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研究生:王振宇
研究生(外文):Chen-Yu Wang
論文名稱:具有可調斜率特性的補償斜波之電流型降壓穩壓器
論文名稱(外文):A Current-Mode Buck Regulator with an Adjusted-Slope Compensation Ramp
指導教授:郭泰豪
指導教授(外文):Tai-Haur Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:穩壓器互補式金氧半製程補償斜波次諧波震盪
外文關鍵詞:sub-harmonic oscillationcompensation rampCMOSadjusted-sloperegulator
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  • 被引用被引用:5
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  • 下載下載:248
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  包含積體功率開關和可調斜率斜波的方式的一個電流型降壓穩壓器在本論文是被實行。在電流型控制中,當工作週期大於0.5時,次諧波震盪是一個眾所皆知的問題。對於次諧波震盪問題的補償來說,本篇論文提及一個不同於傳統固定斜率的可調斜率補償斜波方式。這個方式可以隨著輸出電壓的不同調整適當但不會太多餘的補償斜波斜率。它不但可以像傳統一樣避免次諧波震盪的問題而且在內迴路的增益和頻寬上可以比傳統的擁有更好的效能。另外,這個方式可以有在電流感測器上節省功率的額外優點。這樣便可以減輕由於電流感測器上的功率消耗使電流型控制在效率上劣於電壓型控制的固有缺點。
  這個電流型降壓穩壓器是使用台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司所提供的0.35um 2P4M 3.3V/5V 混合訊號互補式金氧半製程來製造。晶片的全部面積大約1.27*1.16mm2。詳細的量測和效能將在稍後幾章被描述。
  A current mode buck regulator with integrated power switches and an adjusted-slope ramp scheme is implemented in this thesis. Sub-harmonic Oscillation is a well-known problem in current mode control with the duty ratio larger than 0.5. For the compensation of sub-harmonic oscillation problem, this thesis proposes an adjusted-slope compensation ramp scheme which is not like the traditional constant-slope scheme. This scheme makes the slope of the compensation ramp appropriate but not too much for different output voltage. It not only can avoid the sub-harmonic oscillation problem like the traditional scheme but also have better gain and bandwidth in inner loop than traditional scheme. Further, this scheme has additional advantage of power-saving in current sensor. This will ease the inherent disadvantage of less efficiency in current mode control than voltage mode control due to the power dissipation of current sensor.
  This current mode buck regulator is fabricated with TSMC 0.35um 2P4M 3.3V/5V Mixed Signal CMOS process. The total chip area is about 1.27*1.16mm2. The detailed measurement and performance is described in the following chapter.
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 2
1.2 Organization 3

2. Fundamentals of Switching Regulator 4
2.1 Specification of Switching Regulator 4
2.1.1 Input Voltage 4
2.1.2 Output Voltage Ripple 4
2.1.3 Regulation 4
2.1.4 Transient Response 6
2.1.5 Efficiency 7
2.1.6 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) 9
2.2 Summary of Basic Switching DC-DC Regulators 9
2.2.1 Three Circuits 9
2.2.2 Estimation of Output Voltage Ripple 13
2.2.3 The Discontinuous Conduction Mode 14
2.3 Control Scheme: Current Mode vs. Voltage Mode 18

3. Issue of Current Mode Buck Regulator 26
3.1 Current Mode Buck Regulator 26
3.1.1 Structure 26
3.1.2 Small-Signal Model 27
3.1.3 Transfer Function 30
3.2 Proposed Improvement 35
3.3 Stability in Whole System 39

4. Circuit Design 44
4.1 The Architecture of Current Mode Buck Regulator 44
4.2 Power Transistors of Buck Power Stage 47
4.3 Bandgap Voltage Reference Circuit 49
4.4 Soft Start Circuit 52
4.5 Operational Amplifier Circuit for Compensator 54
4.6 Artificial Signal Circuit 58
4.7 PWM Control Circuit 60
4.7.1 Comparator Circuit 60
4.7.2 Clock Generator Circuit 62
4.7.3 SR Latch Circuit 64
4.8 Buffer Circuit 66
4.9 Current Sensor Circuit 68
4.10 Zero Current Detector Circuit 72
4.11 Simulation Results 73

5. Layout and Measurement 84
5.1 IC Layout 84
5.2 Measurement Setup 86
5.3 Measurement Results 86

6. Conclusions and Future Work 96

Reference
[1].Horowitz, M.; Indermaur, T.; Gonzalez, R.,“Low-power digital design” Low Power Electronics, 1994. Digest of Technical Papers., IEEE Symposium 10-12 Oct. 1994

[2].Pedram, M.; Qing Wu,“Design considerations for battery-powered electronics” Design Automation Conference, 1999. Proceedings. 36th 21-25 June 1999

[3].Marty Brown, “POWER SUPPLY COOKBOOK” 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001

[4].“Linear & Switching Voltage Regulator Handbook” ON Semiconductor Inc., Feb 2002

[5].H. W. Whittington; B. W. Flynn; D. E. Macpherson; “SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLIES: design and construction” 2nd ed., Research Studies Press Ltd., 1997

[6].Robert W. Erickson; Dragan Maksimovic, “Fundamentals of Power Electronics” 2nd ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers., 2001

[7].“HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF SWITCHED-MODE POWER SUPPLIES PRE 1987”, http://www.steve-w.dircon.co.uk/fleadh/mphil/history.htm

[8].Abraham I. Pressman,“Switching power supply design”New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991

[9].Dr. Ray Ridley “Current mode or Voltage Mode?” Switching Power Magazine, October 2000

[10].Ridley, R.B.,”A new, continuous-time model for current-mode control”, Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Volume 6, Issue 2, April 1991

[11].Ridley, R.B.,”A new continuous-time model for current-mode control with constant frequency, constant on-time, and constant off-time, in CCM and DCM” Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 1990. PESC '90 Record., 21st Annual IEEE 11-14 June 1990

[12].Darwish, M.; Huang, J.; Liu, M.; Shekar, M.S.; Williams, R.; Cornell, M., “Scaling issues in lateral power MOSFETs”Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs, 1998. ISPSD 98. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on 3-6 June 1998

[13].“TPS62000 High-Efficiency Step-Down Low Power DC-DC Converter” Texas Instruments Inc. September , 2003

[14].Roubik Gregorian, “Introduction to CMOS OP-AMP and Comparators ” New York: Wiley, 1999

[15].David A. Johns and Ken Martin, “Analog Integrated Circuit Design” John Wiley & Sones, Inc. 1997

[16].Ka Nang Leung; Mok, P.K.T.,“A sub-1-V 15-ppm/°C CMOS bandgap voltage reference without requiring low threshold voltage device“ Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of Volume 37, Issue 4, April 2002

[17].Sahu, B.; Rincon-Mora, G.A.,“A low voltage, dynamic, noninverting, synchronous buck-boost converter for portable applications” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Volume 19, Issue 2, March 2004

[18].Cheung Fai Lee; Mok, P.K.T., “A monolithic current-mode CMOS DC-DC converter with on-chip current-sensing technique”Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of Volume 39, Issue 1, Jan. 2004

[19].Lam, H.Y.H.; Wing-Hung Ki; Dongsheng Ma, “Loop gain analysis and development of high-speed high-accuracy current sensors for switching converters“ Circuits and Systems, 2004. ISCAS '04. Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on Volume 5, 23-26 May 2004

[20].Dongsheng Ma; Wing-Hung Ki; Chi-Ying Tsui; Mok, P.K.T.,” Single-inductor multiple-output switching converters with time-multiplexing control in discontinuous conduction mode” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of Volume 38, Issue 1, Jan. 2003

[21].Ridley, R.B.; Cho, B.H.; Lee, F.C.Y.,” Analysis and interpretation of loop gains of multiloop-controlled switching regulators” Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Volume 3, Issue 4, Oct. 1988

[22].Fu-Yuan Shih; Chen, D.Y.; Yan-Pei Wu; Yie-Tone Chen, “A procedure for designing EMI filters for AC line applications”Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on Volume 11, Issue 1, Jan. 1996
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