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研究生:吳文宗
研究生(外文):Wu Wen-Tzong
論文名稱:專題導向探究式實驗教學之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Projected-Oriented Inquiry Laboratory Teaching
指導教授:張惠博張惠博引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:科學教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:專題導向科學探究實驗教學小組合作學習
外文關鍵詞:Projected-OrientedScientific InquiryLaboratory teachingGroup Cooperative Learning
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
  • 點閱點閱:384
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:6
摘 要
本研究旨在探討引導學生進行以高中化學專題導向的科學探究實驗教學後,學生的探究能力的展現如何?科學知識的發展如何?以及不同類型的小組學習互動,對探究能力的展現和科學知識的發展影響如何?研究者期望學生透過探究式實驗活動的學習歷程,融入應用在化學或其他科學學科�堶悼H發展科學知識;更期望學生學習到能將本身具備的科學知識,應用到實際生活上的問題。
研究者以建構主義理論,認為學生在學習過程中不能僅為知識的接受者,更應該是主動的知識探究者。並認為科學教學應重視知識探究過程的層面,而不是重視知識轉移的層面。以此為基礎,設計以小組合作學習進行研究,對研究學生實施六週,共十八節課,以高中化學專題導向的科學探究實驗活動進行教學,利用每星期日上午的課外時間進行教學活動。以實驗報告、訪談、問卷、錄影(音)等研究工具,收集學生在活動過程中的相關數據,並進行質性的資料分析。
研究結果發現:學生的研究問題與題目來源,可分為三大類:日常生活上的問題;學科內容知識上的問題;變因關係的探討問題。實施專題導向探究實驗教學後,學生探究能力的展現包括:(1)提出研究問題;(2)研究問題在組內成員間的思考、討論、解釋之間不斷激盪,能將問題澄清、精緻到適合於研究,逐漸建立研究假設,而形塑出研究題目與設計研究方法;(3)經由上網、課本、書報以及向老師、同儕請教,收集與問題相關的資料;(4)然後依照從實驗的理論、課本、或上網查資料設計實驗步驟;(5)開始執行探究實驗,過程包括:操作各種實驗技能、觀察、記錄、收集實驗數據;將所得數據檢驗正確性、分析、詮釋、溝通、形成結論、解釋研究結果、提出研究報告;形成假說,發展出科學知識,並能應用新的知識及技能在新情境與解決問題的探究能力。學生經由小組討論及實驗的探究式教學活動後,形成研究結論並發展出科學知識,科學知識以對現象的描述,或以現象與符號之間的轉換來呈現。學生提升對科學本質的瞭解有:「提出解決問題」、「設計解決問題的實驗」、「創造力的培養」、「收集與問題相關的資料」、「收集實驗數據」、「裝置實驗儀器」、「配製實驗藥品」、「操作實驗」、「分析解釋」、「形成知識」、「小組合作學習」等。
研究者在科學教學方面建議:(1)教師應多自我進修充實,增進有關探究式教學之知能(2)教師宜規劃進行長期培養學生探究能力之完整計畫(3)改進高中實驗教學的課程設計(4)提倡以專題導向為基礎的探究實驗活動。
關鍵字:專題導向、科學探究、實驗教學、小組合作學習
The Study of Projected-Oriented Inquiry Laboratory Teaching

Abstract

This research attempted to study students who were guided by a high school chemistry projected-oriented science inquiry laboratory teaching. How did the students perform in their inquiry capability and development in their science knowledge after the laboratory teaching. How would this laboratory affect the performance of their inquiry capability and the development of their science knowledge through different types of small group learning. Students were expected to apply the knowledge of chemistry or other subjects to develop their science knowledge. Students were also expected to apply science knowledge in their daily life.
According to constructivism, students could not only be the receptor. They should be the active investigators. Science teaching should focus on the inquiry of knowledge, but not focus on the transmission of knowledge. Based on these, researcher designed study on group cooperative learning, and giving students 18 lessons in 6 weeks. Researcher used high school chemistry projected-oriented science study activity for teaching extra-curriculum activity in Sunday mornings. Research tools such as : experiment report, interview, questionnaire, and video/audio tape were used to collect students’ learning activities. The data were analyzed by using qualitative method.
Several findings were concluded. Students’ research topics and its originality could be divided into three categories: topics in ordinary life; topics in subject knowledge; topics with the cause-effect relationship. After projected-oriented science inquiry activities were implemented, students’ inquiry capability were observed: (1)topic proposition; (2)through continual thinking, discussion and interpretation among the group members, problem could be clarified and confined to a suitable range, making hypothesis and defining a research topic, and to design their research method; (3) From internet, books and magazines, teachers, and peers to collect topic related data; (4)Based on the relevant theory of laboratory, data on books or internet revised experiment procedures; (5)Start executing research experiment, possible process were: the manipulation of various laboratory skills, observing, recording and collecting data ; confirmation of the accuracy of the data; analysis and interpretation the data; communication of idea; drawing of conclusion; elucidation of result; publication of report; proposal of hypothesis; development of scientific knowledge; and application of new knowledge and techniques to new issues, as well as the
ability to inquiry and solve problem. After group discussion and inquiry activity, students draw conclusion and develop science knowledge. In addition, science knowledge was expressed by the description of the phenomenon or by the conversion between phenomenon and symbols. The followings were some helpful ideas to enhance students’ understanding of the nature of science, such as: raise solving of problems; designing of experiments that are conducive to problem-solving; cultivation of creativity; gathering of relevant information; collection of experiment data; setup of experiment equipment; preparing and concocting of experiment solution; manipulation of skill; analyzing and interpreting of data; acquiring of knowledge; and group cooperative learning.
Several recommendations were: (1)teachers have to study themselves to enhance the knowledge and capability of inquiry teaching;(2)teachers should design a complete plan to continually nurture students’ inquiry capability;(3)improve study design of high school laboratory instruction; and (4)promote experiment activity based on project-oriented inquiry.

Key words: Projected-Oriented, Scientific Inquiry, Laboratory Teaching, Group Cooperative Learning.
第 壹 章 緒論.……………………………………………01
第一節 研究背景…………………………………. 03
第二節 研究重要性………………………………… 04
第三節 研究目的與待答問………………………… 06
第四節 名詞釋義…………………………………… 06
第五節 研究限制…………………………………… 09
第 貳 章 文獻探討…………………………………… 10
第一節 科學探究活動的理論與相………………… 10
第二節 探究式教學的理論與相……………….… 15
第三節 實驗教學活動的相關研究………………… 26
第四節 科學探究活動的小組合作學習…………… 43
第 叄 章 研究方法 ………………………………… 49
第一節 研究對象與研究情境……………………… 49
第二節 研究者理念與角色………………………… 50
第三節 研究設計與研究步驟……………………… 51
第四節 資料收集…………………………………… 56
第五節 資料分析…………………………………… 60
第 肆 章 結果………………………………………… 63
第一節 專題導向探究式實驗教學探究能力的展現 63
第二節 專題導向探究式實驗教學科學知識的發展 71

第三節 專題導向探究式實驗教學過程中,影響學
生探究能力展現和科學知識發展的因素 75

第 伍 章 結論與討論……………………………………………81

第一節 專題導向探究式實驗教學學生探究能力的展現 81
第二節 專題導向探究式實驗教學學生科學知識的發展 86
第三節 小組合作學習互動模式對學生探究能力展現和
科學知識發展的影響 87
第四節 建議 90
參考文獻 93
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