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研究生:黃念祖
研究生(外文):Nein-Zu Huang
論文名稱:裸頸基因對於選拔產蛋週期長度品系與選拔採食量殘差品系雞隻產蛋性能之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Naked Neck gene on egg production of layers selected for improved clutch length and selected for reduced residual feed consumption
指導教授:李淵百李淵百引用關係陳志峰陳志峰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen-Pai LeeChih-Feng Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:裸頸基因產蛋雞隻產蛋性能
外文關鍵詞:Naked Neck genelayersegg production
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臺灣地處熱帶與亞熱帶地區,夏季氣候高溫潮濕,最高溫度達35℃以上。高溫環境下所造成的熱緊迫,不僅嚴重影響雞隻生理,也直接影響到產蛋性能表現,造成產蛋雞隻在生產上的損失。本試驗旨在探討裸頸基因對於法國國家農業科學院選拔產蛋週期長度品系與選拔採食量殘差品系在台灣自然熱環境下,對熱環境適應性之研究,進而探討裸頸基因在台灣的利用價值,作為改善夏季熱緊迫之參考。
在兩個品系的試驗結果顯示,攜帶裸頸基因的雞隻體重所有時期都有較輕的趨勢,推測與其羽毛較少有關;且無論是雞冠溫度或是直腸溫度都顯著低於正常羽的同胞,表示處於熱環境時,可以較一般雞隻有能力維持在正常的體溫。在腳脛寬度、腳脛長度與肉髯長度方面,攜帶裸頸基因雞隻有較寬且較長的趨勢,顯示其散熱面積較正常雞隻為大。裸頸雞隻的初產日齡有較晚的趨勢;蛋重、蛋產量與蛋黃重也有較正常雞隻為重的趨勢。攜帶裸頸基因雞隻的採食量與採食量殘差都較高,與其散熱較多,需要更多的採食量來彌補消耗掉的能量有關。
選拔產蛋週期長度品系與其對照品系的試驗結果顯示,選拔產蛋週期長度會增加產蛋數與蛋產量,並且提早初產日齡,但是極顯著地減輕蛋重。選拔產蛋週期長度也會顯著地增加平均產蛋週期長度與最大產蛋週期長度,並且減少產蛋週期次數、平均停產期長度、最大停產期長度與總停產天數。但是選拔產蛋週期長度也有顯著造成蛋黃重與蛋殼重較輕的缺點。
選拔採食量殘差品系的試驗結果顯示出,攜帶純合子裸頸基因的雞隻平均產蛋週期長度有較長的趨勢,且產蛋週期數顯著較其他雞隻少。而攜帶裸頸基因雞隻的豪氏單位、蛋殼厚度與蛋殼重也都顯著高於正常羽雞隻,顯示出攜帶裸頸基因雞隻所產蛋的蛋白與蛋殼品質較佳。
Taiwan, located in the tropical and subtropical region, is hot and humid in the summer. The temperature is often soaring up to over 35℃. Heat stress under high ambient temperature, not only influences chicken's physiological functions, but also results in egg production loss in laying birds. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the naked neck gene on the adaptability of the two selected strains, one for longer clutch length and the other for reduced residual feed consumption, from the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, to the natural hot environment in Taiwan. Furthermore, the results might be an useful reference to the evaluation of the naked neck gene to reduce the summer heat stress in Taiwan.
The results of both strains shows that, chickens with naked neck gene tend to have lighter body weight at any age, possibly due to less feather covering, and lower comb and/or rectal temperature than their normal feathering sibs. It suggests that they are superior in maintaining normal body temperature under hot environment than the normal feathered birds. Chickens with the naked neck gene tend to have stronger and longer shanks and longer wattles which represent a larger surface area to dissipate heat. The naked neck birds tend to lay their first egg at a later age. Their egg weight, egg mass production and yolk weight also tend to be heavier than those from the normal chicken. Chickens carrying naked neck genes had higher feed consumption and residual feed consumption. It is possible related to that higher heat loss requires more feed consumption to compensate the waste of energy.
The results of the selected and the control strains for improved clutch length revealed that, the selection for clutch length could increase the number of eggs laid and egg mass production, and reduce the age at first egg. However, it also reduced the egg weight. Selection for clutch length had the merits to significantly increase the average clutch length and the maximum clutch length, and reduce the number of clutches, the average pause length, the maximum pause length and the total pause days. However, it also reduced the yolk weight and the egg shell weight significantly.
The test results of the strain selected for reduced residual feed consumption revealed that chickens with the naked neck gene tend to have longer average clutch length and fewer number of clutches. In addition, the higher Haugh unit, thicker and heavier egg shell thickness suggest that the naked neck gene could also improve the albumin and the egg shell qualities of eggs.
目 錄
頁次
壹、 中文摘要------------------------------------------ 1
貳、 前言---------------------------------------------- 2
參、 文獻檢討------------------------------------------ 4
一、 裸頸基因------------------------------------- 4
(一) 簡介------------------------------------- 4
(二) 對生產性能的影響------------------------- 4
二、 長期選拔產蛋週期長度品系-------------------- 6
三、 長期選拔採食量殘差品系---------------------- 8
四、 家禽對高溫環境溫度之生理反應---------------- 10
(一) 體溫------------------------------------- 10
(二) 呼吸數----------------------------------- 10
五、 高環境溫度對於雞隻生長性能之影響------------ 12
(一) 採食量----------------------------------- 12
(二) 體增重----------------------------------- 12
(三) 飼料效率--------------------------------- 13
六、 環境溫度對蛋雞生產性能之影響---------------- 13
(一) 產蛋率----------------------------------- 13
(二) 蛋重------------------------------------- 14
(三) 蛋殼品質--------------------------------- 14
(四) 蛋內品質--------------------------------- 14
七、 基因型與環境交感作用------------------------ 14
肆、 材料與方法--------------------------------------- 18
一、 試驗動物------------------------------------ 18
(一) 選拔產蛋週期長度品系與對照品系----------- 18
(二) 選拔採食量殘差品系----------------------- 19
二、 飼養管理------------------------------------ 19
(一) 飼養條件--------------------------------- 19
(二) 飼料配方--------------------------------- 20
(三) 防疫計畫--------------------------------- 20
(四) 測量項目與方法--------------------------- 20
三、 統計分析------------------------------------- 22
(一) 採食量殘差之估算------------------------ 22
(二) 基因型對性狀的影響---------------------- 22
(三) 品系對性狀的影響------------------------ 22
伍、 結果與討論---------------------------------------- 26
一、 每日環境溫度--------------------------------- 26
二、 裸頸基因對於長期選拔產蛋週期長度品系的影響--- 26
(一) 品系間與基因型間的差異-------------------- 26
(二) 生長性狀---------------------------------- 28
各時期體重------------------------------- 28
(三) 生理性狀---------------------------------- 34
1. 雞冠溫度與直腸溫度--------------------- 34
2. 腳脛長寬與肉髯長度--------------------- 34
(四)生產性狀----------------------------------- 36
1. 產蛋曲線------------------------------- 36
2. 產蛋性能------------------------------- 36
3. 產蛋週期------------------------------- 40
4. 蛋品質--------------------------------- 40
5. 採食量與採食量殘差--------------------- 43
三、 裸頸基因對於選拔採食量殘差品系的影響--------- 45
(一) 基因型間的差異-------------------------- 45
(二) 生長性狀-------------------------------- 45
各時期體重----------------------------- 45
(三)生理性狀-------------------------------- 50
1. 雞冠溫度與直腸溫度-------------------- 50
2. 腳脛長寬與肉髯長度-------------------- 50
(四)生產性狀--------------------------------- 53
1. 產蛋曲線------------------------------ 53
2. 產蛋性能------------------------------ 53
3. 產蛋週期------------------------------ 55
4. 蛋品質-------------------------------- 58
5. 採食量與採食量殘差-------------------- 58
陸、 結論---------------------------------------------- 60
柒、 參考文獻------------------------------------------ 61
捌、 英文摘要------------------------------------------ 70
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