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研究生:李偉哲
研究生(外文):Wei-che Lee
論文名稱:從互動觀點談海陸客語中的類狀詞
論文名稱(外文):Hai-lu Classifiers: An interactional Approach
指導教授:曹逢甫曹逢甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Feng-fu Tsao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:客家話海陸量詞類別詞名詞分類
外文關鍵詞:hakkahai-lumeasure wordsclassifiersnoun categorization
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此論文嘗試從互動的觀點來談海陸客語中的類別詞。我們發現名詞的分類並非武斷的,絕對的,和界限分明的結構。相反地,從認知上來看看似混亂的分類系統都可以從語言使用者與這個世界互動的型態中得到合理的解釋,從語言使用來談分類的定義是有彈性的,常因不同的內外在因素而有許多變異。
從收集來的語料中我們發現出現的頻率最高的和涵蓋的分詞成員最多的類別詞是四個類狀詞,分別為客語中的隻tsak5條tiau55張to��53枝ki53。這些與空間上形狀概念相關的類別詞都可跨範域的搭配名詞,不只做空間形狀的分類也利用概念譬喻(metaphor)或換喻(metonym)的機制做功能性的分類。而其他特殊形狀概念相關的類別詞在使用上比較受限制在功能的範疇中。至於非形狀的類別詞能分類的名詞則更少,通常都是與文化和社會制度相關。這類詞分佈反應了語言分類的最基本的標準來自對習得空間的認知的分類,其次才是社會和文化的分類。其次,這個分佈也說明了語言上的分類定義並非固定,空間的概念也可透過概念的延伸表達功能的概念。

當在語言中類別詞的概念被多次的延語意也相對的弱化,經過一段時間的演化,因為學習和使用上的需要而發展出一個通用類別詞。客語中的隻tsak5似乎就是語用和語法上由繁到簡兩個制約所造成的結果。量詞系統不但反映出了人類的認知系統,也反映了溝通中理解(perception)與製造(production)兩個互相制衡的力量。
This thesis attempts to discuss the classifiers of Hai-lu Hakka in the views of interactive approach. By so doing, we found the classificatory system is by no means arbitrary, absolute and have unbreakable category boundaries. On the contrary, we can expect reasonable and systematic explanations from the interaction types between the humans and the world. The language classification is flexible, dynamic, and cognitively-motivated.
From the collected data analyzed within the interactive viewpoints, we discovered that there are four most frequently exploited classifiers in Hai-lu Hakka- two one-dimensionally salient classifiers tiau55(條) and ki(枝), two dimensionally salient classifier tso��53(張), and three dimensionally salient classifier tsak5(隻), all of which are configurationally shape-related. Our findings show that not only can they classify shapes in resemblance but they can also functionally classify objects in the same experience domain by metaphors and metonyms, two basic strategies to language change and concept elaboration. This ‘coincidence’ is not haphazard but cognitively motivated, which are the prototypical classification device. Another less prototypical classification device is uses of non-configurationally shape classifiers, whose distribution is confined to the functional classification. Finally the non-shaped classifiers are more distributionally confined because they are all from social or cultural stereotypes; in Lakeoff (1986) terms they are ‘jump conclusions,’ whose reasoning and motivation are relatively weak.
Owning to the need to produce easily and learn quickly, on the other end of the fine noun sub-categorization is the simple and general classifier, used to classify every noun and usually comes from the most frequently used classifier. This point made apply well to Hakka. The mostly used classifier 隻 tsak5 for almost every noun is the general classifier, which is used excessively in the child and daily conversation. This demonstrates there is a balance between comprehension and production in communication. In addition, it also shows us how the concepts can be used and changed in language.
Table of Contents
ABSTRACT I
ACKNOWLEDGMENT IV
TABLE OF CONTENT V
CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 ETHNO-LINGUISTICS OF HAKKA IN TAIWAN 1
1.2 CATEGORIZATION 2
1.3 ARISTOTELIAN MODEL 3
1.4 PROTOTYPE THEORY 4
CHAPTER2 LITERATURE REVIEW ON CHINESE CLASSIFIERS 7
2.1 NUMERAL CLASSIFIERS 7
2.1.1 The semantics of numeral classifiers 7
2.1.2 Semantic parameters of numeral classifiers 7
2.1.3 The functions of numeral classifiers 8
2.2 MEASURE WORDS IN MANDARIN CHINESE 9
Measural and sortal classifiers 11
2.3 TAI’S MODEL 12
2.4 WU’S ANALYSIS ON SHAPE-BASED CLASSIFIERS IN MANDARIN CHINESE 14
2.5 WANG’S ANALYSIS ON NOUN CATEGORIZATION 16
CHAPTER3 METHOD 19
3.1 MATERIAL AND PROCEDURE 19
3.2 TRANSCRIPTION 19
CHAPTER4 DATA AND ANALYSIS 21
4.1 ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK 21
4.1.1 Shape is the prototypical physical parameter 21
4.1.2 Classifiers Choices and different interactions 24
4.2 UNIVERSAL CATEGORIZATION OF HAKKA CLASSIFIERS 30
4.2.1 Dimensional - shape classifier 31
4.2.1.1 One-dimensional saliency encoded in 枝 ki53 and 條t�綑au55 31
4.2.1.2 Three-dimensional saliency encoded in 隻tsak5 , 塊te11, 粒 liap5 36
4.2.1.3 Two-dimensional salient classifiers張[tso��53] and 片[p�綑en53] 40
4.2.2 Non-dimensional shape classifiers 43
4.2.1.4 Parts of objects (animal):頭t�粳u55, 尾mi55 43
4.2.1.5 Specific classifiers for plants : 叢tso��55, 蕊lui55 43
4.2.1.6 specific classifiers for necessities: 臺toi55, 領lia��53, 封fun53, 帖t�綑ap5,扇san55, 頂ta��53, 枚mui55, 盞tsan53, �~fut2 44
4.3 NON- SHAPE CLASSIFIERS CULTURAL CATEGORIZATION OF HAKKA CLASSIFIERS 47
4.3.1 lio�w55(輛), pi(匹), �尃u(首), p�綑en53(篇), pun24(本), fu11(幅), keu24(口) vi(位)55 48
4.4 PARTITIVE AND GROUP MEASURES IN CLASSIFICATION 48
4.4.1 p�綑en55(片), te11(塊), t�尃et5(節) 48
4.4.2 Group measures (Intrinsic collective classifiers): su��53(雙), t�罪k5(坨), tui11(對), fun53(份) 49
4.5 NON-SHAPE BASED CLASSIFIERS FOR HUMANS 49
4.6 DISTRIBUTION OF SHAPE-BASED CLASSIFIERS IN HAKKA 51
CHAPTER5 GENERAL CLASSIFIER TSAK5 55
5.1 MOTIVATION FOR CHANGES 55
5.2 GRAMMATICALIZATION OF NUMERAL CLASSIFIERS 55
5.2.1 Grammaticalization towards informativeness 56
5.2.2 Grammaticalization towards Simplification 59
5.2.3 Definition of general classifiers 60
5.2.4 隻[tsak5]: the general classifier in Hakka 61
5.2.4.1 Evidence 1: The widest distribution 62
5.2.4.2 Evidence 2: Abstract and unidentified category 62
5.2.4.3 隻 in three major dialects in Taiwan 63
5.2.4.4 Pragmatic inference: 隻 tsak5 and 個kai55 68
5.2.4.5 Frequency and general classifier 70
5.3 RECONSTRUCTED GRAMMATICALIZATION PATH OF TSAK5 73
CHAPTER6 CONCLUSION 77
6.1 SUMMARY OF OUR RESULTS 77
6.2 IMPLICATIONS 79
6.3 FURTHER RESEARCH 82
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