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研究生:曾勤閔
研究生(外文):Chin-Min Tseng
論文名稱:導入情緒因素之提示系統對使用者績效的影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of emotional factors in notification systems on user's performance
指導教授:許有真許有真引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Chen Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:資訊系統與應用研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:系統設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:提示系統情緒認知中斷工作轉換
外文關鍵詞:Notification systemEmotionCognitionInterruptionTasks switching
相關次數:
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提示系統(Notification system)是一種在使用者工作進行中提供額外資訊的系統。以往的研究多強調在客觀層面上(例如:介面的呈現方式)能夠提升績效,但很少有研究去探討提示系統設計的主觀層面(例如:使用者情緒、偏好)。本研究目的在探究提示系統中,使用者的情緒狀態與工作績效、間歇時間和中斷效果之間的關係。間歇時間包含中斷間歇(interruption lag)與恢復間歇(resumption lag)。中斷間歇是指在中斷發生之時提供使用者預想(rehearsal)的時間;恢復間歇是使用者用來準備回復主要任務任務情境的一段時間。中斷間歇非必然會發生,但使用者要回復主要工作一定需要恢復間歇(Rogers & Monsell, 1995; Allport & Wylie, 2000)。故本研究進行實驗以探究導入情緒因素之提示系統是否可有效縮短工作時間與恢復間歇的時間,並藉由問卷來探討在提示系統中有導入情緒因素是否影響使用者的使用經驗。
本研究以不同的情緒操弄與有無提供中斷間歇時間作為研究自變項,因變相為情緒與焦慮狀態之變化、工作績效、恢復間歇時間與使用者經驗調查。研究結果顯示,雖然正向情緒對主要任務的獲勝率、完成速度並無產生影響,但在恢復間歇的時間上卻有明顯的差異:情緒狀態越正面,受測者所需花費的恢復間歇時間就越短。另外恢復間歇的時間長短與有無提供中斷間歇時間有反向關係,即提供中斷間歇會明顯縮短受測者花費在恢復間歇上的時間。此結果表示正面情緒可有效幫助使用者回復到主要任務當中,並且間接證實在提示系統環境下,正面情緒可提升工作績效。研究者根據結果提出一些後續研究方向與研究設計建議,以供未來研究者參考。
Notification system (NS) is a system which provides extra information when users are performing their tasks. In the past, the researches of notification systems mainly emphasize the objective factors (e.g., display types of interface) but rarely the subjective factors (e.g., human emotions, user’s preference). This study investigates the effects of emotional factors in notification systems on user’s performance (including interrupting effects, lag time and working performance). The lag time means the interruption lag and the resumption lag. The interruption lag is the duration of preparation that the user resumes a task after interruption. The resumption lag is the time between leaving the interrupting events and beginning the primary task. It does not necessarily have the interruption lag when the interruption occurs, but the resumption lag will always exist in switching among tasks (Rogers & Monsell, 1995; Allport & Wylie, 2000). This study explores if the emotional factors in notification systems can effectively shorten the time of working and resumption lag. This study also investigates if there will be a difference about the user’s experience in notification systems with or without the emotional manipulation.
The independent variables of this study were the different emotional manipulation and the designs with or without the interruption lag. The dependent variables of this study were the change of the emotional state, the anxious state, the working performance, the resumption lag, and the user’s experience. Significant effects were not found on subject’s score of primary tasks and the speed performing the primary tasks under the positive affect condition, but there was a significant difference in the time of the resumption lag. When the emotional state was more positive, the subjects could resume to the primary tasks faster. In other words, the positive emotions could effectively speed up the recovery to the primary tasks. Besides, there was a reverse relation between the resumption lag and the designs with or without interruption lag. That is, under the situation of offering interruption lag, the subjects would spend less time on the resumption lag. These results indicated that emotions had good effects on switching among tasks, and indirectly confirmed that emotions could improve the working performance in notification systems. According to the results of this study, we provided some directions and design suggestions for future researches.
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景 …………………………………………….… 1
1.1.1 多工環境下的提示系統應用…………………………..... 1
1.1.2 人機互動中使用者的主觀感受…………………………... 2
1.1.3 情緒因素在提示系統上的考量 ……………………….. . 3
第二節 研究目的與問題 ………………………………………. 4
第三節 研究之重要性 …………………………………………. 5
第四節 名詞釋義 ………………………………………………. 6
1.4.1 情緒(emotion) …………………………………………. 6
1.4.2 主要任務(primary task)、次要工作(secondary task)……… 7
1.4.3 間歇(lag):包含中斷間歇(interruption lag)與恢復間歇(resumption lag)..8

第二章 文獻探討
第一節 提示系統概觀 …………………………………….... 9
2.1.1 提示系統定義 …………………………………………... 9
2.1.2 提示系統的類型 …………………………………………. 11
2.1.2.1 由系統搭載的裝置來分類 ……………………….…...11
2.1.2.2 由訊息產生的機制來分類 …………………………....11
2.1.3 設計提示系統的重要概念 ………………………………..12
2.1.3.1 主要任務(primary task) ……………………………13
2.1.3.2 次要工作(secondary task) …………………………13
2.1.3.3 察覺(awareness) …………………………………...13
2.1.3.4 中斷(interruption) …………………………………14
2.1.3.5活動間執行的轉換 ………………………………….....18
2.1.4 提示系統的運作流程 ……………………………...…...19
2.1.5 提示系統的資訊呈現方式 ………………………………..20
2.1.5.1 視覺 …………………………………………………....21
2.1.5.2 聽覺 …………………………………………………....23
2.1.5.3 其他感官訊息 ………………………………………....25
2.1.6 評估提示系統的模式 - IRC Model ………….………...25
第二節 情緒因素 …………………………………………….. 29
2.2.1 情緒的定義 ………………………………………………..29
2.2.2 情緒的分類 ………………………………………………..30
2.2.3 情緒與認知 …………………………………………………31
2.2.3.1 情緒與認知的關係 .…………………………………...31
2.2.3.2 情緒對認知的影響 …….……………………………...32
2.2.4 情緒的研究方法 ….……………………………………….36
2.2.4.1 情緒引導方式 …….…………………………………...36
2.2.4.2 情緒的測量方法 ….…………………………………...37
第三節 情緒因素導入HCI的相關研究 ………………………..39
第四節 本章摘要 ……………………………………………….41

第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究設計 ……………………………………………….43
3.1.1 研究假設 .………………………………………………….43
3.1.2 自變項 ….………………………………………………….44
3.1.3 因變項 ….………………………………………………….45
第二節 實驗設計 ……………………………………………….46
3.2.1 實驗主要任務 .…………………………………………….46
3.2.2 實驗次要工作 ….………………………………………….49
3.2.3 次要工作出現的方式 ……………………….…………….52
3.2.4 實驗組別 .………………………………………………….55
3.2.5 試驗性測試(pilot tests) …………………………...57
第三節 研究對象 ……………………………………………….57
第四節 研究工具 ……………………………………………….59
3.4.1 量表 .……………………………………………………….59
3.4.2 系統 .……………………………………………………….61
3.4.3 實驗場地與設備 ….……………………………………….62
第五節 實驗流程 ……………………………………………….62
第六節 資料分析 ……………………………………………….63

第四章 研究結果
第一節 情緒操弄與焦慮 ……………………………………….65
4.1.1 情緒操弄.……………………………………………….65
4.1.1.1 四組實驗組別前測情緒狀態 .………………………...66
4.1.1.2 四組實驗組別各自分析其前中後測之情緒變化 …....66
4.1.2焦慮程度 ..………………………………………………….69
4.1.2.1 PA、NA、NE三組的比較 ……………………………… 69
4.1.2.2 PA、II兩組的比較 ……………………….……………70
第二節 工作績效表現 ………………………………………….71
4.2.1 主要任務的績效 ….……………………………………….71
4.2.2 完成一次主要任務的時間 .………..…………………...72
4.2.3 次要工作的正確率 ….…………………………………….74
4.2.4 次要工作的處理時間 .…………………………………….75
第三節 恢復間歇(resumption lag)的時間差異 ………...77
4.3.1 PA、NA、NE三組之恢復間歇時間比較 ………………...77
4.3.2 PA、II兩組之恢復間歇時間比較 ……………………….78
第四節 使用經驗之問卷 ……………………………………….79
4.4.1 正面情緒(PA)組 ………………………………………..79
4.4.2 負面情緒(NA)組 …………………………………………82
4.4.3 無情緒(NE)組 …………………………………………..84
4.4.4 正面情緒直接中斷(II)組 ………………………………86
4.4.5 綜合比較四組使用經驗問卷結果異同 …………………..88
第五章 討論、結論與建議
第一節 討論 …………………………………………………….89
5.1.1 情緒操弄效果 .…………………………………………….90
5.1.2 情緒與焦慮程度 .………………………………………….92
5.1.3 情緒與工作績效 .………………………………………….93
5.1.4 情緒與恢復間歇 .………………………………………….97
5.1.5 情緒與使用者經驗 .…………………………………....100
第二節 結論 …………………………………………………..101
第三節 研究限制 ……………………………………………..103
第四節 未來研究方向 ………………………………………..104

參考文獻
中文部分 …………………………………………………….…..107
英文部分 ……………………………………………………...…109

附錄
附錄一:使用經驗問卷(包含四組實驗組別……………………115
附錄二:情緒操弄的言論列表……………………………………123
附錄三:情緒量表-The Positive and Negative Affect Scale .....124
附錄四:焦慮問卷STAI - State Anxiety Form ……………..126
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