跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.201.97.224) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/04/14 19:04
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張紜榛
研究生(外文):Yun-chen Chang
論文名稱:國中教師角色及其因應策略之研究:以英語教師為例
論文名稱(外文):Junior High School Teachers' Roles and Their Coping Strategies: Taking English Teachers for Example
指導教授:曾守得曾守得引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:158
中文關鍵詞:教師角色角色衝突因應策略
外文關鍵詞:teachers’ rolesrole shiftcoping strategies
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:211
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
本研究的目的在探究國中教師的角色及其因應策略,並以英語教師為例,試圖找出九年一貫課程實施前後教師角色之轉變,實施成效及教師的因應策略。研究方法採教室觀察、教師訪談、及問卷調查。研究對象為五位國中英語教師,觀察每一位教師各一個班級一個單元的教學過程。教室觀察採錄音及錄影的方式。教師訪談為本研究主要的資料來源,訪談的內容主要在回答本研究的研究問題,訪談內容均予以錄音並轉成文字稿加以分析。問卷主要是用來探討一百一十三位教師對於本研究三個研究問題之意見。主要發現如下:
第一,九年一貫課程實施前後教師的角色可分為七個主要範疇:教師、行政人員、生活指導者、專業人員、協助者、社會關懷者、及行動研究者。
第二,關於課程實施影響,九年一貫課程實施之後,大部分的老師都遭遇角色衝突。本研究中有五個主要的角色衝突類型被提出:角色間衝突、角色內衝突、角色任務過度負荷之衝突、可行性角色衝突、及角色期待與個人之間的衝突。
第三,關於教師遭遇衝突會採取的因應策略,有六種主要策略被發現:反對、協調、了解、不做任何改變、離職、及樂觀地面對痛苦。
第四,問卷結果顯示,大部分教師都認同九年一貫課程的精神與內涵。然而,因為缺乏足夠的配套、準備時間及支持,他們感到莫大的負荷。教師的角色在九年一貫課程實施前後,並沒有多大改變。當遭遇衝突時,大部分的老師傾向理性思考一些解決方法、評估之後並找出最佳的解決方式、主動改變環境及尋求局外人的建議。此外,幾乎所有的老師都願意調整其教學態度,並迎接九年一貫課程的實施。
根據研究的結果,本研究建議:(一)未來研究可更深入探討國小或高中教師之角色轉變及其因應策略,(二)建議邀請更多老師能參加未來的研究,(三)建議延長教室觀察的時間,(四)未來的研究可更深入探討九年一貫課程實施之後英語教師的認知轉變及壓力。

關鍵詞:教師角色,角色衝突,因應策略
This study aimed to explore junior high school English teachers’ roles and their coping strategies. It tried to figure out what English teachers roles were before and after the implementation of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum, the curriculum implementation effects, and teachers’ coping strategies with their changing roles. Data were collected through teacher interviews, questionnaire and classroom observation. Five teachers were observed for a whole lesson unit each. The classroom observation was audiotaped and videotaped. The interviews with each teacher were audiotaped and transcribed, and then analyzed to answer the three research questions. The questionnaire survey was used to find out what most teachers’ opinions were mainly about the research questions. One hundred and twenty questionnaires were distributed to the teachers in Changhua County. One hundred and eighteen responses were returned and one hundred and thirteen responses were valid. The return rate was 95.8%. The major findings were summarized as follows:
First, with regard to teachers’ roles before and after the implementation of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum, seven main categories were characterized: (a) teacher, (b) administrative staff, (c) life director, (d) professional, (e) facilitator, (f) social concerner, and (g) action researcher.
Second, as for the curriculum implementation effects, it was found that most teachers met role conflict after the implementation of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. In this study, five role conflicts were pointed out by the five teacher participants: (1) inter-role conflict, (2) intra-role conflict, (3) conflict of over-burden role missions, (4) conflict of feasible roles, and (5) conflict between role expectations and reality.
Third, as to the coping strategies teachers might take when they faced role conflict, six primary ways were discovered: (1) opposition, (2) coordination, (3) realization, (4) no changing way, (5) quitting, and (6) happily facing the pain.
Fourth, it was found that though most of the 113 teacher participants in the questionnaire approved the essences and contents of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum, they felt much burden because of no adequate fitting measures, preparation time and support. Roles of teachers didn’t change much before and after the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. However, quite a few teachers perceived that they should be curriculum developers/designers after the implementation of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum as well. When facing conflict, most teachers tended to consider some resolutions rationally, evaluate all kinds of methods and find the best one, change the surroundings actively, and seek for suggestions from outsiders. Besides, almost all the teacher participants would like to adopt their attitudes and teaching, and thus welcome the implementation of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum.
According to the results of the study, the following suggestions were made: (a) it is suggested to further investigate the role shifts of elementary school or senior high school teachers and their coping strategies, (b) in order to generalize the results, it is suggested that more teacher participants could be included in future studies, (c) the time of classroom observation for each teacher is recommended to extend, and (d) future studies are recommended to further explore English teachers’ cognition shifts and pressure after the implementation of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for future studies were also proposed.
Key words: teachers’ roles, role shift, coping strategies
Table of Contents
Abstract (Chinese)…………………………………………………………………..i
Abstract (English)…………………………………………………………………...iii
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………….v
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………vii
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………. .x

Chapter I. Introduction……………………………………………………...... 1
Background of the Study………………………………………………… 1
Motivation and Purposes of the Study…………………………………… 6
Research Questions………………………………………………………. 9
Definition of Terms………………………………………………………. 10
Significance of the Study………………………………………………… 14
Limitations of the study………………………………………………….. 15
Chapter II. Literature Review………………………………………………… 16
The Grade 1-9 Curriculum……………………………………………….. 16
Teachers’ Roles…………………………………………………………... 21
Teachers’ Stress………………………………………………………....... 27
Sources of Teachers’ Stress………………………………………………. 32
Gender……………………………………………………………… 33
Age………………………………………………………………… 34
Marriage…………………………………………………………… 35
Years of Teaching …………………………………………………. 36
Conflict…………………………………………………………………... 38
Role Conflict…………………………………………………………....... 39
Coping Strategies………………………………………………………… 41
The Pilot Study…………………………………………………………... 42
Chapter III. Methodology……………………………………………………... 50
Population……………………………………………………………….. 50
Subjects…………………………………………………………………... 50
Instruments………………………………………………………………. 51
Data Collection…………………………………………………………... 54
Data Analysis…………………………………………………………...... 56
Coding Category System………………………………………………… 58
Coding Categories —Teachers’ Roles……………………………... 58
Coding Categories — Curriculum Implementation Effects……….. 64
Coding Categories — Teachers’ Coping Strategies……………….. 67
Chapter IV. Results……………………………………………………………. 71
Teachers’ Roles…………………………………………………………... 71
Curriculum Implementation Effects……………………………………... 77
Teachers’ Coping Strategies……………………………………………… 83
Results of the Questionnaire Data……………………………………….. 88
A Comparison Among the Questionnaire Data, the Interview Data, and
Classroom Observation Data…………………………………………….. 96
Summary…………………………………………………………………. 103

Chapter V. Conclusions and Pedagogical Implications……………………… 105
Summary of the Major Findings…………………………………………. 105
Pedagogical Implications………………………………………………… 109
Suggestions for Future Studies…………………………………………... 112
References……………………………………………………………………… 114

Appendices……………………………………………………………………...
127
Appendix A Classification of Learning Areas of the Grade 1-9
Curriculum……………………………………………... 127
Appendix B Interview Questions……………………………………. 128
Appendix C Questionnaire…………………………………………... 130
Appendix D The Floor Plan of the Classroom Observed…………… 134
Appendix E Transcription Conventions…………………………….. 135
Appendix F Sample Transcript of the Interview
(The Interview of Teacher C)…….…………………….
136
Appendix G Sample Transcript of the Classroom Observation
(Classroom Observation of Teacher A)………………...

146
Bartell, C. A. (1984). Function of the Executive. Boston Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Borg, M. G., & Falzon, J. M. (1990). Stress and job satisfaction among primary school teachers in Malta. Educational Review, 41(3), 4-21.
Chang, C. S. (張春興). (1989). Chang’s psychological dictionary. Taipei: Tung Hua.
________ (1991). Chang’s psychological dicationary. Taipei: Tung Hua.
________ (1998). Educational psychology. Taipei: Tung Hua.
Chang, D. R. (張德銳). (1999). Roles of present teachers in studyingtype schools. Educational Resources and Research, 27, 13-16.
Chang, H. B. (張華葆) (1984). Theory of social psychology. Taipei: Sanmin.
Chang, H. W. (張宏文). (1997). Sociology. Taipei: Shundin.
Chang, J. S. (張進上). (1992). A relevant study of elementary school teachers’ controlling beliefs, working stress and life development. Elementary Educational Journal of National Tainan Teachers College, 5, 33-89.
Chang, L. C. (張麗琪). (2000). A study on the relations among junior and senior high school climates, tutors’ job stress and their coping strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Changhua Normal University.
Chang, M. L. (張明麗). (1991). A study on the working stress, job satisfaction and attitudes of retirement of elementary school female teachers. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Chengchi University.
Chang, S. Y. (張淑雲) (2002). The investigation of elementary school teachers when they face the working stress in the Grade 1-9 Curriculum, their coping strategies and needs of professional development. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Tainan Teachers College.
Chaplain, R. P. (1995). Stress and job satisfaction: A study of English primary school teachers. Educational Psychology, 15(4), 473-489.
Chen, B. C. (陳伯璋) (1999). The analysis of the ideas and theories of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. In Association for Research & Development of Teaching Materials (Ed.), Going to the new era of curriculum(I). Taipei: Association for Research & Development of Teaching Materials.
Chen, C. H. (陳嘉皇). (1996). A study on organizational conflict management of the elementary school. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Ping-Tung Teachers College.
Chen, H. M. (陳鴻銘). (1995). A study of elementary school teachers’ role conflict and their coping strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taipei Teachers College.
Chen, K. C. (陳奎熹). (1993). Investigation of educational sociology. Taipei: Shtabook.
Chen, I. M. (程一民) (1996). A study of elementary school teachers’ working stress and their coping strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis. Taipei Municipal Teachers College.
Chen, S. B. (陳宣伯) (2001). A study and investigation of elementary school teachers’ opinions toward the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Ping-Tung Teachers College.
Chiang, S. Y. (江思瑩). (2004). The change of junior high school teachers’ role. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University.
Chin, M. C. (秦夢群). (1997). Educational Administrative- Parts of theory. Taipei: Wu-Nan.
Chiou, S. Y. (邱憲義). (1997). A study of the relationship between organizational climate and job stress of elementary school teachers. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taichung Teachers College.
Chiu, S. Y. (邱馨儀) (2002). The junior high school language arts teachers’ knowledge and attitudes toward The 1-9 Curriculum. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University.
DeFrank, R. S., & Stroup, C. A. (1989). Teacher stress and health: Examination of a model. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33(1), 99-109.
Deng, G. M. (鄧柑謀). (1991). Study on the relationship of junior high school personnel’s working stress, coping strategies and profession burnout. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Eggleston, J. (1992). The challenge for teachers. N. Y.: Cassell.
Fimian Friesen, D & Mary-Jo, W. (1984). Organizational stress among teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 10(1), 13-34.
Golaszewski, T. J., Milstein, M. M., Duquette, R. D., & London, W. M. (1984). Organizational and health manifestations of teacher stress: A preliminary report on the Buffalo teacher stress intervention project. Josh, 54(11),458-163.
Grace, G. R. (1972). Role conflict and the teacher. London & Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Greenberg, J. S. (1995). Comprehensive stress management. N. Y.: Viking.
Greenberg, G., & Baron, R. (1997). Behavior in organization. (Ed.). Englewood cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.
Harris, K. R. (1985). Teacher characteristics and stress. Journal of Educational Research, 78(6), 346-350.
Hitchcock, G., & Hughes, D. (1995). Research and the teacher: A qualitative introduction to school-based research. (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Hong, F. C. (洪福財). (1999). Roles of elementary school teachers in the development of school-based curriculum. Practice Teachers Quarterly, 18, 6-13.
Hong, Z. J. (洪榮正) (2001). Talking about teacher roles in the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. Primary Education of Chiayi County , 34, 52-55.
Hsieh, J. Q. (謝金青). (1991). A study of role conflict and job satisfaction of elementary school teachers with administrative position. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Chengchi University.
Hsieh, S. L. (謝琇玲). (1990). Investigation of organization climates, teachers’ working stress and their coping strategies in junior high schools. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Huang, C. L. (黃志龍). (2000). A study for the assumed role of teaching supervisor of primary school: based on the example of Taipei County. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taipei Teachers College.
Huang, J. G. & Jeng, Y. Y (黃正鵠&鄭英耀). (1989). Study on the relationship among junior high school teachers’ working stress, achievement motives and professional burnout. Educational Journal, 8, 113-176.
Huang, I. L. (黃義良). (1999). Study on the elementary school’s part-time administrative teachers work-load pressure and their methods of accommodation. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Ping Tung Teachers College.
Huang, W. S. (黃文三). (1997). Teachers’ roles and instructional function. Education Research, 5, 15-31.
Hung, H. (1988). The effect of social support on teacher stress and teacher burnout. (AAC 8816477)
Ivancevich & Matteson (1980). Occupational stress, strain and coping across the life span. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 27, 98-108.
Jia, F. M. (賈馥茗). (1995). Educational philosophy. Taipei: Sanmin.
Jiang, D. S. (姜得勝). (1998). Construction of the molting and new image of cross-era teacher roles. Educational Journal of Kaohsiung, 60, 25-29.
Jiang, H. J. (江鴻鈞). (1995). A study on the job stress and coping strategy for the beginning principals of elementary school in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taichung Teachers College.
Kaplan, P. S. & Stein, J. (1984). Psychology of adjustment. California: Wadsworth Publish Company.
Labov, W. (1970). The study of language in its social context. Studium General, 20, 30-87.
Lan, C. F. (藍采風). (1986). Life stress and coping strategies. Taipei:Youth.
Lazarus, R. S. & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.
Lee, S. J. (李勝彰). (2003). A study of junior high school teachers’ job stress, coping strategies and their attitude of retirement. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Changhua Normal University.
Lee, W. F. (李宛芳) (2001). Research on the attitude of elementary school teachers toward “9-year Joint Curricula Plan for elementary and Junior high schools” –Taking the pre-implemented school in the east of Taiwan as sample. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Hualien Teachers College.
Leffel, L. G. (1988). The competitive advantage: Client service. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED: 300628.)
Levinson, J. D. (1959). Role, personality and social structure in the organizational setting. Abnormal Social Psychology, 58, 178-180. London: Routledge& Kegan Paul.
Lin, C. C. (林清江) (1998). A special report of the planning of primary education- the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. Education and Culture Committee, 6th session, 3rd term. Taipei: Ministry of Education.
Lin, C. W. (林純文). (1996). Study on the elementary schools’ structural climate, teachers’ job stress, and their methods of coping with them. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Ping-Tung Teachers College.
Lin, J. R. (林政蓉). (2003). Study on the stress of junior high school health and physical teachers after the implementation of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University.
Lin, S. M. (林思妙). (1993). To view the process of working stress from junior high school teachers’ cognitive evaluation and coping strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University.
Lin, S. M. (林水木). (2001). Astudy of the relationships between the organizational changes and teachers’ job stress in the elementary schools. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taichung Teachers College.
Ma, S. S. (馬信行). (1996). Effects of postmodernism towards education. Journal of Education Research, 50, 12-23.
Manthei, R. & Solman, R. (1988). Teacher stress and negativeoutcomes in Canterbury State schools. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 23(2), 145-163.
Martens, R. (1987). Coaches guide to sport psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Ministry of Education. (1998). The Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines.
Retrieved November 20, 2004, from http://teach.eje.edu.tw/9CC/brief/brief7.php
Ministry of Education. (2000). The Grade 1-9 Curriculum Tentative Guidelines.
Retrieved November 20, 2004, from http://teach.eje.edu.tw
Oxford English Dictionary Online. (2003)
Retrieved November 20, 2004, from http://www.oed.com/
O’connoy & Clarke (1990). Occupational stress, strain and coping across the life span. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 27, 98-108.
O, Y.S. (歐用生) (1999).To comment the Grade 1-9 Curriculum from the ideas of “Curriculum Intergration.” Educational Research & Information, 7(1), 22-32.
Radnofsky, M. C. (1994). Empowerment and the power not to change: Teacher’s perceptions of restructuring. International journal of educational reform, 3(2).
Robbins, S. P. (1994). Essentials of organizational behavior. (4th ed.). Englewood cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.
Salo, K. (1995). Teacher-stress process: How can they be explained? Scandinavian Journal of Education Research, 39(3), 205-222.
Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York:McGraw-Hill.
Short, P. M., & Johnson, P. E. (1994). Exploring the links among teacher empowerment leader power and conflict. The Pennsylvania State University, University of Alabama.
Song, L. J. (宋禮彰). (2002). A study for the work press of administrators in elementary school in terms of organization change and the coping ways that they would adopt. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taichung Teachers College.
Tsai, B. H. (蔡璧煌) (1989). An investigation of junior high school teachers’ and elementary school teachers’ stress. Journal of National Taiwan Normal University, 34, 75-114.
Tsai, C. T. (蔡純姿). (1998). Study on the job stress of perceiving educational reform and coping strategy for the elementary school teachers. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Tsai, M. J. (蔡孟珍) (2001). The study of job stress of the elementary school teachers participating in experimental Nine-year Integration Curriculum and their coping strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Tsai, S. K. (蔡先口) (1985). A study of the relationship between teachers’ working stress and professional attitudes, and their relevant factors. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University.
Tu, Y. L. (涂燕玲) (2003). The study of teachers’ role conflict of elementary school in
Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Ping-Tung Teachers College.
Tzeng, J. S. (曾吉雄) (2000). A study of elementary school teachers’ working stress of participating in the open education and their coping strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Tzeng, S. C. (曾守誌). (2003). A study of junior high school class-advisors’ job stress and adjustment strategies in the Nine-Year Integrated Curriculum Implementation. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Changhua University of Education.
Tzou, S. C. (周淑卿). (2002). Curriculum integration design and problem discussion of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum. In Cultural and Educational Foundation of National Tainan Teachers College (Eds.), The Grade 1-9 Curriculum, from theory, policy to administration (pp. 81-98). Kaohsiung: Fu-wen.
Tzou, L. S. (周立勳) (1986). An investigation of the relationships between elementary school teachers’ working stress, controlling beliefs, and occupation exhaust. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Wang, C. H. (王振鴻) (2000). A study of elementary school teachers’ concern with the changeover and the determining factors toward The Grade 1-9 Curriculum. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Chengchi University.
Wang, C. R. (王秋絨) (1982). The influence of the organization and environment of junior high school toward teachers’ pressure. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taiwan Normal University.
Wang, N. C. (王念騏) (2001). The study of job stress of the elementary school teachers participating in experimental Nine-year Integration Curriculum. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Tainan Teachers College.
Wu, P. F. (吳佩芳) (2002). A study of attitude of elementary school educational personnel toward educational reform. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Tainan Teachers College.
Wu, T. F. (吳天方). (1999). Analysis of teacher roles— An apocalypse of Mr. Holland’s Opus. Printed in Practice Teachers Quarterly, 5(1), 15-17.
Wu, Y. J. (吳英璋). (1994). Side effects of coping of stress and coping of success. Test and Counseling, 123, 251-253.
Xu, F. G. (許芳菊). (1997). Future teachers. Common Wealth Magazine: Special edition, 16, 40-43.
Yang, C. S. (楊洲松). (1997). The postmodern knowledge discourse of Lyotard and its implications on education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. National Taiwan Normal University.
Yang, I. F. (楊益風) (1999). The strikes and newborn of elementary school in the end of the century. Educational Research & Information, 7(2), 139-146。
Yang, I. F. (楊益風) (1999a). The strikes and newborn of elementary school and junior high school in the end of the century. Educational Research & Information , 7(1), 49-56。
Yang, I. F. (楊益風) (2001). The role conflicts what the revolution of “Grade 1-9 Integrated Curriculum” bring the teachers of elementary and secondary school and their solutions. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taipei Teachers College.
Yeh, J. C. (葉兆祺). (2000). A study on the job stress and coping strategy for the intern teachers of elementary school in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taichung Teachers College.
Yeh, L. Y. (葉龍源). (1998). A study on the job stress and the ways of coping for the director of elementary school in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Taichung Teachers College.
Yu, C. S. (游肇賢). (2002). A study of role conflict and job satisfaction of junior high school teachers with administrative position. Unpublished master’s thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Yu, J. J. (游家政) (1999). Recreate the image of the “Grade 1-9 Curriculum of primary education.”—The plans and possible problems of the curriculum guidelines. Educational Resources and Research, 26, 4-18。
Zou, J. W. (饒見維) (2001). An examination of the Grade 1-9 Curriculum and teachers’ professional roles. New Horizon Bimonthly for Teachers in Taipei, 113, 7-13.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top