(3.239.33.139) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/07 23:33
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡諭萱
研究生(外文):Yu-Hsuan Tsai
論文名稱:利用隱喻誘引技術探究消費者的心智模型:以MP3為例
論文名稱(外文):Using Zaltman Metaphors Elicitation Technique to Explore Consumers' Mental Model of Product: Taking MP3 as an Example
指導教授:凌儀玲凌儀玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Ling Ling
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:行銷與流通管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:心智模型隱喻誘引技術方法目的鏈
外文關鍵詞:mental modelZaltman Metaphors Elicitation Techniquemeans-end chain
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
  • 點閱點閱:265
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:6
In the keen competitive market, knowing what consumers want is fundamental for a successful business. To explore consumers’ thoughts more accurately, Zaltman and Higie (1993) proposed a newly patented research tool which named “Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique” (hereafter ZMET). Participants in ZMET were required to search the pictures which can represent their thoughts of a specific object. These pictures were taken as metaphors of consumer psychology. It could diminish the limitations of traditional verbal communication. Beside, this study added music as the other metaphor and tried to enlarge the application scope of ZMET. In other words, this study, by taking mp3 as the object, hoped to increase the usability of ZMET and then introduce ZMET to academic and practical domain. Finally, a questionnaire was made for verifying the effectiveness of ZMET. Data collection was from the depth interview and sample size was12. The number of verification sample was 35.

The result revealed that there were 39 constructs of consumers’ thought toward mp3. Among these, “Convenience” and “happiness” had the strongest relationship with other constructs. It meant that consumers’ mind include not only rational factors, but also emotional ingredients. In addition, elements and relation which elicited from each steps and two metaphors were coincident. Verification questionnaire also revealed the same result. That explained ZMET was indeed a useful technique and music could be an effective metaphor in ZMET.
LIST OF FIGURES V
LIST OF TABLES VI
Chapter
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motives 1
1.2 Research Problems 2
1.3 Research Goals 2
1.4 Research Flow 3
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 Mental Model 5
2.2 Means-End Chain 6
2.3 ZMET (Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique) 11
 ZMET Promises 12
 ZMET Contents 14
 Application in ZMET 15
3. METHODOLOGY 18
3.1 Research Instrument 18
 Object 18
 Sample 18
3.2 Research Design 20
 Depth Interview 20
 Interview Steps 21
 Analysis Method 24
3.3 Pretest 24
 Elements and Constructs in Pretest 24
4. RESULT 27
4.1 Personal Data of Sample 27
4.2 Results of ZMET 28
 Elicitation of Elements and Constructs 28
 Most Representative Images 32
 Sensory Images 33
 Verification of Music Metaphors 35
 The Mental Map (The Consensus Map) 36
4.3 Result of Verification Questionnaire 38
 Summary 39
5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 41
5.1 Evaluating the Achievement of the Objects 41
 Using ZMET to Explore The Mental Model 41
 Music Is An Effective Metaphor 41
5.2 Implication 42
 For Theory Development 42
 For Managerial Practice 42
5.3 Limitation and Recommendations 43
BIBLIOGRAPHY 45
Appendix A: Questionnaire 51
Appendix B: Verification Questionnaire 54
Appendix C: Interview Reports 58
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arnheim, R. (1969), Visual Thinking, Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press.
Backer, T. E. (2002), “Partnership as an Art Form: What Works and What Doesn’t in Nonprofit Arts Partnerships,” John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, Working Paper.
Barker, R. G. (1968), Ecological Psychology: Concepts and Methods for Studying the Environment of Human Behavior, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bone, P. F., and Jantrania, S. (1992), “Olfaction as a Cue for Product Quality,” Marketing Letters, 3, 3, pp.289-296.
Burgoon, J. K., Buller, D. B. and Woodall, W. G. (1989), Nonverbal Communication: The Unspoken Dialogue. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Celsi, R. L. and Olson, J. C. (1988), “The Role of Involvement in Attention and Comprehension Processes,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15, pp.210-224.
Chen, Y. T. (2004), “Brand Image Management: a case study of ZMET,” Dissertation in Shih Hsin University.
Cheng, H. Y. (2003), “A Study of Relationships Between Knowledge Structure, Involvement, and Consumers' Comprehension,” Dissertation in Cha Yi University.
Christensen, G. L. and Olson, J. C. (2001), “Involved with What? The Impact of Heterogeneity in Goal Hierarchies on High Enduring Involvement,” in M. C. Gilly and J. Meyers-Levy (Eds.), Advances in Consumer Research, 28, pp.392. Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research.
Christensen, G. L. and Olson, J. C. (2002), “Mapping consumers’ mental models with ZMET,” Psychology and Marketing, 19, 6, pp.477-501.
Classen, C. (1993), Worlds of Sense: Exploring the Senses in History and Across Cultures, New York: Routledge.
Cohen, M. (1979), “On the Systematic Linear Variation of Atomic Expectation Values,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, 7.
Craik, K. (1943), The Nature of Explanation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Damasio, A. R. (1994), Descartes’Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.
Danesi, M. (1990), “Thinking Is Seeing: Visual Metaphors and the Nature of Abstract Thought,” Semiotica 80, 3/4, pp.221-237.
Eakin, E. (2002), “Penetrating the mind by metaphor,”New York Times.
Geistfeld, L.V., Sproles, G. B. and Badenhop, S. B. (1977), “The Concept and Measurement of a Hierarchy of Product Characteristics,” Hunt, H.K. (Ed.) Advances in Consumer Research, 9, pp.302-307.
Gibbs, R. W., Jr. (1994), The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language, and Understanding, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Gutman, J. (1982), “A Means-End Chain Model Based on Consumer Categorization Processes,” Journal of Marketing, 46(2), pp. 60-72.
Gutman, J. and Reynolds, T. (1979), An Investigation of the Levels of Cognitive Abstraction Utilized by Consumers in Product Differentiation. Attitude Research under the Sun. Chicago: American Marketing Association.
Gwendolyn, C. (2000), “The ZMET Alternative,” Marketing Research, 12, 2.
Hall, E. T. (1959), The Silent Language, New York, NY: Doubleday.
Heyworth, R.M. (1988), Mental Representation of Knowledge for a Topic in High School Chemistry, Michigan: Bell and Howell Company.
Holbrook, M. B. and Corfman, K. P. (1985), “Quality and Value in the Consumption Experience: Phaedrus Rides Again,” Perceived Quality, J. Jacoby and J. Olson, eds. pp.31-57, MA: Lexington Books.
Holbrook, M. B. (1996), “Customer Value: A Framework for Analysis and Research,” Advances in Consumer Research, 23, pp.138-142.
Hong, S. C. (2004), “A New Product Development and Marketing Strategy Research Combining MEC and ZMET,” Dissertation in Shih Hsin University.
Howard, J. A. (1977), Consumer Behavior: Application and Theory, New York: Mcgraw Hill.
Howes, D. (1991), The Varieties of Sensory Experience: A Sourcebook in the Anthropology of the Senses, Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
Hsieh, P. R. (2004), “Research of On-Line Game Players' Mental Model and Using on Marketing,” Dissertation in Shih Hsin University.
Huang, Y. Y. (2001), “A Means-End Chain Analysis of Consumer Value: Comsumption of Children’s Clothes,” Dissertation in Sun Yat-sen University.
Johnson, M. (1980), Metaphors We Live By, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Johnson, M. (1987), The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination and Reason, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983), Mental models: Toward a cognitive science of language, inference, and consciousness, Cambridge MA:Harvard University Press.
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1989), Mental models: In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Foundations of cognitive science, pp.469-499. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Keller, K. L. (1993), “Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer based brand equity,” Journal of Marketing, 57, pp1-22.
Kelly, G. A. (1955), The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., Inc..
Kelly, G. A. (1963), A Theory of Personality. New York, NY: Norton.
Kessler, K., Duwe, I. and Strohner, H. (1999), “Grounding Mental Models: Subconceptual Dynamics in the Resolution of Linguistic Reference in Discourse.” In G. Rickheit & C. Habel (Eds.), Mental Models in Discourse Processing and Reasoning, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V., pp. 169-193.
Knapp, M. (1980), Essentials of Nonverbal Communication, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Ko, D. (2004), “A Study of the Uses and Gratifications of Internet Shopping,” Dissertation in Shih Hsin University.
Lakoff, G. (1987), Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Lee, M. F. (2002), “A Study of Purchasing Cell-phone: Application of Means-End Chain,” Dissertation in Nanhua University.
Lee M.S.Y., McGoldrick P.J., Keeling K.A., and Doherty J. (2003), “Using ZMET to explore barriers to the adoption of 3G mobile banking services,” International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 31, 6, pp.340-349.
Lewis, R. C., and Klein, D. M. (1985), “Personal Constructs: Their Use in the Marketing of Intangible Services,” Psychology and Marketing, 2, 3, pp.201-215.
Lin, C. W (2004), “The Effect of Advertising Endorser, Factual Information Cue and Knowledge Structure on the Advertising Message,” Dissertation in Cha Yi University.
Lin, Y. Y. (2004), “Application of ZMET in Developing Creative Advertising Concept,” Dissertation in Shih Hsin University.
MacDougall, D. (1992), “Films of Memory,” Visual Anthropology Review 8, 1, pp. 29-37.
Manyiwa, S. and Crawford, I. (2001), “Determining Linkages between Consumer Choices in a Social Context and the Consumer’s Value: A Means-end Approach,” Journal of Consumer Behavior, 2, pp.54-70.
McAdms, S. and Bigand, E. (1993), Thinking in Sound: The Cognitive Psychology of Human Audition, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Mehrabian, A. (1971), Silent Messages, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Mitchell, A. A. and Dacin, P. A. (1996), “The Assessment of Alternative Measures of Consumer Expertise,” Journal of Consumer Research, 23, pp.219-239.
Myers, J. H. and Shocker, A. D. (1981), “The Nature of Product-Related Attributes,” Research in Marketing, 5. Greenwich, pp.211-236, CT: JAI Press.
Norman, D. A. (1983), Some observations on mental models, in Gentner D. and Stevens, A.L. (1983), Mental Models, New Jersey and London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Olson, J. C. and Jacoby, J. (1974), “Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Cues as Determinants of Perceived Product Quality,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(1), pp.74-80.
Olson, J. C. and Reynolds, T. J. (1983), Understanding Consumer’s Cognitive Structures: Implications for Advertising Strategy, Advertising and Consumer Psychology, L. Percy and A. Woodside, eds. MA: Lexington Books.
Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988), "SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Customer Perceptions of Service Quality", Journal of Retailing, pp. 12-40.
Pinker, S. (1994), The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Poyatos, F. (1993), Paralanguage: A Linguistic and Interdisciplinary Approach to Interactive Speech and Sound. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Co..
Reynolds, T. J. and Gutman, J. (1988), “Laddering Theory, Method, Analysis, and Interpretation,” Journal of Advertising Research, 28(1), pp.11-31.
Rokeach, M. J. (1968), “The Role of Values in Public Opinion Research,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 32, pp.547-549.
Rokeach, M. J. (1973), The Nature of Human Values, NY: The Free Press.
Runkel, P. J. and McGrath, J. E. (1972), Research on Human Behavior: A Systematic Guide to Method, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Rust, R. T. and Oliver, R. L. (2000), “Should We Delight the Customer?” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28, pp.86-94.
Schank, Roger C. (1990), Tell Me A Story: A New Look at Real and Artificial Memory. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Schoell, W. F. and Guiltian, J. P. (1990), Marketing: Contemporary Concepts and Practices, 4th ed, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Shaw, Mildred L. G., and McKnight, C. (1980), Think Again: Personal Decision-Making and Problem-Solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Sheng, T. H. (2004), “Integrating Reputation Quotient and Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique in the Study of Corporate Images of Financial Institutions,” Dissertation in Shih Hsin University.
Sheth, J. N., Newman, B. I., and Gross, B. L. (1991), “Why We Buy What We Buy: A Theory of Consumption Values,” Journal of Business Research, 22, pp.159-170.
Stanton, W. J., Etzel, M. J. and Walker, B. J. (1991), Fundamentals of Marketing, 9th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tsai, P. F. (2004), “A Study of TV Drama Development and Marketing in the Use of Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique: Choosing College Students as Research Subjects,” Dissertation in Shih Hsin University.
Valette-Florence, Pierre, and Rapacchi, B. (1991), “Improvements in Means-End Chain Analysis Using Graph Theory and Correspondence Analysis,” Journal of Advertising Research, 31, 1, pp.30-45.
Varela, F. J., Thompson, E. and Rosch, E. (1991), The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experiene, Cambrige, MA: The MIT Press.
Vorell, M. S. (2003), “Application of the ZMET Methodology in an Organizational Context: Comparing Black and White Student Subcultures in a University Setting,” Dissertation in Miami University.
Walker, B. A. and Olson, J. C. (1991), “Means-End Chains: Connecting Products With Self,”Journal of Business Research, 22, pp.111-118.
Wedel, M., Vriens, M., Bijmolt, T. H. A., Krijnen, W. and Leeflang, P. S. H. (1998), “Assessing the Effects of Abstract Attributes and Brand Familiarity in Conjoint Choice Experiments,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15(1), pp.71-78.
Weiser, J. (1993), Phototherapy Techniques: Exploring the Secrets of Personal Snapshots and Family Albums. San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass.
Weng, H. M. (2004), “A Study of Consumers’ Ideal Brand Images in the Use of Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique: Using Ready-to- Drink Coffee as an Example,” Dissertation in Shih Hsin University.
Wilkie, W. C. and Pessemier, E. A. (1973), “Issues in Marketing’s Use of Multiattribute Attitude Models,” Journal of Marketing Research, 10, pp.428-441.
Young, S. and Feigin, B. (1975), “Using the Benefit Chain for Improved Strategy Formulation,”Journal of Marketing, 39, pp.72-74.
Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985), “Measuring the Involvement Construct,” Journal of Consumer Research, 12, pp.341-352.
Zaltman, G. and Higie, R. A. (1993), “Seeing the Voice of the Customer: The Zaltman Metaphors Elicitation Technique,” Cambridge, MA: Working Paper, Marketing Science Institute, pp.93-114.
Zaltman, G., and Coulter, R. A. (1995), “Seeing the Voice of the Customer: Metaphor-Based Advertising Research,” Journal of Advertising Research, 35, pp.35-52.
Zaltman (1996), "Metaphorically Speaking," Marketing Research, 8, 2, pp.13-20
Zaltman, G. (1997), “Rethinking market research: Putting people back in,” Journal of Marketing Research, 34, pp.424-437.
Zeithaml, V. A. (1988), “Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence,” Journal of Marketing, 52, pp2-22.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔