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研究生:廖淑蓉
研究生(外文):Shu-jong, Liao
論文名稱:英語中介語塞音發音研究:嗓音起始時間分析
論文名稱(外文):Interlanguage production of English stop consonants: A VOT analysis
指導教授:鍾榮富鍾榮富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Raung-fu Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:嗓音起始時間(VOT)
外文關鍵詞:VOT
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摘要
本文從客觀的聲學角度探討台灣中學生的英語塞音發音,以及了解國語和閩南語塞音的聲學特性。為了檢視塞音的發音情形,本研究以「嗓音起始時間」(Voice Onset Time, VOT)為指標。簡單來說,VOT指的是自塞音釋放 (release) 之後到聲帶規則振動之間的時距。
本研究的對象為二十位年齡在十三歲到十六歲的高中生,依據田野調查所蒐集的資料,利用語音分析軟體PRAAT測量VOT,計算其平均值及標準差,並進行統計分析。這二十位受試者又以是否通過全民英語能力檢定初級分為兩組,目的在於檢視英語語言能力對英語中介語塞音發音之影響。
本研究的結論如下:一、英語有聲子音/b, d, g/有清化的趨勢,因此,其VOT值相當接近無聲不送氣子音/p, t, k/。二、台灣學生的英語塞音的VOT值介於國語與英語之間;值得注意的是,台灣學生並沒有以國語的/ㄅ/,/ㄉ/,/ㄍ/取代英語的/b, d, g/。三、台灣學生的英語程度對英語塞音發音有幫助;也就是說,程度愈好的學生,其英語塞音的VOT值,就愈接近母語人士。四、學習第二語言影響了台灣學生的國語發音;高能力組別的台灣學生(HEFL),其國語不送氣塞音的VOT值明顯比低能力組別的台灣學生(LEFL)短,並且差異性到達 .05顯著水準。
根據研究結果,研究者建議英語教師多提供學生開口練習的機會,並且利用輔助教具幫助學生學習。再者,除了課堂教學之外,教師可以鼓勵並引導學生在課餘時間善用網路及媒體資源學習英語。
關鍵字:嗓音起始時間 (VOT)
ABSTRACT

This study presents the results of a speech-production experiment designed to reveal the physical realities of stop consonants in Mandarin and Southern Min, to which researchers in Taiwan pay little attention. In addition, the experiment aims to compare the English stop production by 6 NSE and 20 EFL students. The 20 EFL subjects were further divided into 2 subgroups in terms of proficiency level: HEFL and LEFL. The productions were recorded directly into the computer and further analyzed by adopting the powerful software PRAAT. The utterances were digitized and the phonetic feature assessed here was voice onset time (VOT), which has been recognized as the best linguistic cue to separate stop consonants into categories.
The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, VOT values that were obtained in this study fall within the normal range observed by previous studies. Second, for English /b, d, g/ by native speakers of American English, there seems to be a tendency to shift from the voiced toward the voiceless unaspirated; that is, the VOT values tend to be higher and higher gradually from previous studies to the present one. Third, interlanguage production by EFL students revealed that they do not use their L1 values for their L2. Empirical evidence came from the fact that the VOT values of English stops by EFL students fall between the values for their L1 and L2. Also, EFL students adjusted their VOT values for /ph/ and /th/ when producing English. More specifically, in their L1, / ph / is produced with higher VOT for /th/, yet they modified the pattern and produced /th/ with higher VOT values to fit into the phonetic norm of English stops. Fourth, proficiency has its effect on the interlanguage production of stop consonants. Those who are more proficient in English produce English stops in a more native-like fashion. Finally, learning L2 seems to have some effect on their L1 production. In this study, HEFL produced Mandarin /p, t, k/ with shorter VOT values, which is assumed to be affected by the L2 /b, d, g/, in support of the claim by previous studies.
Keyword: VOT
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 2
1.2 Purpose of the Study 5
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Hypotheses 7
1.5 Definition of Interlanguage 7
1.5 Significance of the Study 8
1.6 Limitations of the Study 8

CHPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Stop Production and VOT 11
2.1.1 Three Phases of Stop Production 11
2.1.2 VOT 12
2.2 GFA vs. VOT 13
2.3 Inventories of Stops Consonants in English, Mandarin, and Southern Min 15
2.3.1 Voiced vs. Voiceless Stops in English 16
2.3.2 Two-way Contrasts in Mandarin 19
2.3.3 Three-way Contrasts in Southern Min 21
2.4 Studies on Interlanguage Production of Stop Consonants 22

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 27
3.0 Introduction 27
3.1 Subjects 27
3.1.1 NSE 27
3.1.2 HEFL 28
3.1.3 LEFL 29
3.2 Speech Materials 30
3.3 Procedure 31
3.3.1 Prior to the Recording 31
3.3.2 Recording 32
3.3.3 Syllable Fetching and VOT measurements 33
3.4 Data Analysis 35

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 36
4.0 Introduction 36
4.1 Results 36
4.1.1 English Stops by NSE 36
4.1.2 Mandarin Stops by EFL 45
4.1.3 Southern Min Stops by EFL 53
4.1.3.1 Voiceless stops by EFL 53
4.1.3.2 Southern Min Voiced Stops /b, g/ by EFL 57
4.1.4 Interlanguage Production by EFL 60
4.2 Discussion 72
4.2.1 NSE 72
4.2.2 EFL 74
4.2.2.1 Mandarin 74
4.2.2.2 Southern Min 75
4.2.3 Interlanguage Production by EFL 76

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 80
5.0 Introduction 80
5.1 Major Findings 81
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 84
5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies 86

REFERENCES 88
APPENDIX A: Background Questionnaire and Test Stimuli for EFL 92
APPENDIX B: Background Questionnaire and Test Stimuli for NSE 96
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