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研究生:葉季昀
研究生(外文):YEH, JIH-YUN
論文名稱:圖像組織架構教學策略對國中生學習神經系統概念的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects on Learning of Nervous System Concepts with Graphic Organizer Teaching Strategy for Junior High Students
指導教授:楊文金楊文金引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:科學教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:186
中文關鍵詞:圖像組織架構教學策略神經系統
外文關鍵詞:graphic organizerteaching strategynervous system
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本研究旨在發展有效的圖像組織架構教學策略,以幫助學生釐清神經系統概念之間的關係,並探討圖像組織架構教學策略對國中學生學習相關概念的影響。本研究以臺北市某公立國中七年級六個班級154位學生為對象,採準實驗研究法,隨機將三個班級(N=85)做為實驗組,實施圖像組織架構教學策略(graphic organizer teaching strategy,簡稱GO教學策略);另三個班級(N=69)做為對照組,進行傳統教學策略(traditional teaching strategy,簡稱TD教學策略)。研究流程包括前測、教學處置、後測、結構式晤談及延後測四個部分,所使用的研究工具包括神經系統單元自編教材、教學媒體教材、學習活動單及評量測驗試題。主要研究結果如下:
1.「教學策略」與「生物科學業成就」兩種因素在學生選擇題平均分數及各類型試題平均成績的表現沒有顯著交互作用。進一步分析「生物科學業成就」對學生學習的影響,結果顯示無論是GO教學策略或TD教學策略,兩組學生在神經系統單元選擇題測驗平均成績的表現與其生物科學習能力一致;分析「教學策略」的影響發現,GO組學生在選擇題後測總平均成績及知識類型試題平均成績皆顯著優於TD組學生,顯示GO教學策略對於學生知識層次的學習表現能夠產生立即的影響效果。
2.人體圖測驗結果發現,GO組學生在名詞回憶正確性的表現顯著優於TD組學生,且在「中樞神經、周圍神經、腦、脊髓、腦神經、脊神經」這六個名詞的正確作答平均數也顯著優於TD組,顯示GO教學策略有助於學生對構造名稱進行正確記憶,並能幫助學生回憶抽象性較高的名詞。
3.樹狀圖測驗結果發現,GO組學生在「腦神經與脊神經的定義」、「脊神經、腦神經與中樞的關係」、「感覺神經與運動神經的定義」、「運動神經、感覺神經與腦神經、脊神經的關係」概念的理解都顯著優於TD組學生的表現。
4.情境推論題測驗結果發現,GO組學生應用相關概念進行積極性正確推論的平均人數顯著優於TD組學生,而TD組學生在進行問題推論時,較GO組學生容易產生錯誤的判斷。此外,GO組學生在進行問題推論題時能精確地表達概念之間的關係,顯示接受GO教學策略的學生能夠產生較為精緻的概念架構,且在概念的理解與應用的品質上有較佳的表現。
The main purpose of this study is to develop a feasible teaching strategy of graphic organizer helping students to make sense of the relationships between concepts of nervous system, and to explore the effects of this strategy on learning for junior high school students. 154 of 7th grade students from a public junior high school of Taipei City were selected as target subjects and divided randomly into two groups, one as experimental group (N=85) treated with the graphic organizer teaching strategy (abbreviated as GO group), and the other as controlled group (N=69) treated with the traditional teaching strategy (abbreviated as TD group). The investigation procedure included the pretest, instruction treatments, the posttest, structured interviews and the delayed test. The instruments of this study involved adapted reading materials, instructional medium and assessment tests. The major results of the study were as follows:
1.There’s no interaction between the variables of “the teaching strategy” and “the academic achievement in the biology subject” on the influences of multiple choice test scores. Further analysis of “the academic achievement in the biology subject” effects showed that whatever the teaching strategy was, students’ performances on the multiple choice test scores were according with their academic achievement in the biology subject. With regard to “the teaching strategy” effects, not only the average scores of the multiple choice posttest but also the average scores of knowledge aspect items of GO group students were significantly higher than those of TD group students. These findings indicated that the graphic organizer teaching strategy could make immediate influences on students’ learning of the concepts on knowledge level.
2.With regard to the recall test of nervous system illustration, it showed that the GO group students performed significantly better than TD group students on the average scores of correct recall of the terms. Besides, GO group students got significant higher scores on certain terms such as “central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, brain, spinal cord, cranial nerve and spinal nerve”. These results indicated that the graphic organizer teaching strategy could help students to memorize the terms with more correctness and to recall those terms that were on much abstract level.
3.The findings of the tree map test revealed that the GO group students performed significantly better on the realization of “the definitions of cranial nerve and spinal nerve”, “the relationships between cranial nerve, spinal nerve and brain, spinal cord”, “the definitions of sensory neuron and motor neuron”, and “the relationships between sensory neuron, motor neuron and cranial nerve, spinal nerve”.
4.The results of the context inference test showed that with regard to the application of specific concepts in making active inferences, the students of GO group got significant higher scores than those of TD group. Furthermore, some of the GO group students could express exactly the relationships of concepts when answering the questions. These findings indicated that those students accepting the graphic organizer teaching strategy might establish more elaborative frameworks of concepts and could have better performances on the quality of concepts realization and application.
目 錄

第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 4
第三節 名詞釋義 5
第四節 研究限制 6
第貳章 文獻探討 7
第一節 結構性知識 7
第二節 圖像組織架構 12
第三節 神經系統單元相關研究 21
第四節 各版本教科書「神經系統單元」內容分析 32
第參章 研究方法 49
第一節 研究對象 49
第二節 研究流程 51
第三節 研究設計 52
第四節 研究工具 56
第五節 資料蒐集與分析 70
第肆章 研究結果與討論 73
第一節 選擇題測驗總得分分析 73
第二節 不同知識類型試題得分分析 81
第三節 晤談結果分析 98
第四節 學生另有概念分析 124
第伍章 結論與建議 135
第一節 研究結果摘要 135
第二節 研究建議 141
參考文獻 145
附 錄 153

表目錄

表2.2.1 圖像組織架構模式 13
表2.3.1 蘇格蘭大學生知覺學習困難的生物學單元 22
表2.3.2 生物概念診斷測驗—神經系統單元概念類型、生物概念與另有概念對照表 27
表2.4.1 A版本教科書在神經系統單元的章節安排與主要內容 34
表2.4.2 B版本教科書在神經系統單元的章節安排與主要內容 34
表2.4.3 C版本教科書在神經系統單元的章節安排與主要內容 35
表2.4.4 各版本教科書神經系統單元主要名詞比較表 36
表2.4.5 A版本神經系統單元概念分析 40
表2.4.6 B版本神經系統單元概念分析 41
表2.4.7 C版本神經系統單元概念分析 42
表3.1.1 兩種教學策略學生的前測成績比較 49
表3.1.2 兩種教學策略學生生物科學業平均成績的比較 50
表3.1.3 晤談對象學業成就分組人數表 50
表3.1.4 GO教學策略組與TD教學策略組 晤談學生選擇題後測成績的比較 50
表3.3.1 實驗設計與流程表 52
表3.3.2 【神經系統單元】GO教學策略組教學流程設計 54
表3.3.3 【神經系統單元】TD教學策略組教學流程設計 55
表3.4.1 研究工具一覽表 56
表3.4.2 神經系統選擇題測驗雙向細目表 59
表3.4.3 「神經系統選擇題測驗」各試題得分的平均數、標準差、鑑別指數、修正之試題-相關總分(rit),以及剔除該試題之後整體測驗的Cronbachα值(N=137) 60
表3.4.4 選擇題測驗難度分配表 60
表3.4.5 選擇題測驗鑑別度分配表 60
表3.4.6 人體神經系統樹狀圖概念關係編碼表 63
表3.4.7 樹狀圖概念理解測驗編碼及評分表 65
表3.4.8 人體圖測驗評分表 66
表3.4.9 情境推論題編碼及評分表 69
表3.5.1 研究資料蒐集彙整表 70
表4.1.1 兩種教學策略學生在前測、後測、延後測選擇題平均分數及標準差 73
表4.1.2 GO教學策略組 前測-後測、前測-延後測及後測-延後測相依樣本t考驗 74
表4.1.3 TD教學策略組 前測-後測、前測-延後測及後測-延後測相依樣本t考驗 74
表4.1.4 各學業成就分組學生的前測、後測及延後測平均成績及標準差 75
表4.1.5 兩種教學策略各學業成就分組學生的後測平均成績及標準差 76
表4.1.6 教學策略與學業成就分組在後測成績之共變數分析 76
表4.1.7 兩種教學策略學生在後測成績的主要效果事後比較 77
表4.1.8 三種學業成就分組學生在後測成績的主要效果事後比較 77
表4.1.9 兩種教學策略各學業成就分組學生的延後測平均成績及標準差 78
表4.1.10 教學策略與學業成就分組在延後測成績之共變數分析 79
表4.1.11 兩種教學策略學生在延後測成績的主要效果事後比較 79
表4.1.12 三種學業成就分組學生在延後測成績的主要效果事後比較 79
表4.2.1 兩種教學策略各學業成就分組學生後測知識類型試題平均成績及標準差 82
表4.2.2 教學策略與學業成就分組在後測知識類型試題成績之共變數分析 82
表4.2.3 兩種教學策略學生在後測知識類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 82
表4.2.4 三種學業成就分組學生在後測知識類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 83
表4.2.5 兩種教學策略各學業成就分組學生延後測知識類型試題平均成績及標準差 84
表4.2.6 教學策略與學業成就分組在延後測知識類型試題成績之共變數分析 84
表4.2.7 兩種教學策略學生在延後測知識類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 84
表4.2.8 各學業成就分組學生在延後測知識類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 85
表4.2.9 兩種教學策略各學業成就組學生後測理解類型試題平均成績及標準差 86
表4.2.10 教學策略與學業成就分組在後測理解類型試題成績之共變數分析 86
表4.2.11 兩種教學策略學生在後測理解類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 86
表4.2.12 三種學業成就分組學生在後測理解類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 87
表4.2.13 兩種教學策略各學業成就組學生延後測理解類型試題平均成績及標準差 88
表4.2.14 教學策略與學業成就分組在延後測理解類型試題成績之共變數分析 88
表4.2.15 兩種教學策略學生在延後測理解類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 89
表4.2.16 三種學業成就分組學生延後測理解類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 89
表4.2.17 兩種教學策略各學業成就組學生後測應用類型試題平均成績及標準差 90
表4.2.18 教學策略與學業成就分組在後測應用類型試題成績之共變數分析 90
表4.2.19 兩種教學策略學生在後測應用類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 91
表4.2.20 三種學業成就分組學生在後測應用類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 91
表4.2.21 兩種教學策略各學業成就組學生延後測應用類型試題平均成績及標準差 92
表4.2.22 教學策略與學業成就分組在延後測應用類型試題成績之共變數分析 92
表4.2.23 兩種教學策略學生在延後測應用類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 93
表4.2.24 三種學業成就分組學生延後測應用類型試題成績的主要效果事後比較 93
表4.2.25 兩種教學策略學生後測及延後測各類型試題平均成績及標準差 96
表4.2.26 GO教學策略組後測不同類型試題成績相依樣本t考驗 96
表4.2.27 TD教學策略組後測不同類型試題成績相依樣本t考驗 96
表4.2.28 GO教學策略組各類型試題後測與延後測成績相依樣本t考驗 97
表4.2.29 TD教學策略組各類型試題後測與延後測成績相依樣本t考驗 97
表4.3.1 兩種教學策略學生在人體圖名稱的正確和錯誤作答人數及其百分比 98
表4.3.2 兩種教學策略學生在人體示意圖名詞的平均回憶量比較 99
表4.3.3 兩種教學策略學生在人體示意圖名詞的正確回憶量比較 99
表4.3.4 兩種教學策略學生在人體示意圖各名詞正確作答平均數比較 100
表4.3.5 神經系統樹狀圖排列正確人數及百分比 103
表4.3.6 神經系統樹狀圖排列正確平均人數的比較 103
表4.3.7 樹狀圖概念理解晤談問題答案編碼表 104
表4.3.8 兩種教學策略學生樹狀圖概念理解問題的平均得分 105
表4.3.9 兩種教學策略學生在樹狀圖個別概念的作答正確平均數比較 106
表4.3.10 樹狀圖作答不正確的學生群在每一個命題答對的人數百分比 107
表4.3.11 TD組5位學生樹狀圖概念理解得分表 114
表4.3.12 兩種教學策略學生情境推論題運用的線索量比較 115
表4.3.13 兩種教學策略學生在情境推論題各線索運用平均數的比較 115
表4.3.14 兩種教學策略學生情境推題合理答案判斷平均分數的比較 116
表4.3.15 兩種教學策略學生在情境推論題各項合理答案判斷平均數的比較 117
表4.3.16 兩種教學策略學生在情境推論題錯誤答案判斷平均數的比較 118
表4.3.17 兩種教學策略學生在情境推論題各項錯誤答案判斷平均數的比較 118
表5.1.1 「教學策略」與「生物科學業成就」對學生選擇題測驗成績的影響 136
表5.1.2 「教學策略」與「生物科學業成就」對各類型試題成績的影響 136
表5.1.3 人體圖測驗結果 137
表5.1.4 樹狀圖測驗結果 138
表5.1.5 情境推論題測驗結果 138

圖目錄

圖2.2.1 圖像組織架構與線性陳列格式的比較 13
圖2.3.1 沈鴻明(1994)神經傳導試題 24
圖2.4.1 哺乳動物神經系統組成圖 39
圖3.4.1 人體神經系統樹狀圖 57
圖3.4.2 晤談學生樹狀圖測驗作答示例 62
圖3.4.3 人體神經系統樹狀圖命題編碼 63
圖4.3.1 GO組學生的人體圖作答示例 102

附錄目錄

附錄3.3.1 GO組教學媒體教材 155
附錄3.3.2 TD組教學媒體教材 161
附錄3.3.3 GO組研究自編教材 167
附錄3.3.4 TD組研究自編教材 172
附錄3.3.5 GO組學習活動單 177
附錄3.3.6 教學觀察檢核表 178
附錄3.4.1 神經系統概念分析 180
附錄3.4.2 神經系統單元選擇題測驗 182
附錄3.4.3「細胞的構造」樹狀圖 184
附錄3.4.4「人體血液的組成」樹狀圖 185
附錄4.3.1 樹狀圖作答完全正確學生紀錄 186
一、中文部分
王貞惠(2001):改善學生遺傳概念學習之研究─用「巨觀」「微觀」「符號表徵」導向之概念改變教學模式。高雄市:國立高雄師範大學科學教育研究所碩士論文。
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余民寧(民)有意義的學習─概念構圖之研究
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