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研究生:曾文信
研究生(外文):Tseng Wen-Hsin
論文名稱:圓環旋轉壓縮成形之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Rotating Compression Forming of Ring
指導教授:簡文通鄒國益鄒國益引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien Wen-TungTzou Gow-Yi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:旋轉壓縮成形庫侖摩擦定剪摩擦切片法摩擦係數摩擦因子幾何外觀比
外文關鍵詞:Rotating Compression FormingCoulomb FrictionConstant Shear FrictionSlab MethodFrictional CoefficientFrictional FactorAspect Ratio
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本研究針對圓環旋轉壓縮成形,主要以切片法建立理論解析模式,配合商用有限元素軟體進行模擬,最後以實驗加以驗證。利用切片法建立兩種解析模式,模式Ⅰ-假設模具和圓環為庫侖摩擦(τ=μp),模式Ⅱ-假設為定剪摩擦(τ=mk)。因為圓環在旋轉時被壓縮,摩擦剪應力作用於離半徑方向α角之方向上,因此解析模式將比沒有旋轉之壓縮成形較為複雜。在金屬成形過程中,摩擦對於模具的壽命、產品的品質有重要的影響。過度的摩擦將導致熱產生,並造成模具磨耗而縮短壽命。在本文中分別探討庫侖摩擦和定剪摩擦兩種模式之壓縮特性,探討摩擦係數(或摩擦因子)、旋轉角速率、幾何外觀比等,對於壓縮特性之影響。並利用有限元素法模擬圓環旋轉壓縮成形,以獲得壓下率-內徑縮減率之摩擦校正曲線圖,並以實驗方法進行壓縮試驗,並將實驗所得之內徑縮減率對照摩擦校正曲線圖,以求得圓環旋轉壓縮時之摩擦因子。並藉由切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬分析及實驗結果相互驗證,以驗證旋轉壓縮成形之可行性與實用性。
This study aims at the rotating compression forming by constructing the theoretically analytical models based on the slab method, and performing simulation with a commercial FEM software. The verification has been done by conducting experiments. Two analytical models have been established with Coulomb friction between the die and ring assumed as Model I, and with constant shear friction assumed as Model II, respectively. The frictional shear stress acts on a certain angle from the radial direction because the ring is compressed with rotating. Therefore, the analytical models with rotating are more complicated than those without rotating. In metal forming process, the effects of friction on the die life and the product quality are very important. Excessive friction will induce the heat and hence shorten the die life due to the increase of wear rate. The compression characteristics of Coulomb friction and constant shear friction models are explored, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of frictional coefficient (or frictional factor), rotating angular speed and aspect ratio on the compression characteristics are also investigated. The simulation on the rotating compression forming of ring has been performed by an FEM software, thus the friction calibration curves of reduction versus inner radius reduction are obtained. In addition, a set of the experiments is performed to find the inner radius reduction in order to compare with the corresponding friction calibration curve. Finally, the frictional factor in the rotating compression of ring is yielded. The feasibility and practicability in the rotating compression of ring can be verified by performing the comparison on the theoretical analysis with the slab method, the simulation analysis with DEFORM software, and experimental results.
中文摘要……………………………………………………………….……Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
誌謝…………………………………...…………………...………...………Ⅲ
目錄………………………………………………………………………….Ⅳ
圖目錄……………………………………………………….………………Ⅶ
表目錄……………………………………………….………………………Ⅹ
第一章 緒論………………………………………….………………………1
1.1 前言…………………………………………………………………1
1.2 塑性加工分析方法…..……………………………………………7
1.2.1上界限法………………….…………………..………………7
1.2.2切片法.………………………………………..………………9
1.2.3下界限法….…………………………………..………………9
1.2.4滑移線場法.…………………………………..………………9
1.2.5有限元素法.....……………………………..………………10
1.2.6能量法….…………………………………..………………10
1.3 研究動機與目的..…………………………………………………11
1.3.1研究動機……………….…………………..………………11
1.3.2研究目的….………………………………..………………13
1.4 文獻回顧………..…………………………………………………13
1.5 本文架構………..…………………………………………………17
第二章 切片法於旋轉壓縮成形之解析………………….………………18
2.1 模式建立..…………………………………………………………18
2.2 庫侖摩擦解析模式之推導(模式I)…..…………………………21
2.2.1 力平衡方程式..………………………………………………21
2.2.2 降伏條件……………..………………………………………22
2.2.3 邊界條件………..………………………………..…………23
2.2.4 比壓縮壓力分佈..………………………………..…………24
2.2.5 徑向應力……..…..………………………………..…………24
2.2.6 界面比剪應力…..………………………………..…………25
2.2.7 最大壓縮壓力位置………………………………..…………25
2.2.8 壓縮負荷..………..………………………………..…………25
2.2.9 平均壓縮壓力..…..………………………………..…………26
2.3 定剪摩擦解析模式之推導(模式II)….…………………………26
2.3.1 邊界條件………..………………………………..…………27
2.3.2 比壓縮壓力分佈..………………………………..…………28
2.3.3 徑向應力……..…..………………………………..…………28
2.3.4 界面比剪應力…..………………………………..…………29
2.3.5 最大壓縮壓力位置………………………………..…………29
2.3.6 壓縮負荷..………..………………………………..…………29
2.3.7 平均壓縮壓力..…..………………………………..…………30
2.4 庫侖摩擦解析結果(模式I)………….…………………………30
2.5 定剪摩擦解析結果(模式II)………….…………………………39
2.6 結語………………………….………….…………………………45
第三章 有限元素模擬…………………….……..…………………………46
3.1 DEFORM有限元素軟體簡介…......……………………………46
3.1.1 簡介.….…………………………..…………………………46
3.1.2 DEFORM的使用流程….….…….…………………………49
3.2 模擬模式之建構……………...………...…………………………51
3.2.1 假設條件…………………………...………...………………51
3.2.2 模擬設定……………………………......……………………51
3.3 DEFORM模擬分析.……...…………………...…………………53
第四章 旋轉壓縮成形實驗與分析……………………...…………………59
4.1 旋轉壓縮成形機簡介……………………………………………59
4.2旋轉壓縮成形機機構與組件………………………..……………62
4.3 旋轉壓縮成形實驗…………………………………..……………63
4.3.1 圓環壓縮試片製作………….………………….……………63
4.3.2 圓環旋轉壓縮實驗………….…….…………………………64
4.4 實驗結果……...……………………….….………………………66
第五章 結論與建議.……………………………………………..…………76
5.1 結論……………………………………………………..…………76
5.2 建議……………………………………………………..…………77
參考文獻………………………………………………………….…………81
符號索引…………………………………………….………………………85
附錄A 期刊論文.………………………………………………...….……87
附錄 B 會議論文…..……………………………………………...….……93
作者簡介…………………………………………………………...………100
圖目錄
圖1-1 工件側表面鼓起變形……………...………………………………12
圖2-1 旋轉壓縮成形示意圖……………...………………………………19
圖2-2 圓環在zone I之應力元素圖 …………………………20
圖2-3 圓環在zone II之應力元素圖 …………………………20
圖2-4 在庫侖摩擦下,圓環在不同角速率下的應力分佈………………32
圖2-5 在庫侖摩擦下,不同摩擦係數下的應力分佈…….………………33
圖2-6 在庫侖摩擦下,不同外徑/高度比下的應力分佈.………………...34
圖2-7 在庫侖摩擦下,不同外徑/內徑比下的應力分佈….……………...35
圖2-8 在庫侖摩擦下,不同外徑/高度比,角速率變化對中立點之影響.………………………………………………………………...36
圖2-9 在庫侖摩擦下,不同外徑/內徑比,高度變化對壓縮負荷之影響.………………………………………..………………………...36
圖2-10 在庫侖摩擦下,不同旋轉角速率,外徑變化對壓縮負荷之影響..………………………………………..………………………...37
圖2-11 在庫侖摩擦下,不同旋轉角速率,內徑變化對壓縮負荷之影響..………………………………………..………………………...37
圖2-12 在庫侖摩擦下,不同旋轉角速率,高度變化對壓縮負荷之影響..………………………………………..………………………...38
圖2-13 在定剪摩擦下,圓環在不同角速率下的應力分佈..……………...40
圖2-14 在定剪摩擦下,摩擦因子對各種應力分佈之影響..……………...41
圖2-15 在定剪摩擦下,不同外徑/高度比下的應力分佈.………………...41
圖2-16 在定剪摩擦下,不同外徑/內徑比下的應力分佈.………………...42
圖2-17 在定剪摩擦下,不同外徑/高度比,角速率變化對中立點之影響…………………………………………………………………42
圖2-18 在定剪摩擦下,不同外徑/內徑比,高度變化對壓縮負荷之影響…………………………………………………………………43
圖2-19 在不同摩擦因子下,材料密度對壓縮負荷之影響...……………43
圖2-20 在定剪摩擦下,不同旋轉角速率,外徑變化對壓縮負荷之影響..………………………………………..………………………...44
圖2-21 在定剪摩擦下,不同旋轉角速率,內徑變化對壓縮負荷之影響..………………………………………..………………………...44
圖2-22 在定剪摩擦下,不同旋轉角速率,高度變化對壓縮負荷之影響..………………………………………..………………………...45
圖3-1 圓環旋轉壓縮成形之有限元素模擬圖……………...……………52
圖3-2 無旋轉時,摩擦因子對壓縮負荷之影響 ………………...54
圖3-3 有旋轉時,摩擦因子對壓縮負荷之影響 ......54
圖3-4 考慮有無旋轉時,摩擦因子對壓縮負荷之影響……………...55
圖3-5 無旋轉時,在不同初始高度下壓縮負荷之比較.....................…...55
圖3-6 有旋轉時,在不同初始高度下壓縮負荷之比較.....................…...56
圖3-7 當 時,在不同旋轉角速率下壓縮負荷之比較…...……56
圖3-8 當 時,在不同旋轉角速率下壓縮負荷之比較..………57
圖3-9 當 時,在不同旋轉角速率下壓縮負荷之比較...………57
圖3-10 當 時,在不同旋轉角速率下壓縮負荷之比較...………58
圖4-1 旋轉壓縮成形機…………………………………………...………60
圖4-2 旋轉壓縮成形機主體結構示意圖………………………...………61
圖4-3 圓環試件示意圖…………………………………………...………64
圖4-4 圓環旋轉壓縮成形( , , )....…65
圖4-5 圓環旋轉壓縮成形( , , )…..65
圖4-6 圓環旋轉壓縮成形( , , )…..65
圖4-7 圓環旋轉壓縮成形( , , )…..66
圖4-8 在定剪摩擦下, 之摩擦校正曲線..……..…….68
圖4-9 當 時,切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬與實驗結果之壓縮負荷比較( )……………………..……………………….69
圖4-10 當 時,切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬與實驗結果之壓縮負荷比較( )………………...……………….………...69
圖4-11 當 時,切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬與實驗結果之壓縮負荷比較( )…………………………...………………..70
圖4-12 當 時,切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬與實驗結果之壓縮負荷比較( )..……...…………………….……………...70
圖4-13 當 時,切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬與實驗結果之壓縮負荷比較( )…………………….……………...71
圖4-14 當 時,切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬與實驗結果之壓縮負荷比較( )……………...……….…………..71
圖4-15 當 時,切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬與實驗結果之壓縮負荷比較( )………………..……….………..72
圖4-16 當 時,切片法理論分析、DEFORM模擬與實驗結果之壓縮負荷比較( )..………………………...………72
圖4-17 當 時,旋轉與否之實驗壓縮負荷比較….……......……73
圖4-18 當 時,旋轉與否之實驗壓縮負荷比較….……......……73
圖4-19 當 時,旋轉與否之實驗壓縮負荷比較….……......……74
圖4-20 當 時,旋轉與否之實驗壓縮負荷比較….……......……74
圖4-21 無旋轉時,在不同初始高度下,實驗壓縮負荷之比較….......……75
圖4-22 有旋轉時,在不同初始高度下,實驗壓縮負荷之比較….......……75
表目錄
表3-1 圓環旋轉壓縮之模擬分析條件…………………………………...52
表4-1 旋轉壓縮成形機主體結構名稱……………………….……….….61
表4-2 圓環試片尺寸…………………………………….………………..63
表5-1 圓環旋轉壓縮成形,考慮庫侖摩擦之公式整理...………………..78
表5-2 圓環旋轉壓縮成形,考慮定剪摩擦之公式整理…...……………..79
表5-3 圓環旋轉壓縮成形,庫侖摩擦之壓縮特性比較...………………..80
表5-4 圓環旋轉壓縮成形,定剪摩擦之壓縮特性比較...………………..80
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