白土司乙醇萃的0.14及米土司乙醇萃的0.17;在清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團的能力部分,在20.0 mg/ml時,紅麴土司乙醇萃最佳

(89.63%),顯著高於白土司乙醇萃(58.84%)及米土司乙醇萃(55.73%);而在螯合亞鐵離子的能力部分,三種土司乙醇萃之螯合能力均不佳。
在機能性成分上,紅麴土司經過高溫烤焙後,仍保有可降膽固醇的monacolin K(3.93 mg/kg)及可降血壓的γ-胺基丁酸(53.12 mg/kg)。在消費者喜好性分析方面,紅麴土司在色澤、風味、外觀及總體喜好性之數值上較白土司及米土司略高,尤其在口感的接受度上,以紅麴土司(5.70)最佳,米土司(5.45)次之,而白土司(5.31)最低。
綜此,紅麴土司不僅具有出色的外觀顏色、風味、口感及消費者接受度,另外亦具有較佳的抗氧化性質及機能性成分。本研究探討新產品紅麴土司的資料,以提供食品加工業開發保健型烘焙產品和消費者食用之參考。

關鍵詞:紅麴土司、品質評估、抗氧化性質、機能性成分
Abstract
Monascus produces various metabolites beneficial for humans, which exhibit cholesterol-lowering, blood pressure-lowering, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In order to improve the healthy efficacy of baked foods, the study reported herein is to inoculate the Monascus purpureus culture to cooked refined rice and anka thus produced was added in a amount of 3% to mix with flour to make bread, and the anka bread thus obtained was analyzed for its storage properties, taste quality, antioxidant properties and functional components and evaluated for its sensory quality.
During storage at 25°C, total plate counts of anka bread (5.74) was significantly lower than those of white bread (6.58) and rice bread (6.12 log CFU/ml) at day 6, indicating the good antimicrobial activity of anka. Based on the texture profile analysis (TPA), the hardness and fracturability of three breads increased with storage time prolonged whereas the adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness decreased. However, the decreased rate in adhesiveness and chewiness was slower for anka bread than for other breads. In addition, as shown in scanning electron micrographs, the structure of three kinds of breads was denser as storage time prolonged as the consequence of staling.
The taste components of anka bread included soluble sugars, free amino acids and flavor 5′-nucleotides. In the composition of soluble sugars and polyols, anka bread contained higher contents of mannitol (1.38 mg/g) and ribose (2.63 mg/g). Anka bread contained more total free amino acids (3.51 mg/g) than white bread (2.78 mg/g) and rice bread (3.17 mg/g). The contents of 5′-nucleotides for three breads were in order of anka bread (52.86 μg/g) > white

bread (43.54 μg/g) > rice bread (23.48 μg/g). Overall, the addition of anka could enhance palatable taste and sweet taste of bread and also impart with more nutritional values.
The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for their antioxidant properties after extraction of three kinds of breads. The antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts decreased with the increased concentrations. The reducing power of ethanolic extract from anka bread (0.66) was better than those of ethanolic extracts from white bread and rice bread (0.14 and 0.17) at 10.0 mg/ml.
The scavenging ability of ethanolic extracts from anka bread (89.63%) on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was best at 20.0 mg/ml, significantly higher than those of ethanolic extracts from white bread and rice bread (58.84 and 55.73%). The chelating abilities of ethanolic extracts from three breads were not good.
With regard to functional components, final baked product of anka bread contained 3.93 mg/kg of monacolin K and 53.12 mg/kg of γ-aminobutyric acid. With regard to consumer preference, the hedonic scores of color, odor, flavor and overall ratings of anka bread were slightly higher than those of white bread and rice bread. The mouth feel of three kinds of breads were in the descending order of anka bread (5.70) > rice bread (5.45) > white bread (5.31).
In conclusion, anka bread not merely contained favorable color, flavor, mouth feel and acceptability but also possessed better antioxidant properties and functional components. The research studied the quality and antioxidant properties of anka bread to provide food industry with more information to develop new functional baked products and consumers with better instruction for purchasing.

Keyword: Anka bread, quality evaluation, antioxidant properties, functional components
目 錄
表次 ix
圖次 xi
前言 1
文獻整理 3
一、紅麴 3
(一)紅麴菌的起源與分類 3
(二)紅麴菌的代謝產物 3
(三)紅麴在保健食品上的應用 12
二、麵包 13
(一)原料對麵包品質的影響 13
(二)攪拌對麵包品質的影響 15
(二)發酵對麵包品質的影響 15
(二)老化對麵包品質的影響 15
(二)麵包的理化性質測定 19
材料與方法 29
一、實驗材料 29
(一)紅麴和白米 29
(二)試藥 29
二、實驗方法 34
(一)紅麴、白米及土司樣品之製備 34
(二)麵粉、白米和紅麴及土司樣品之一般成份分析 34
1. 水分之測定 34
2. 灰分之測定 34
3. 脂質之測定 35
4. 粗纖維之測定 35
5. 蛋白質之測定 35
6. 還原糖之測定 36
(三)理化性質分析 37
1. 溶解度、膨潤度和吸水指標分析 37
2. 掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察 37
3. X射線繞射分析 37
4. 示差掃描熱分析 38
5. 食品質地剖析 38
6. 色差分析 39
7. 比體積分析 39
(四)呈味成分分析 39
1. 可溶性糖類之測定 39
2. 胺基酸組成之測定 40
3. 核苷酸之測定 42
(五)生菌數之測定 42
(六)抗氧化性質分析 43
1.樣品製備 43
2. 抗氧化力測定 43
3. 還原力測定 43
4. 清除 1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團能力測定 44
5. 螯合亞鐵離子能力測定 44
(七)機能性成份分析 45
1. Monacolin K之測定 45
2. γ-胺基丁酸之測定. 45
(八)安全性評估 45
(九)消費者感官品評 47
(十)統計分析 47
結果與討論 48
一、一般成份與物理性質分析 48
(一)高筋麵粉、白米和紅麴之一般成分分析 48
(二)高筋麵粉、白米和紅麴之溶解度、膨潤度和吸水指標分析 51
(三)高筋麵粉、白米和紅麴之色澤分析 55
(四)白土司、白米土司和紅麴土司之一般成分分析 55
(五)白土司、白米土司和紅麴土司之比體積分析 59
(六)白土司、白米土司和紅麴土司之色澤分析 59
二、白土司、白米土司和紅麴土司於儲藏期間之水分含量、總生菌數
和理化性質分析 62
(一)白土司、白米土司和紅麴土司儲藏期間之水分含量 62
(二)白土司、白米土司和紅麴土司儲藏期間之總生菌數 65
(三)白土司、白米土司和紅麴土司儲藏期間之質地剖析 68
(四)掃描示電子顯微鏡觀察 75
(五)X射線繞射分析 80
(六)示差掃描熱分析 80
三、呈味分析 85
(一)可溶性糖類 85
(二)游離胺基酸 88
(三)核苷酸. 91
四、抗氧化性質分析 97
(一)白土司、白米土司和紅麴土司乙醇萃之萃取率 97
(二)抗氧化性質分析 97
1. 抗氧化力 97
2. 還原力 101
3. 清除 1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團能力 106
4. 螯合亞鐵離子能力 109
5. 抗氧化性質之EC50 112
五、機能性成分測定 112
1. Monacolin K. 112
2. γ-胺基丁酸. 115
六、安全性評估 115
七、消費者喜好性感官品評 117
結論 120
參考文獻 122
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