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研究生:蔡佳良
研究生(外文):Chia-Liang Tsai
論文名稱:發展協調障礙兒童視知覺與下肢動作控制之探討
論文名稱(外文):Visual Perception and Motor Control of Lower Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder
指導教授:吳昇光吳昇光引用關係黃啟煌黃啟煌引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立體育學院
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:209
中文關鍵詞:發展協調障礙視知覺動作控制反應時間靜態平衡
外文關鍵詞:motor controldevelopmental coordination disorderstatic balancereaction timevisual perception
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發展協調障礙兒童視知覺與下肢動作控制之探討

摘 要

發展協調障礙兒童是一群動作上有所障礙,但是卻沒有任何醫學上的疾病,也不是低智商的小孩。他們的動作協調性問題可能是動作控制不佳或是知覺訊息運用不當所造成。本研究以217位9-10歲兒童實施Movement ABC test的八項動作協調能力檢測及靜態平衡能力測試,然後依照下肢協調能力的差異篩選分類,選出125位兒童做下肢靜態平衡能力、反應時間及視知覺能力比較,最後再將所有的動作能力和視知覺進行相關分析,以探討之間的關聯性。所有的資料以雙因子變異數分析、t-test、皮爾森積差相關和多元迴歸分析進行統計分析。結果發現:(一)下肢協調性有問題的發展協調障礙兒童其靜態平衡能力、反應時間和視知覺表現皆比一般兒童差。(二)下肢協調性有問題的發展協調障礙兒童在視知覺表現和靜態平衡能力上,並無顯著的關聯性,但是視知覺表現和反應時間及Movement ABC test工具的某些動作項目則達顯著相關,尤其在手部精細動作項目。建議針對發展協調障礙兒童應施以早期的訓練介入和療育課程,未來針對發展協調障礙兒童的視知覺和動作能力相關研究時,應把要求”速度”和有”時間限制”的動作列入考量。

關鍵字:發展協調障礙、動作控制、靜態平衡、反應時間、視知覺
Visual Perception and Motor Control of Lower Extremities in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

Abstract
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are those with motor impairment. They do not have any medical condition; nor are they with low IQ. Their coordination problems might relate to poor motor control or inappropriate use of sensory information. In this present study, 217 children in the age range of 9-10 years were measured by eight motor skills of the Movement ABC test and static balance abilities. Using selective criteria, 60 DCD-Balance Problem (BP) and 65 control children were screened and compared with static balance abilities, reaction time of lower extremities, and visual perception. The correlation between visual perception and motor skills was also explored. Data were statistically analyzed through two-way ANOVA, t-test, Pearson’s correlation, and stepwise multiple-regression procedures. The results showed that (a) the static balance ability, reaction time, and visual perception of the DCD children group significantly performed more poorly than those of the control group; (b) the correlations between visual perception and reaction time or between visual perception and motor skills of the Movement ABC test, in some items, were significant, especially in the item of fine hand skills. However, the correlation between visual perception and static balance abilities was not significant. Children with DCD should be introduced with training intervention and therapeutic curriculum in early stages. As for the further studies of exploring the relationship of visual perception and movement abilities of children with DCD, the visual-speed and time-limited movement are suggested to be involved.

Key words: developmental coordination disorder, motor control, static balance, reaction time, visual perception
目 錄
第一章 緒論

第一節 研究動機--------------------------------------------------- 1
第二節 研究目的--------------------------------------------------- 5
第三節 研究假設--------------------------------------------------- 5
第四節 研究限制------------------------------------------------------ 6
第五節 名詞解釋------------------------------------------------------ 6

第二章 文獻探討

第一節 發展協調障礙兒童介紹------------------------------------------- 8
一 「發展協調障礙」名詞的起源與定義------------------------------- 8
二 發展協調障礙兒童的可能病因------------------------------------- 11
三 發展協調障礙兒童的盛行率--------------------------------------- 16
四 評估動作協調性的工具發展--------------------------------------- 17
五 兒童動作協調能力的延續性--------------------------------------- 18
六 發展協調障礙兒童的異質性--------------------------------------- 19
第二節 發展協調障礙兒童與靜態平衡能力--------------------------------- 20
一 平衡的分類----------------------------------------------------- 22
二 兒童平衡動作發展(motor development)過程------------------------ 22
三 平衡能力測試與工具--------------------------------------------- 26
四 平衡測試次數之信度研究----------------------------------------- 28
五 發展協調障礙兒童維持平衡模式和姿勢控制------------------------- 28
第三節 發展協調障礙兒童的反應時間------------------------------------- 36
第四節 訊息處理理論與知覺動作理論------------------------------------- 42
一 訊息處理(Information Processing)理論--------------------------- 42
二 兒童的訊息處理發展--------------------------------------------- 44
三 知覺動作(Perceptual-motor)理論--------------------------------- 44
第五節 發展協調障礙兒童之視知覺探討----------------------------------- 46
一 視覺與動作控制------------------------------------------------- 46
二 視知覺訊息處理過程--------------------------------------------- 48
三 發展協調障礙兒童的基本視覺處理過程----------------------------- 50
四 視知覺測量工具的發展------------------------------------------- 52
五 發展協調障礙兒童之視知覺與動作協調性探討----------------------- 54
第六節 總結----------------------------------------------------------- 66

第三章 研究方法

第一節 研究對象------------------------------------------------------ 69
第二節 實驗時間與地點------------------------------------------------ 70
第三節 實驗器材與設備------------------------------------------------ 70
第四節 實驗設計------------------------------------------------------ 71
第五節 資料處理------------------------------------------------------ 86

第四章 研究結果

第一節 動作特性分析--------------------------------------------------- 88
第二節 靜態平衡能力分析----------------------------------------------- 93
第三節 反應時間分析--------------------------------------------------- 103
第四節 視知覺分析----------------------------------------------------- 108
第五節 不同年齡的DCD-BP組和控制組在靜態平衡能力、反應時間和視知覺之比
較------------------------------------------------------------- 116
第六節 視知覺與靜態平衡能力、反應時間、Movement ABC
test動作之相關分析--------------------------------------------- 119
第七節 Movement ABC test動作和靜態平衡能力、反應時間、
視知覺之相關分析----------------------------------------------- 124

第五章 討論

第一節 動作特性------------------------------------------------------- 126
第二節 靜態平衡能力--------------------------------------------------- 132
第三節 反應時間------------------------------------------------------- 138
第四節 視知覺--------------------------------------------------------- 143
第五節 三種動作能力和視知覺相關分析----------------------------------- 148
第六節 總結----------------------------------------------------------- 155

第六章 結論與建議

第一節 結論----------------------------------------------------------- 157
第二節 建議----------------------------------------------------------- 158

參考文獻----------------------------------------------------------------- 160

附錄
一 兒童家長說明書------------------------------------------------- 195
二 受測同意書----------------------------------------------------- 196
三 我國發展協調障礙兒童媒體報導----------------------------------- 197
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