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研究生:黃文聰
研究生(外文):Wen-toung Huang
論文名稱:海運市場結構與貨櫃船航商績效之研究
論文名稱(外文):An empirical study on the relationship between structure and performance of international container transportation market
指導教授:吳偉銘吳偉銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Ming Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:運輸倉儲營運所
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:定期航運市場產業經濟聯立方程組
外文關鍵詞:Simultaneous equation modelsIndustry economicsLiner shipping market
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
  • 點閱點閱:284
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
近十餘年來,隨著貨櫃運輸市場朝向大型化發展,而貨櫃船大型化的發展趨勢,雖可使得航商享有成本上的優勢。但也使整體產業之進入成本越來越高,而航商之投資報酬率卻逐漸降低。同時,伴隨市場上航商合併、併購風氣,其更使市場趨向集中化。另外,航商為因應低價競爭及增加市占率,常採取合作聯營的方式來擴大服務範圍、提高艙位使用率及提升服務品質等。
本研究應用產業經濟學中SCP (structure-conduct-performance)模式,藉由對市占率、價格水準、船隊效率三者間關係,來了解航商績效與市場結構之關聯。在實証分析上,本研究期間為1997-2004年,並針對國際定期貨櫃航運市場中16家航商進行分析。而在分析方法上,採用panel data與聯立方程組(simultaneous equation models ,SEM)來分別探討之。由實證結果分析得知:一、航商投入大型船舶,雖然可以提高航商之市場力量,但卻使得運能過剩的問題更加嚴重,而導致船隊效率降低及航商價格水準下滑。二、產業集中度與價格水準為正向關係且集中度逐年增加,代表領導航商有可能採取價格策略來提高獲利。三、航商欲提高船隊效率與市占率,大多採取削價策略,但卻使得航商獲利因此下滑。四、航商採取合作聯營的方式,可以提高價格水準但對市占率的提升無明顯的幫助。五、雖然提高遠洋航線比率可以增加船隊效率,但卻使得市占率並無法有效提升。
In the past decade, the upraising size of container ship has become a tendency in the international container transportation market. Although container liners have exploited the economies of scale from deploying big ships, the benefit has been outweighed by the decreasing freight. Under the severe competition, the market has been getting more concentrated because some liners have been exited from the market and merged by competitors. In response to the intense competition, most of major carriers have been separated into several groups by the strategies of joint venture, alliance and slot exchange. It is expected that the strategies will not only increase the liner’s market share, but also release the market competition.
The conventional framework of industry economics has focused on the hypothesized relations among structure, conduct and performance (SCP). The theoretical framework has been borrowed to examine the international shipping market structure and performance of container liners. In addition, Panel data method and simultaneous equation models individually are used to estimate the parameters of the market share, price level, and fleet efficiency with the sample covering 16 carriers during 1997-2004. The study has reached the following results. (1) Though carriers can rise the market power by deploying big ships, to enlarge the ship size will result in inefficiency of container fleet operated and lower price level. (2) There exists a positive correlation between concentration ratio and price level. This result suggests that carriers can collect a heighten price by means of deterring entry. (3) There is a negative correlation between market share and price level. This result suggests that carriers could apply cutting price strategy to increase market share. (4) There is a positive correlation between joint venture and price level. This result implies that carriers can increase revenues by the strategies of joint venture. (5) This study also shows a positive correlation the ratio between trip ocean and fleet efficiency, but it’s a negative correlation the ratio between trip ocean and market share. This result reveals that higher trip ocean ratio can improve fleet efficiency but it cannot improve market share.
壹、序 論 1
一、研究動機與背景1
二、研究目的3
三、研究範圍與分析對象3
四、研究流程5
貳、文獻探討7
一、產業經濟理論7
二、結構學派與效率學派10
三、相關文獻與整理 11
參、定期航運市場概況18
一、市場結構特性18
二、航商行為20
肆、研究方法25
一、Panel Data模型 25
二、聯立迴歸方程式理論33
三、變數說明與實證模式建立39
四、資料來源與數據轉換45
伍、實證分析結果49
一、縱橫資料分析51
二、聯立迴歸分析55
陸、結論與建議59
一、結論59
二、建議62
參考文獻63
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