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研究生:呂岱樺
研究生(外文):Dai-Hua Lu
論文名稱:時間及空間對注意力暫失的影響以及其可能的神經生理機制
論文名稱(外文):The temporal and spatial factors affect the pattern of attentional blink and the functional role of the frontal eye fields in the attentional blink
指導教授:阮啟弘阮啟弘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Hung Juan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:認知與神經科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:視覺注意力跨顱磁刺激注意力暫失
外文關鍵詞:visual attentionTMSattentional blink
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所謂的注意力暫失(attentional blink),所意指的就是當受試者在快速序列呈現的刺激中,需要辨別兩個不同的目標刺激時,當第一個目標刺激和第二個目標刺激之間的時間間距在200到500毫秒時,對第二個目標刺激辨識率會特別的低,這樣的現象被稱作”注意力暫失”,用來表示在辨識快速序列訊息中的多項刺激時的有限注意力。本論文主要利用”注意力暫失”的實驗典範來探討視覺注意力在時間向度及空間上的分配,以及可能的神經機制。本研究的實驗主要分為行為實驗以及跨顱磁刺激的實驗兩部份,行為實驗共分為五個部分:實驗一為重驗過去在注意力暫失研究上的發現;實驗二操弄物件的空間位置,刺激呈現的空間位置為兩度視角內的二十五個不同的位置。除了將所有的刺激呈現在空間上完全分離開來之外,為了要釐清刺激之間在感覺層次上遮罩(masking)對於受試者在辨識目標刺激的過程中所造成的干擾,以及對於受試者在作業反應時形成錯誤連結的影響;實驗三綜合了實驗一和實驗二的操弄,在第二目標刺激之前的刺激呈現方式是在兩度視角內的二十五個不同的空間位置(與實驗三相同),而在第二目標刺激之後的刺激則呈現在和第二目標刺激的同一個位置上(與實驗一相同)。在實驗四的部份則是將實驗三的部份作不同的操弄,實驗四中的第二目標刺激之前的刺激皆出現螢幕中央同樣的位置上,但是在第二目標刺激之後的刺激項目則是出現在兩度視角內25個不同的空間位置上,藉此與上述三個實驗作區隔,以利瞭解第一目標刺激後的干擾對第二目標刺激的辨識為何。而實驗五的部份,為瞭解刺激所呈現的視角大小對於受試者在辨識歷程中是否也會形成不同類型的干擾,因此在實驗五中刺激呈現的方式改為在一度視角內的二十五個不同的空間位置中呈現。
在行為實驗一中,在第二目標刺激的正確回答率的部分呈現U型的曲線,這個結果成功的重驗了過去在注意力暫失的研究中所得到的結果,而在錯誤型態的分佈結果,主要呈現目標刺激後的錯誤連結型態。在行為實驗二正確率的表現部分,則是呈現直線的趨勢,在錯誤型態的分佈上則是都呈現目標刺激後的錯誤連結。行為實驗三的結果在正確率的趨勢和實驗二相近,都是以直線的趨勢為主,在錯誤型態的分佈上主要由目標刺激前的錯誤連結轉換到目標刺激後的錯誤連結。在行為實驗四的結果中,在正確率的表現部分呈現U型的曲線分佈,而錯誤型態的分析結果上也發現在前兩個時間間距(一和二)中,主要呈現目標刺激後的錯誤連結,在實驗四的結果和實驗一所得到的結果較為相似。在實驗五的部分,正確率的表現上和實驗二的結果相似,都是呈現直線的趨勢,而在錯誤型態的部分也都是呈現目標刺激後的錯誤連結。
除了探討行為的資料的發現之外,並探討‘注意力暫失’可能的神經生理機制,利用跨顱磁刺激暫時干擾在額葉眼動區的功能,研究額葉眼動區在注意力時間向度上的角色。
To elucidate the characteristics of binding errors which occur during performance of the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, the locations of the letters in the RSVP stream were systematically manipulated to probe the time course of such errors. Subjects were required to identify two target letters defined by color (T1 and T2) among other letters in the RSVP stream. Subjects are unable to identify T2 appearing around 100 ms to 500 ms after T1 (i.e. attentional blink). The pattern of errors made in the identification of T2 was examined in terms of illusory conjunctions in the time domain (Botella et al., 2001).
It has been shown that TMS applied over the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), subjects produced a clear 16% benefit in T2 detection at lag 1 and lag 2 during the attentional blink period (Cooper et al., 2004).In the present study, in order to examine whether frontal eye field (FEFs) involve in Attentional Blink (AB) period, we used TMS to study the functional role of FEFs in the AB.
目錄
摘要 III
目錄 1
圖目錄 4
表目錄 5
第一章 6
前言 6
快速序列視覺程序作業之相關研究 9
快速序列呈現作業中的單一選擇作業 10
快速序列呈現作業中的多重選擇作業 14
注意力暫失(Attentional Blink) 15
雙階段理論 19
短暫喪失知覺控制歷程 24
雙階段的平行處理模型 29
時間向度和空間向度上的錯誤連結 32
第二章 注意力暫失與時間向度的錯誤連結 36
實驗一 傳統形式的注意力暫失實驗 36
實驗目的 36
受試者 37
刺激與儀器 37
實驗程序 38
結果 40
實驗二 注意力暫失與空間因素實驗 44
實驗目的 44
受試者 45
儀器與刺激 45
實驗程序 45
結果 47
實驗三 部分空間轉換的注意力暫失實驗 51
實驗目的 51
受試者 52
儀器與刺激 52
實驗程序 53
結果 54
實驗四 部分空間轉換的注意力暫失實驗 58
實驗目的 58
受試者 59
儀器與刺激 59
實驗程序 59
結果 61
實驗五 小範圍空間轉換的注意力暫失實驗 66
實驗目的 66
受試者 67
儀器與刺激 67
實驗程序 67
結果 69
討論 73
第三章 81
注意力暫失可能相關的神經生理機制 81
跨顱磁刺激儀簡介 81
注意力暫失相關的神經生理機制 83
注意力暫失與頂葉後區以及額葉眼動區之間的關係 91
跨顱磁刺激實驗 95
前置實驗 95
受試者 96
結果 96
跨顱磁刺激實驗:額葉眼動區與注意力暫失 97
實驗目的 97
受試者 97
刺激與儀器 98
跨顱磁刺激儀 98
實驗程序 99
跨顱磁刺激的定位 101
結果 101
跨顱磁刺激控制組 109
實驗目的 109
受試者 109
實驗程序 109
結果 109
討論 111
第四章 117
綜合討論 117
參考文獻 122
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