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研究生:楊正山
研究生(外文):Cheng-Shan Yang
論文名稱:人工授粉對番荔枝及鳳梨釋迦著果之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of artificial pollination on the fruit set of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) and atemoya (Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa).
指導教授:柯立祥柯立祥引用關係顏昌瑞
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:番荔枝鳳梨釋迦花藥花瓣形態人工異花授粉植物生長調節劑在來米粉滑石粉授粉期兩性花軟枝種
外文關鍵詞:Sugar AppleAtemoyaantherpetal characterArtificial-cross- pollinationplant growth regulatorsbeforeafter
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番荔枝與鳳梨釋迦之果實很適合東方人喜好甜食之口味,近年來,產量遞減,品質下降,產業生產力與競爭力變弱等,故探討開花特性與著果關係,俾提供產業利用。本研究分別調查不同品種之花藥開放時間花藥與其重量,不同花瓣形態授粉能力、授粉方式與著果,花藥稀釋添加增量劑對著果之影響,及生長調節劑在著果上之應用,及建立穩定產量與提升品質之作業模式,同時研發授粉工具,以降低成本,提升競爭力。番荔枝不同品種之雄蕊花藥散放時間有所不同,大部份自凌晨2點30分至早上8點30分間,其中以軟枝種最早,其次為粗鱗種與紫色種,台東一號與大目種最遲;而鳳梨釋迦之花藥散放受氣候因素影響,自下午3點至7點間,大部份於下午4點至6點間。番荔枝平均花藥數為199只/朵,花藥重量為0.011g/朵,鳳梨釋迦為229.5只/朵,重量為0.013g/朵。將花朵之花瓣發育形態分為五個時期,無論何種品種均以尚無花藥可供授粉之瓣開期具有最大授粉著果能力,產生花藥之授粉期著果率卻偏低,顯示番荔枝與鳳梨釋迦雖為兩性花,然雌雄異熟,尤以具有雌蕊先熟性,因此,在瓣開期進行人工異花授粉可提升著果率,穩定產量。為減少收集花藥勞力與成本,避免蜜蜂搶收花藥,提高作業效率,利用花藥添加1~5倍花藥等量之PVC粉、滑石粉、麵粉、太白粉與在來米粉等,亦可促進著果,且果品具有商品價值,唯甘藷粉與奶粉等處理不利留果與果實發育。植物生長調節劑GA3、NAA、BA與2.4.5TP等,可明顯提高著果率,然未續噴施將致嚴重落果。噴施著果後每隔15天再噴施GA3一次,連續6次,可使果實發育至採收,然果實較小,果形稍長,果肉口感較粗,且果肉沒有種子。依試驗結果,建立番荔枝與鳳梨釋迦人工異花授粉作業模式,提供產業經營實際應用,以解決困境。同時研發「筆型異花採粉授粉工具」與「複合式授粉槍」等兩項,簡化授粉作業,提高效率,降低生產成本,且業經取得新型專利權,確保權利。
Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) and atemoya (Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa) fruit are popular among Orientals for their sweetness. Yet in recent years, their production drops, quality decreases, and agricultural productivity and competence also weaken. So the researcher intends to focus on the relationship between inflorescence development and fruit set and provide the result as reference for the industry. This research investigates the blossom time and weight of the anther, pollination capability in different petal developmental stages, pollination method and fruit set, the influence of pollen multipliers on fruit set, and application of growth regulators on fruit set. An operation procedure is constructed to ensure stable production and enhance quality. Moreover, pollination devices are developed to decrease cost and increase competitiveness.

Different sugar apple cultivars vary in the opening time of their anthers. The opening time for most cultivars are between 2:30AM and 8:30AM. ‘Rona-Jy’ starts earliest, followed by ‘Tsu-Lin’ and ‘Tzy-seh’; ‘Taitung No.1’ and ‘Dai-Mo’ is the last one. Influenced by climatic factors, anther opening in atemoya occurs between 3:00PM and 7:00PM, mostly between 4:00PM and 6:00PM. The average quantity of anther in sugar apple is 199 pieces/bloom and the anther weight is 0.011g/bloom; in atemoya, it is 229.5 pieces/bloom, and the anther weight is 0.013g/bloom.

The development of petals is divided into five stages. Regardless of the cultivars, in petal split stage, when the sugar apple has no anther for pollination, the fruit set has the maximum pollination capability. In the pollination stage when the anther matures, however, the fruit set rate is relatively low. This indicates that sugar apple and atemoya are of hermaphrodite flowers, but there is dichogamy in the maturing of pistil and stamen. The pistil, in particular, reaches mature earlier. Therefore, executing hand-cross-pollination during the petal split stage can improve fruit set rate and reach stable production.

To reduce labor and cost of anther-collection, as well as to overcome the problem due to bees’ gathering pollen and enhance operation efficiency, the researcher uses various multipliers to dilute the pollen by 1 to 5 times before hand-pollination. These multipliers include PVC powder, talc powder, flour, tapioca starch, and rice flour. Not only that the fruit set increases but the fruit also remains the commercial value at harvest. Only sweet potato starch and milk powder do not benefit fruit setting and fruit growth. Plant growth regulators such as GA3, NAA, BA, and 2.4.5TP can significantly increase fruit set. Severe fruit drop occurs when continuous applying is not implemented. After fruit set, six consequent applying of GA at an interval of 15 days can ensure the growth of fruit till harvesting. Nevertheless, the fruit size is smaller, the shape is slight longer, the pulp tastes rougher, and there is seedless.

Based on the experiment results, hand-cross-pollination operation procedure for sugar apple and atemoya is proposed for practical utilization in the industry to solve the dilemma. Also, the researcher has developed the “Cross-pollination Pen” and the “Multifunction Pollination gun”. These devices can simplify the pollination process, increase efficiency, and lower production cost. They are also protected under the new model patent.
中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅰ
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅲ
誌謝-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅵ
目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VII

圖表目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅹ
壹、前言-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
貳、前人研究-------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
一、果樹之開花習性----------------------------------------------------- 3
(一) 花芽形成-------------------------------------------------------- 3
(二) 雌雄蕊異熟特性----------------------------------------------- 3
(三) 授粉與著果----------------------------------------------------- 6
(四) 植物生長調節劑與著果-------------------------------------- 8
二、番荔枝屬(Annona)開花習性--------------------------------------- 10
(一) 花芽形成-------------------------------------------------------- 10
(二) 雌雄蕊異熟特性----------------------------------------------- 12
(三) 授粉與著果----------------------------------------------------- 14
(四) 植物生長調節劑與著果-------------------------------------- 18
參、材料與方法----------------------------------------------------------------- 20
一、試驗材料--------------------------------------------------------------- 20
二、試驗方法--------------------------------------------------------------- 20
(一)雄蕊特性探討--------------------------------------------------- 20
(二)不同花瓣發育及開展形態之著果探討--------------------- 23
(三)人工授粉對著果之影響--------------------------------------- 24
(四)不同花藥稀釋增量劑對授粉著果之影響------------------ 24
(五)植物生長調節劑對著果之影響------------------------------ 24
(六)人工異花授粉工具研發與創作------------------------------ 25
肆、結果--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26
一、雄蕊特性探討--------------------------------------------------------- 26
二、不同花瓣形態之著果------------------------------------------------ 41
三、人工授粉對著果之影響--------------------------------------------- 45
四、不同花藥稀釋增量劑對授粉著果之影響------------------------ 50
五、植物生長調節劑對著果之影響------------------------------------ 63
六、人工異花授粉工具研發與創作------------------------------------ 74
伍、討論--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 77
一、雄蕊特性探討--------------------------------------------------------- 77
二、不同花瓣發育及開展形態之著果探討--------------------------- 78
三、人工授粉對著果之影響--------------------------------------------- 79
四、不同花藥稀釋增量劑對授粉著果之影響------------------------ 80
五、植物生長調節劑對著果之影響------------------------------------ 81
陸、結論--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 83
參考文獻-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84
作者簡介-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 93
圖表目錄
頁次
圖1. 番荔枝不同品種(系)果實--------------------------------------------- 22
圖2. 花瓣之形態變化-------------------------------------------------------- 23
圖3. 散放花藥之花瓣形態-------------------------------------------------- 35
圖4. 雄蕊花藥散放情形----------------------------------------------------- 35
圖5. 軟枝種之花藥數與重量----------------------------------------------- 40
圖6. 鳳梨釋迦之花藥數與重量-------------------------------------------- 40
圖7. 雄蕊之花藥-------------------------------------------------------------- 40
圖8. 人工異花授粉-瓣開期花瓣形態----------------------------------- 49
圖9. 人工異花授粉-瓣開期之雌雄蕊----------------------------------- 49
圖10. 人工自花授粉-授粉期花瓣形態----------------------------------- 49
圖11. 人工自花授粉-授粉期花藥散放----------------------------------- 49
圖12. 各種稀釋花藥增量劑種類-------------------------------------------- 51
圖13. 番荔枝與鳳梨釋迦之花藥以各種增量劑稀釋為1倍及5倍之著果情形----------------------------------------------------------------- 52
圖14. 授粉後著果情形-------------------------------------------------------- 53
圖15. 石松子粉著果率低----------------------------------------------------- 53
圖16. 番荔枝之花藥以各種增量劑稀釋為1倍及5倍之留果情形-- 55
圖17. 鳳梨釋迦之花藥以各種增量劑稀釋為1倍及5倍之留果情形----- 56
圖18. 番荔枝之花藥以各種增量劑稀釋為1倍及5倍之果實發育情形- 58
圖19. 番荔枝添加1倍花藥量之各種增量劑果實發育情形----------- 59
圖20. 鳳梨釋迦之花藥以各種增量劑稀釋為1倍及5倍之果實發育情形----------------------------------------------------------------------- 61
圖21. 鳳梨釋迦添加5倍花藥量之各種增量劑果實發育情形-------- 62
圖22. 各種增量劑處理之番荔枝果實-------------------------------------- 62
圖23. 各種增量劑處理之鳳梨釋迦果實----------------------------------- 62
圖24. 番荔枝噴施GA3 250ppm著果情形--------------------------------- 67
圖25. 鳳梨釋迦噴施GA3 250ppm著果情形------------------------------ 67
圖26. 未連續噴施植物生長調節劑落果嚴重----------------------------- 67
圖27. 番荔枝果實噴施GA3 6次對果實發育之影響-------------------- 69
圖28. 番荔枝連續噴施2.4.5TP 250ppm之硬熟果----------------------- 69
圖29. 鳳梨釋迦噴施植物生長調節劑果實無子化情形----------------- 70
圖30. 鳳梨釋迦果實噴施GA3 6次對果實發育之影響----------------- 70
圖31. 筆型異花採粉授粉工具之專利證書-------------------------------- 75
圖32. 複合式授粉槍之專利證書-------------------------------------------- 75
圖33. 複合式授粉槍之專利證書-------------------------------------------- 76

表1. 番荔枝軟枝種花藥散放時間調查----------------------------------- 28
表2. 番荔枝粗鱗種花藥散放時間調查----------------------------------- 29
表3. 番荔枝紫色種花藥散放時間調查----------------------------------- 30
表4. 番荔枝台東一號花藥散放時間調查-------------------------------- 31
表5. 番荔枝大目種花藥散放時間調查----------------------------------- 32
表6. 鳳梨釋迦冬期果花藥散放時間調查-------------------------------- 34
表7. 番荔枝不同品種(系)夏期果之花藥數與重量調查--------------- 37
表8. 番荔枝不同品種(系)冬期果之花藥數與重量調查--------------- 38
表9. 鳳梨釋迦冬期果花藥數與重量調查-------------------------------- 39
表10. 鳳梨釋迦與番荔枝之花藥數與重量調查-------------------------- 39
表11. 番荔枝不同品種(系)夏期果各種花瓣形態著果試驗------------ 42
表12. 番荔枝不同品種(系)冬期果各種花瓣形態著果試驗------------ 43
表13. 鳳梨釋迦冬期果各種花瓣形態之著果試驗----------------------- 44
表14. 番荔枝不同品種(系)夏期果授粉處理之著果調查--------------- 46
表15. 番荔枝不同品種(系)冬期果授粉處理之著果調查--------------- 47
表16. 鳳梨釋迦冬期果不同授粉處理之著果調查----------------------- 48
表17. 各種植物生長調節劑處理對於番荔枝著果及果實發育之影響-- 64
表18. 各種植物生長調節劑處理對於鳳梨釋迦著果及果實發育之影響----------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
表19. 番荔枝開花時噴水對著果之影響----------------------------------- 72
表20. 鳳梨釋迦開花時噴水對著果之影響-------------------------------- 73
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