跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.212.99.208) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/04/23 22:23
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林美秀
論文名稱:教導式對話教學對增進學習障礙兒童口語與閱讀理解能力效果之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Instructional Discourse on Oral Language and Reading Comprehension of Children with Learning Disabilities
指導教授:林寶貴林寶貴引用關係洪儷瑜洪儷瑜引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:244
中文關鍵詞:教導式對話教學聽覺理解口語表達閱讀理解低閱讀者
外文關鍵詞:instruction discourselistening comprehensionoral expressingpoor reader
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:17
  • 點閱點閱:820
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:25
本研究旨在探討教導式對話教學,對增進學習障礙兒童口語與閱讀理解能力之效果。研究對象為北部地區國小四年級學生,以「扥尼非語文智力測驗」及「語文理解測驗」,選取出智力正常之聽覺理解與閱讀理解,沒有顯著差異之低閱讀能力兒童,共13名,採準實驗設計方式,以每組3-4人為一小組,進行實驗教學。
  本研究之主要發現如下:
壹、教導式對話教學對口語與閱讀能力之增進
一、口語能力方面
本研究發現,教導式對話教學對學習障礙兒童口語能力,有增進。增進的能力包括,聽覺理解和口語表達能力。在聽覺理解方面,主要是對以聽故事後評量之故事重組正確性,有增進。在口語表達方面,教導式對話教學對總詞彙數、相異詞數、連接詞數、迷走語數都有增進。教導式對話教學對以聽故事後評量之故事結構完整性,故事開始介紹項目,以及口語表達指標之總連接詞數有保留。
二、閱讀能力方面
本研究發現,教導式對話教學對學習障礙兒童閱讀理解能力,有增進,增進的能力包括閱讀速度和正確性。在閱讀速度方面,教導式對話教學能增進受試唸讀速度與故事重組時間。以唸故事後評量之故事重組時間、故事理解等能力有保留效果,在故事理解方面,重組正確性、事結構完整性均有保留效果。
貳、教導式對話對口語與閱讀增進之關係
一、整體口語和閱讀理解能力增進之關係
聽故事理解能力的增進,與唸讀速度的增進有關;總相異詞數的增進,與唸重組速度增進有關;總迷走語數增加,與以唸故事後評量之重組速度增進有關。
二、口語能力間增進之關係
總詞彙數之增進,與總相異詞彙數之增進有關,以唸故事後評量之詞彙數增進與相異詞數、連接詞數之增進有關;以聽故事後評量之詞彙數增進與相異詞數之增進有關;以聽故事後評量之相異詞數增進與連接詞數之增進有相關。
三、閱讀理解能力間增進之關係
篇章理解之增進與以唸故事後評量之故事理解增進有關。
四、口語與閱讀理解次能力增進之關係
以唸或讀故事後評量之詞彙數、相異詞數、連接詞、迷走語之增進和以唸故事後評量之故事重組正確性與故事結構完整性之增進,沒有相關。
參、教導式對話教學對增進口語與閱讀理解的可行性能力
根據本研究結果顯示,透過討論和重述的活動,以增進學習障礙兒童口語與閱讀理解能力,是可行的。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of instructional discourse on oral language and reading comprehension of 13 fourth-grade elementary students with learning disabilities through Quasi-experimental design.
The results of this study were summarized as follows:
1. The effects of oral language and reading comprehension
1) oral language
Subjects’ abilities of oral language including listening comprehension and oral expressing were increased and their performances on the task of total words written (TW), type token ratio (TTR), conjunction, and maze after instruction. Under the condition of “after listening a story (ALS)”, subjects’ ability on the story introduction of story grammar was maintained at the 3-week follow-up.
2) reading comprehension
Subjects’ ability of reading comprehension including fluency and correctness of reading were increased after instruction. Under the condition of “after reading a story (ARS)”, subjects’ performances on re-ordering story and story grammar were maintained at the 3-week follow-up.
2. The relationship of oral language and reading comprehension
1) between oral language and reading comprehension
a. Under the condition of ALS, subjects’ performances on story comprehension were correlated with reading fluency under the condition of ARS.
b. Subjects’ performances on TTR were correlated with the speed of re-ordering story under the condition of ALS.
c. Subjects’ performances on TTR and maze were correlated with those on the speed of re-ordering story under the condition of ALS.
2) oral language
a. Subjects’ performances on TW were correlated with those on TTR.
b. Under the condition of ARD, subjects’ performances on TW and TTR were correlated with those on conjunctions.
c. Under the condition of ALS, Subjects’ performances on TW were correlated with those on TTR, and subjects’ performances on TTR were correlated with those on conjunction.
3) reading comprehension
Subjects’ performances on text comprehension were correlated with those on story comprehension under the condition ALS.
4) between sub-level of oral language and reading comprehension
Under the condition of ARD and ALS,Subjects’ performances on TW, TTR, conjunction and maze were no correlated with those on re-ordering story and story grammar.
3. The results of this study show that discussing and retelling-story can enhance the abilities of oral language and reading comprehension of children with learning disabilities.
According the aforementioned findings, the limitation of this study, and the recommendations to research and practical implementations were made.
目 錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..I
英文摘要……………………………………………………………..III
目 錄…………………………………………………………………..V
圖 次………………………………………………………………..VII
表 次………………………………………………………………..X
第一章 緒 論
第一節 研究動機………………………………………………….1
第二節 研究目的與問題………………………………………….9
第三節 名詞詮釋與界定………………………………………….10
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 學習障礙者之口語能力與閱讀困難…………………….13
第二節 學習障礙兒童閱讀理解教學…………………………….32
第三節 教導式對話教學之理論基礎…………………….………41
第三章 研究方法
第一節 試探性研究結果與修正……………..………..…….……59
第二節 研究架構與設計………………..……………..………….75
第三節 研究工具……………………….……………………….…82
第四節 實施程序與活動設計………………………….………….97
第五節 師資培訓與實施教學……………….……………..…….105
第六節 資料整理與分析…………………..………………..…….106
第四章 研究結果與討論
第一節 口語與閱讀理解能力之相關…………………..…….......107
第二節 口語與閱讀理解能力之效果…………………..….…..…114
第三節 口語與閱讀理解能力增進之關係……….…..…….….…144
第四節 不同增進情形個案分析與討論……………….…………152

第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論……………………………………………………...190
第二節 研究限制………………………………………………...194
第三節 研究建議………………………………………………...196
參考文獻………………………..……….………………………………..201
附錄一 試探性研究結果…………………………………………………..218
附錄二 學生基本資料表…………………………………………………..219
附錄三 篇章理解編選範例………………………………………………..220
附錄四 故事重述和重組內容範例…………….………………………….223
附錄五 篇章理解和故事重述指導說明…………………………………..224
附錄六 故事結構評量範例………………………………………………..225
附錄七 語料分析範例……………………………….……………………..229
附錄八 教學觀察記錄表…………………………………………………..231
附錄九 教學者問卷………………………………………………………..236
附錄十 級任老師問卷……………………………………………………..237
附錄十一 故事討論流程…………………………………….………...…..238
附錄十二 故事結構學習單範例…………………………………………..243
附錄十三 故事大意學習單範例……………………………….………….244








圖 次
圖2-1-1 Kamhi and Catts 說話和書寫模式………………………………15
圖2-3-1 教導式對話運作機制圖………………………….………………..50
圖2-3-2 教導式對話的指導架構………………………….………………..52
圖3-1-1 試探性教導式對話教學研究架構圖…………….………………..59
圖3-1-2 故事重述和看圖說故事評量內容………………….……………..62
圖3-2-1教導式對話教學研究架構圖………………………………………75
圖3-2-2 研究對象的篩流程圖……………………………………………..77
圖3-2-3 依變項項目………………………………………………………..80
圖3-3-1 故事重述評量方式與內容………………………………………..84
圖3-3-2唸故事理解題本一高低能力分數分配圖…………………………92
圖3-3-3唸故事理解題本二高低能力分數分配圖…………………………92
圖3-3-4唸故事理解題本三高低能力分數分配圖…………………………92
圖3-3-5聽故事理解題本一高低能力分數分配圖…………………………93
圖3-3-6聽故事理解題本二高低能力分數分配圖…………………………93
圖3-3-7聽故事理解題本二高低能力分數分配圖…………………………93
圖3-3-8篇章理解題本一高低能力分數分配圖……………………………95
圖3-3-9篇章理解題本二高低能力分數分配圖…………………………….95
圖3-3-10篇章理解題本三高低能力分數分配圖……………………..……95
圖4-4-1甲生聽覺理解能力前、後、追蹤結果……………………………154
圖4-4-2甲生聽重組正確性前、後、追蹤結果……………………………155
圖4-4-3甲生聽故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果……………………….155
圖4-4-4甲生總詞彙數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………155
圖4-4-5甲生總相異詞數前、後、追蹤結果……………………………....155
圖4-4-6甲生連接詞數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………..155
圖4-4-7甲生迷走語數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………..155
圖4-4-8甲生閱讀理解前、後、追蹤結果………………………………….155
圖4-4-9甲生唸重組正確性前、後、追蹤結果…………………………….156
圖4-4-10甲生唸故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果………………………156
圖4-4-11乙生聽覺理解能力前、後、追蹤結果……………………………163
圖4-4-12乙生聽重組正確性前、後、追蹤結果……………………………164
圖4-4-13乙生聽故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果………………………164
圖4-4-14乙生總詞彙數前、後、追蹤結果………………………………….164
圖4-4-15乙生總相異詞數前、後、追蹤結果……………………………….164
圖4-4-16乙生連接詞數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………164
圖4-4-17乙生迷走語數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………164
圖4-4-18乙生閱讀理解前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………..164
圖4-4-19乙生唸故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果……………………….165
圖4-4-20乙生唸故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果……………………….165
圖4-4-21丙生聽覺理解能力前、後、追蹤結果……………………………171
圖4-4-22丙生聽重組正確性前、後、追蹤結果…………………………….172
圖4-4-23丙生聽故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果………………………...172
圖4-4-24丙生總詞彙數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………172
圖4-4-25丙生總相異詞數前、後、追蹤結果……………………………….172
圖4-4-26丙生連接詞數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………172
圖4-4-27丙生迷走語數前、後、追蹤結果………………………………….172
圖4-4-28丙生閱讀理解前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………172
圖4-4-29丙生唸重組正確性前、後、追蹤結果……………………………173
圖4-4-30丙生唸故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果………………………..173
圖4-4-31丁生聽覺理解能力前、後、追蹤結果……………………………180
圖4-4-32丁生聽重組正確性前、後、追蹤結果……………………………181
圖4-4-33丁生聽故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果………………………181
圖4-4-34丁生總詞彙數前、後、追蹤結果………………………………….181
圖4-4-35丁生總相異詞數前、後、追蹤結果……………………………….181
圖4-4-36丁生連接詞數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………181
圖4-4-37丁生迷走語數前、後、追蹤結果………………………………….181
圖4-4-38丁生唸閱讀理解前、後、追蹤結果………………………………..181
圖4-4-39丁生唸重組正確性前、後、追蹤結果……………………………182
圖4-4-40丁生唸故事結構完整性前、後、追蹤結果……………………….182
圖4-4-4 個案聽覺理解前、後、追蹤結果……………………………………188
圖4-4-42個案總詞彙數前、後、追蹤結果………………………………….188
圖4-4-43個案總相異詞數前、後、追蹤結果………………………………188
圖4-4-44個案連接詞數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………188
圖4-4-45個案迷走語數前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………188
圖4-4-46個案閱讀理解前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………189







表 次
表2-2-1 國小學習障礙學生閱讀理解能力教學的方法與策略…………….38
表2-3-1 交互教學、教導式會話教學和教導式對話教學的比較…………..47
表2-3-2 指導式教學與教導式對話教學的比較…………………………….53
表3-1-1 試探性研究教導式對話教學主題和課文………………………….66
表3-1-2 各項語文理解評量結果……………………………………………..67
表3-2-1 研究對象基本資料…………………………………………………..78
表3-2-1 研究對象基本資料…………………………………………………..78
表3-3-1 評量工具一覽表…………………………………………………..…82
表3-3-2 故事重述題本………………….…………………………………….86
表3-4-1 教學單元與課文……………………………………………………..99
表3-4-2 教學活動目的和說明………………………………………………101
表3-5-1 師資訓練流程……………………………………………………….105
表4-1-1 口語和閱讀理解能力相關表………………………………………109
表4-1-2 口語和閱讀理解能力次能力相關表……………………………….109
表4-2-1 口語能力教學前、後、追蹤的平均數、標準差、t考驗
分析摘要表………………………………………………….………115
表4-2-2 閱讀理解能力教學前、後、追蹤的平均數、標準差、t考驗
分析摘要表…………………………………………………………..119
表4-2-3 聽覺理解能力前、後、追蹤變異數分析摘要表…………………121
表4-2-3(續) 聽覺理解能力前、後、追蹤變異數分析摘要表…………….122
表4-2-4 口語表達能力前、後、追蹤變異數分析摘要表…………………125
表4-2-5 閱讀理解能力前、後、追蹤變異數分析摘要表…………………127
表4-2-5(續) 閱讀理解能力前、後、追蹤變異數分析摘要表…………….128
表4-3-1口語和閱讀理解能力增進之相關………………………………….145
表4-3-2口語和閱讀理解能力增進之相關………………………………….145
表4-4-1 甲生口語能力前、後、追蹤結果…………………………………153
表4-4-2 甲生閱讀理解能力前、後、追蹤結果…………………………….154
表4-4-3 甲生行為觀察紀錄表……………………………………………….158
表4-4-4 甲生故事內容學習結果…………………………………………….159
表4-4-5 乙生口語能力前、後、追蹤結果………………………………….162
表4-4-6 乙生閱讀理解能力前、後、追蹤結果……………………………..163
表4-4-7 乙生行為觀察紀錄表………………………………………………..167
表4-4-8乙生故事內容學習結果………………………………………………167
表4-4-9 丙生口語能力前、後、追蹤結果…………………………..………170
表4-4-10 丙生閱讀理解能力前、後、追蹤結果…………………………….171
表4-4-11 丙生行為觀察紀錄表………………………………………………175
表4-4-12 丙生故事內容學習結果……………………………………………175
表4-4-13 丁生口語能力前、後、追蹤結果………………………………….179
表4-4-14 丁生閱讀理解能力前、後、追蹤結果……………………………..180
表4-4-15 丁生行為觀察紀錄表………………………………………………..184
表4-4-16 丁生故事內容學習結果…………………………………………….184
一、中文部份
方淑真(民93)。Fun的教學:圖畫書與語文教學。台北:心理。
王佳玲(民90)。國小不同閱讀理解能力學生在不同難度、文體文章閱讀理解表現及方式之比較研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
王英君(民89)。國小閱讀障礙學生閱讀理解策略之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
王瓊珠(民81)。國小六年級閱讀障礙兒童與普通兒童閱讀認知能力之比較研究。 國立台灣師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
何東墀、胡永崇(民85)。後設認知策略對國小閱讀障礙兒童閱讀理解成效之研究。臺南師院學報,11,173-198。
何華國(民88)。特殊兒童心理與教育。台北:五南。
何嘉雯(民92)。交互教學法對國小閱讀理解困難學生教學成效之研究。國立台南師範學院特殊教育學系碩士論文(未出版)。
吳芳香(民87)。國小二年級優讀者與弱讀者閱讀策略使用與覺識之研究。國立高雄師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
吳金花(民86)。國民小學閱讀障礙學生閱讀錯誤類型分析之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
吳訓生(民88)。國小低閱讀能力學生閱讀理解策略教學效果之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所博士論文(未出版)。
Barbara J. Leadholm & Jon F. Miller(民93)。語言樣本分析:威斯康辛州指導手冊(吳啟誠修訂)。台北:心理出版社。
吳裕益、林月仙、劉秀丹(民89)。「閱讀理解策略教學成效」之整合分析。發表於第五屆特殊教育課程與教學研討會。
吳慧珠、李長燦(民92)。Vygotsky社會認知法在理論與教學應用。載於張新仁主編,學習與教學新趨勢(頁105-157)。台北,心理。
吳麗寬(民89)。合作學習對國小學習障礙學生閱讀理解效果與同儕社會關係之研究。彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
沈茵(民93)。小學生每日10分鐘閱讀中年級。金安文教機構。
Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2002著),呂偉白譯(民92):探索學習障礙兒童。。台北:洪葉。
Laura E. Berk & Adam Winsler. (1997著),(谷瑞勉譯)(民88):鷹架兒童的學習:維高斯基與幼兒教育。台北:心理。
Linda B. Gambrell & Janice F. Almasi. (1996著),谷瑞勉譯(民93):鮮活的討論:培養專注的閱讀。台北:心理。
周台傑、詹文宏(民84)。後設認知策略對國小閱讀障礙兒童閱讀理解能力之研究。特殊教育復健學報,4,109-152。
周台傑、邱上真、宋淑慧(民82)。多向度注意力測驗。台北:心理。
林宜真(民87)。閱讀障礙學生與普通學生閱讀理解方式之比較研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
林建平(民83)。整合學習策略與動機的訓練方案對國小閱讀理解困難兒童的輔導效果。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所博士論文(未出版)。
林清山、程炳林(民84)。國中生自我調整學習因素與學習表現之關係暨自我調整的閱讀理解教學策略效果之研究。教育心理學報,28,15-58。
林寶貴、黃瑞珍、彭千紅(1997)。兒童書寫語言發展指標研究。國科會專題研究報告(計畫編號 NSC-84-2421-H-003-028)
林寶貴、錡寶香(民88)。兒童口語理解測驗。教育部特殊教育工作小組。
邱上真、洪碧霞(民85)。國語文低成就學生閱讀表現之追蹤研究(Ⅰ)-成分技能取向之國語文成就測驗的編製。國科會研究計畫成果報告(計畫編號NSC 84-2421-1-1-017-002-F5)。
柯華葳、李俊仁(民88)。閱讀困難的理論架構及驗證。載於柯華葳、洪儷軒主編,學童閱讀困難的鑑定與診斷研討會文集(頁114-127)。嘉義:國立中正大學認知科學研究中心。
洪秋蘭(民89)。國中語文學習困難學生閱讀理解與先前知識之評量與診斷。國立高雄師範大學碩士論文(未出版)。
洪儷瑜(民84)。學習障礙者教育。台北:心理。
洪儷瑜(民92)。教學觀察記錄表。未出版。
胡永崇(民83)。後設認知策略教學對國小閱讀障礙學童閱讀理解成效之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
張莉珍(民92)。故事構圖策略與摘要策略對增進國小六年級低閱讀能力學生閱讀理解之比較研究。中原大學教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
張菀珍(民86)。鷹架理論在成人教學實務之應用。成人教育雙月刊,40,43-50。
張顯達(民87)。語句平均長度在中文的應用。聽語會刊,14,36-48頁。
教育部(民91)。身心障礙及資賦優異學生鑑定原則、鑑定標準。台北:教育部。
連啟舜(民91)。國內閱讀理解教學研究成效之統合分析。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
陳定邦(民93)。鷹架教學概念在人學習歷程應用之研究。國立台灣師範大學社會教育學系。未出版。
陳明彥(民91)。國小學童語言能力、閱讀理解能力與寫作表現關係之研究。臺中師範學院諮商與教育心理研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
陳美芳(民86)。國小學童聽覺理解與聽覺記憶能力之研究—不同國語文程度學生的比較。特殊教育研究學刊,15, 293-305。
陳美芳(民88)。國語文低成就學童口語理解能力的發展。特殊教育學刊,17,189-204頁。
陳美芳(民89)。語文理解能力測驗。國立台灣師範大學心理與教育測驗研究發展中心印製。
陳英豪、吳裕益(民87)。測驗與評量。高雄:復文。
陳姝蓉(民91)。故事結構教學對增進國小閱讀障礙學生閱讀理解能力之研究。台北市立師範學院身心障礙教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
陳淑敏(民83)。 Vygotsky的心理發展理論和教育。屏東師院學報,7,119-143。
陸莉、劉鴻香(民87)。畢保德圖畫詞彙測驗。台北:心理。
陳淑麗(民85)。閱讀障礙學童聲韻能力發展之研究。國立台東師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
Ashcraft, M. H. (2002著),陳學志主譯(民93):認知心理學。台北:學富。
陳慶順(民89)。識字困難學生與普通學生識字認知成分之比較研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育研究所(未出版)。
曾世杰(民88)。國語文低成就學童之工作記憶、聲韻處理能力與唸名速度之研究。載於柯華葳、洪儷軒主編,學童閱讀困難的鑑定與診斷研討會文集,5-28頁。嘉義:國立中正大學認知科學研究中心。
曾世杰、陳淑麗(民88)。閱讀障礙學生聲韻能力之研究。特殊教育研究學刊,17,205-223。
Best, J. B. (1989著),黃秀瑄、林瑞欽編譯(民80):認知心理學。台北:師大書苑。
黃冠穎(民93)。部件識字教學法對國小二年級國語低成就學童補救教學學習成效之研究。國立花蓮師範學院碩士論文(未出版)。
葉淑美(民91)。合作故事圖解教學法對國小低閱讀能力學生閱讀理解成效之研究。臺中師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
葉靖雲(民84)。課成本位閱讀測驗的效度研究。國科會研究計畫成果報告(計畫編號NSC 84-2421-1-H018-002)。
葉瓊華、詹文宏(民89)。概念構圖、自問自答及畫重點策略對國小閱讀障礙兒童閱讀理解能力及後設認知能力教學成效之研究。特殊教育學報,14,189-231。
詹詩韻(民93)。相互教學法對國小資源班學生閱讀理解能力成效之研究。國立臺東大學教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
劉潔玲(民91)。香港初中學生的中文閱讀理解研究:成績落後學生的閱讀問題及認知教學的成效。香港中文大學研究學院教育學部博士論文(未發表)。
蔡銘津(民84)。文章結構分析策略教學對增進學童閱讀理解與寫作成效之研究。 國立高雄師範大學教育學系博士論文(未出版)。
鄭妃玲(民92)。說明文結構對國小六年級學童閱讀理解的影響。國立嘉義大學國民教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
鄭昭明(民82)。認知心理學。台北:桂冠。
錡寶香(民88)。口語述說:理論、評量與學習障礙。載於中華民國特殊教育學會主編,迎千禧談特教(頁249-291)。台北中華民國特殊教育學會。
錡寶香(民89)。國小低閱讀能力學童語言能力之研究。特殊教育研究學刊, 20, 69-96。
錡寶香(民90)。國小低閱讀成就學生的口語述說能力:語言層面的分析。彰化師 範大學特殊教育學系特殊教育中心。特殊教育學報,15, 129-175。
錡寶香(民93 )。敘事之評量與分析。未出版。
藍慧君(民80)。學習障礙與普通兒童閱讀不同結構文章之閱讀理解與閱讀理解策略的比較研究。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育研究所碩士論文(未出版)。
蘇宜芬(民80)。後設認知訓練課程對國小低閱讀能力學生閱讀理解能力與後設認知能力之影響。台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文(未出版)。

二、英文部份
Afflerbach, P. P. (1987). How are main idea statements constructed ? Watch the experts! Journal of Reading, 30(6), 512-518.
Almasi, J., & Gambrell, L. (1994). Sociocognitive conflict in peer-led and teacher-led discussions of literature (No. 12). College Park, MD/Athens, GA: National Reading research Center.
Aram, D. M., Edelman, B. L., & Nation, J. E. (1984). Preschoolers with language disorders: 10 years later. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 27, 232-244.
Aram, D. M., Ekelman, B. L., & Nation, J. E. (1984). Preschoolers with language disorders: 10 years later. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 17, 232-244.
Aram, D. M., & Nation, J. E. (1980). Preschool language disorders and subsequent language and academic difficulties. Journal of Communication Disorders, 13, 159-170.
Aron, P. G., Kuchta, S., & Grapenthin, C. T. (1988). Is there a thing called dyslexia? Annuals of Dyslexia, 38, 33-49.
Barbara, D. & Markoski, M. A. (1983). Conversational interactions of learning disabled and nondisabled child. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16,606-609.
Bashir, A. S., Conte, B. M., & Heerde, S. M. (1998). Language and school success: collaborative challenges and choices. In D. D. Merritt, & Culatta, B. (Ed.), Language intervention in the classroom (pp. 1-36). San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.
Bashir, A. S., & Scavuzzo, A. (1992). Children with language disorders: Natural history and academic success. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 53-65.
Berninger, V. W. (2000). Development of language by hand and its connections with language by ear, mouth, and eye. Topic in language disorder, 20(4), 65-84.
Bishop, D. V. M. (1979). Comprehension in developmental language disorders. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 21, 225-238.
Bishop, D. V. M., & Adams, C. (1990). A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 229-251.
Bishop, D. V. M., & Edmundson, A. (1987). Language impaired four-year-olds: Distinguishing transient from persistent impairment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders. 52, 156-173.
Boucher, C. R. (1984). Pragmatics: the meaning of verbal language in learning disabled and nondisabled boys. Learning Disability Quarterly, 9, 285-294.
Boucher, C. R. (1986). Pragmatic: The verbal language of learning disabled and nondisabled boys. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 272-285.
Brinton, B., & Fujiki, M. (1982). A comparison of request response sequences in the discourse of normal and language disordered children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 47(57-62).
Brophy, J., & Good, T. (1986). Teacher behavior and student achievement. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 111-129). New York: Macmillan.
Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Carroll, J. F. (1964). Language and thought. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Catts, H. W. (1991). Early identification of dyslexia: Evidences from a follow up study of speech language impaired children. Annals ofDyslexia, 41, 163-177.
Catts, H. W. (1996). Defing dyslexia as a developmental language disorder: an expanded view. Topics in Language Disorders, 16,14-29.
Catts, H. W. (2000). The association of reading disability, behavioral disorders, and language impairment among second-grade children. Journal of Child Psychology and Pshchiatry, 41(4), 473-482.
Catts, H. W., & Kamhi, A. (1999). Language and reading disabilities. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Marc, E., Zhang, X., & Tomblin, J. B. (1999). Language basis of reading and reading disabilities:Evidence from a longitudinal investigation. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(4), 331-362.
Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Tomblin, J. B., & Zhang, X. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 45(6), 1142-1158.
Cazden, C. B. (1998). Two meanings of “discourse”.ED420198.
Deno, S., Mirkin, P. K., & Chiang, B. (1982). Identifying valid measures of reading. Exceptional Children, 49(1), 36-45.
Dole, J. A., Duffy, G. G., Roehler, L. R., & Pearson, P. D. (1991). Moving from the old to the new: Research on reading comprehension instruction.Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 239-264.
Driscoll, M. P. (1994). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.(1997). Review of recent studies dealing with techniques of classroom interaction. ED. 415688.
Echevarria, J. (1995). Interactive reading instruction: A comparison of proximal and distal effects of instructional conversations. Exceptional Children, 61(6), 536-552.
Echevarria, J., & McDonough, R. (1993). Instructional conversations in special education settings: Issues and accommodations (No. 7). Santa Cruz, CA: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Englert, C. S., Garmon, A., Mariage, T., Rozendal, M., Tarrant, K., & Urba, J. (1995). The early literacy project: Connecting across the literacy curriculum. Learning Disability Quarterly, 18, 253-275.
Englert, C. S., Mariage, T. V., Garmon, M. A., & Tarrant, K. (1998). Accelerating reading progress in early literacy project classrooms. Remedial and Special Education, 19(3), 142-150.
Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., & Mariage, T. V. (1994). Developing a school-based discourse for literacy learning: A principled search for understanding. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17(1), 2-23.
Elbaum, B., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M., & Moody, S. W. (1999). Grouping practices and reading outcomes for students with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 65(3), 399-415.
Eodice, M. (1998). Telling teacher talk: Sociolinguistic features of writing conferences.
Fielding, L. G., & Pearson, P. D. (1994). Reading comprehension: What works. Educational Leadership, 51(62-69).
Forness, S. R. (2001). Special education and related services: What have we learned from meta-analysis? Exceptionality, 9(4), 185-197.
Friederici, A. D., & Lachmann, T. (2002). From language to reading and reading disability: Cognitive functions and their neural basis, In E. Witruk, A. D. Friederici, & T. Lachmann (Eds). Basic Functions of Language, Reading, and Reading Disability, 9-12. Kluwer Acadmic Publishers.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., & Maxwell, L. (1988). The validity of informal reading comprehension measures. Remedial and Special Education, 9, 20-28.
Gagn’e, E. D., Yekovich, C. W., & Yekovich, F. R. (1993). The cognitive psychology of school learning (2nd ) . New York:Harper College Publishers.
Galda, L., Shockley, B., & Pellegrini, A. D., (1995). Talking to read and write: Opportunities for literate talk in one primary classroom. ED 387781.
Gambrell, L. B., Pfeiffer, W. R., & Wilson, R. M. (1985). The effects of retelling upon reading comprehension and recall of text information. Journal of Educational Research, 78(4), 216-220.
Gersten, R., Fuchs, L. S., Williams, J. P. & Baker, S. (2001). Teaching reading comprehension strategies to students with learning disabilities: A review of research. Review of Educational Research, 71(2), 279-320.
Geschwind, N. (1982). Why Orton was right. Annals of Dyslexia, 32, 13-30.
Gibbs, D. P., & Cooper, E. B. (1989). Prevalence of communication disorders in students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(1), 60-63.
Gillam, R., & Johnston, J. R. (1992). Spoken and written language in language/learning-impaired and normally achieving school age-children. Journal of Specch and Hearing Research, 35, 1303-1315.
Goldenberg, C., & Patthey-Chavez, G. (1995). Discourse processes in instructional conversations:Interactions between teacher and transition readers. Discourse Processes, 19, 57-73.
Goodman, K. S. (1986). What’s whole in the whole language: A parent-teacher guide. Portsmouth. NH: Heinemann.
Goodman, K. S., & Goodman, Y. M. (1979). Learning to read is natural. In L. Resnick & P. Weaver (Eds.) Theory and practice of early reading (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, M.J.: Erlbaum.
Gough, P. B., & Tumner, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6-10.
Goulandris, N. K., Snowilin, M. J., & Walker, I. (2000). Annals of Dyslexi, 50, 103-120.
Hadley, P. A. (1998). Language sampling protocols for eliciting text-level discourse. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 29(3), 132-147.
Hall, P., & Tomblin, B. (1978). A follow-up study of Children with articulation and language disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 25, 53-65.
Hiebert, E. H., & Raphael, T. E. (1996). Psychological perspectives on literacy and extensions to educational practice. In D. C. Berliner, & Calfee, R. C. (Ed.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp. 550-602). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.
Holyoak, K. J., & Thagard, P. (1997). The analogical mind. American Psychologist, 52, 35-44.
Jenkins, J. R., & Jewell, M. (1993). Examining the validity of two measures for formative teaching: Reading aloud and maze. Exceptional Children, 59, 421-432.
Johnson, D. (1985). Using reading and writing to improve oral language skills. Topics in Language Disorders, 5(3), 55-69.
Johnson, D. (1993). Relationships between oral and written language. School Psychology Review, 22(4), 595-610.
Kamhi, A. G., & Catts, H. W. (1989). Reading disabilities: Terminology, definitions, and subtyping issues. In A. G. C. Kamhi, H. W. (Ed.), Reading disabilities: Adevelopmental language perspective (pp. 35-66). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Kamhi, A. G., & Catts, H. W. (1999). Language and reading disabilities. MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Kamhi, A. G., & Catts, H. W. (2002). The language basis of reading:implications for classification and treatment of children with reading disabilities. In K. G. Butler, & Slliman, E. R. (Ed.), Speaking, reading, and writing in children with language learning disabilities. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,Inc.
Kincade, K. M. (1996). Improving reading comprehension through strategy instruction. Reading Psychology: An International Quarterly. 17, 273-281.
Kintsch, W., & van Dijk, T. Z. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 86(363-394).
Kirk, S. A., & Gallagher, J. J.(1983). Educating Exceptional children. Cambridge, Mass: Riverside Press.
Knight-Arest, I. (1984). Communicative effetiveness of learning disabled and normally achieving 10- to 13-year-old boys. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7(237-245).
Koehnecke, D. S. (2000). Increasing literacy through storytelling. Reading Improvement, 37(4), 1870189.
Kronick, D. (1990). Holism and empiricism as complementary paradigms. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 3-8.
Kutz, E., & Roskelly, H. (1991). An unquiet pedagogy. NH: Heinemann.
Lapadat, J. C. (1991). Pragmatic language skills of students with language and /or learning disabilities: A quantitative synthesis. Journal of Learning Disabilitie, 24(3), 147-158.
Leinhardt, G., Zigmond, N., & Cooley, W. W. (1981). Reading instruction and its effects. American Education Research Journal, 18(343-361).
Liles, B. Z. (1993). Narrative discourse in children with language disorders and children with normal lalnguage:A critical review of the literature. Journal of Speach and Hearing Research, 36, 868-882.
Liles, B. Z., Duffy, R. J., Merritt, D. D., & Purcell, S. L. (1995). Measurement of narrative discourse ability in children with language disorders. Journal of Speach and Hearing Research, 38, 415-425.
Lorch, R. F., & van den Broek, P. (1997). Understanding reading comprehension: Current and future contributions of cognitive science. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 213-246.
MacLachlan, B. G., & Chapman, R. S. (1988). Communication breakdowns in normal and language-learning-disabled children's conversation and narration. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 53, 2-9.
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1997). Best practices in promoting reading comprehension in students with learning disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 18(4), 197-216.
Mastropieri, M. A., Leinhart, A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1999). Strategies to increase reading fluency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34, 278-283.
McCauley, R. J. (2001). Assessment of language disorders in children. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
McArthur, G. M., Hogben, J. H., Edwards, V. T., Hearh, S. M., & Mengler, E. D. (2000). On the specifics of specific reading disability and specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(7), 869-874.
Mehan, H. (1979). Learning lessons: Social organization in the classroom. MA: Harvard University Press.
Menyuk, P., & Chesnick, M. (1997). Metalinguistic skills, oral language knowledge, and reading. Topics in Language Disorders, 17(3), 75-87.
Merritt, D. D., Barton, J., & Culatta, B. (1998). Instructional discourse: a framework for learning. In D. D. Merritt, & Culatta, B. (Ed.), Language intervention in the classroom (pp. 143-174). San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.
Merritt, D. D., & Culatta, B. C. (1998). Language intervention in the classroom. California: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.
Miramontes, O., Chen, L., & Trueba, H. T. (1984). Teacher perceptions and observed outcomes: An ethnographic study of classroom interactions. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 349-357.
Morrow, L. M. (1988). Retelling as a diagnostic toll. In S. M. Glazer, Searfoss, L. W., & Gentile, L. (Ed.), Reexaming reading diagnosis : New trends and procedures. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.
Nation, K. & Snowling, M. J. (2000). Factors influencing syntactic awareness skills in normal readers and poor comprehenders. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 229-241.
National Center for Education Statistics(2001). The nation's report card: Fourth grade reading 2000. U. S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement ﹝On-line﹞Available:http://www.ed.gov/pubs/edpubs.html.
Nelson, N. W. (1994). Cruuiculum-based language assessment and intervention across the grades. In G. P. Wallach, & Butler, K. G. (Ed.), Language learning disabilities in school-age children and adolescents. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Norris, J. A., & Bruning, R. H. (1988). Cohesion in the narratives of good and poor readers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 53, 416-424.
Orton, S. T. (1937). Reading, writing and speech problems in children. New York: Norton.
Palincsar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 117-175.
Perfetti, C. A. (1987). Language, speech, and print; Some asymmetries in acquisition of literacy, In R. Horowitz & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Comprehending oral and written language (pp. 355-369). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Perkins, D. M., & Salomon, G. (1989). Are cognitive skills context-bound? Educational Researcher, 18, 16-25.
Poplin, M. (1988). The reductionistic fallacy in learning disabilities: Replicating the past by reducing the present. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21(7), 389-400.
Poplin, M. S. (1988). Holistic/constructivist principles of the theaching/learning process: Implications for the field of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21(7), 401-416。
Pressley, M (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of ? In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr.(Eds. ), Handbook of Reading Research Volume III (pp.545-561). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ramirez, J., Yuen, S., & Ramey, D. (1991). Executive summary: Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy early-exit and late-exit transitional bilingual education programs for language-minority children. San Mateo, CA: Adjure International.
Rashotte, C. A., & Torgesen, J. K. (1985). Repeated reading and reading fluency in learning disabled children. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 617-621.
Rescorla, L. (2002). Language and reading outcomes to age 9 in late-talking toddlers. Journal of Specch and Hearing Research, 45, 360-371.
Richardson, S. (1992). Historical perspectives on dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 468-478.
Ripich, D. N., & Griffith, P. L. (1988). Narrative abilities of children with learning disabilities and nondisabled children: Story structure, cohesion, and proposition. Journal of learning disabilities, 21(2), 165-173.
Roehler, L. R., & Cantlon, D. J. (1997). Scaffolding: A powerful tool in social constructivist classrooms. In K. Hogan, & Pressley, M. (Ed.), Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches and issues (pp. 6-42). Cambridge, MA: Brookline.
Rosenshine, B., & Meister, C. (1994). Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 64(4), 479-531.
Roskos, K., Boehlen, S., & Walker, B. J. (2000). Learning the art of instructional conversation: The influence of self-assessment on teacher's instructional discourse in a reading clinic. The Elementary School Journal, 100(3), 229-252.
Roth, F. P., & Speckman, N. J. (1986). Narrative discourse: Spontaneously generated stories of learning-disabled and normally achieving students., 51, 8-23.
Roth, F. P., Speece, D., & Cooper, S. (1996). Unresolved mysteries: How do metalinguistic and narrative skills connect with early reading. The Journal of Special Education, 30(3), 257-277.
Roth,F.P.,Speece,D.,& Cooper,S.(2000). A longitudinal analysis of the connection between oral language and early reading. The Journal of Educational Research,95(5),259-272.
Rueda, R., Goldenberg, C., & Gallimore, R. (1992). Rating instructional conversations: A guide (No. 4). Santa Curz, CA: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Rumsey, J. M. (1992). The biology of developmental dyslexia. Journal of American Medical Association, 268(7), 912-915.
Salomon, G., & Perkins, K. N. (1989). Rocky roads to transfer: Rethinking mechanisms of a neglected phenomenon. Educational Psychologist, 24, 113-142.
Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. (2000). Assessment. Houghton Mifflin : Boston.
Scarborough, H. S., & Dobrich, W. (1990). Development of children with early language delay. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research.
Scarborough, H. S., Rescorla, L., Tager-Flusberg, H., Fowler, A. E., & Sudhalter, V. (1991). The relation of utterances length of grammatical complexity in normal and language-disordered groups. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 23-45.
Scott, C. M., & Windsor, J. (2000). Gerneral language performance measures in spoken and written narrative and expository discourse of school-age children with language learning disabilities. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 43(2), 324-339.
Siegel, J. (1992). Including language in reading instruction. (No. ED 356468).
Silliman, E. R., Bahr, R., Beasman, J., & Wilkinson, L. C. (2000). Scaffolds for learning to read in an inclusion classroom. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 31, 265-279.
Silliman, E. R., & Wilkinson, L. C. (Eds.). (1994). Discourse scaffolds for classroom intervention. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Simms, R. B., & Crump, W. D. (1983). Syntactic development in the oral language of learning disabled and normal students at the intermediate and secondary level. Learning Disability Quarterly, 6, 155-165.
Sindelar, P. T., Smith, M. A., Harriman, N. E., Hale, R. S., & Wilson, R. I. (1986). Teacher effectiveness in special education programs. Journal of Special Education Research, 20, 195-265.
Snyder, L., & Downey, D. (1991). The language reading relationship in normal and reading disabled children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 129-114-.
Snyder, L., & Downey, D. (1997). Developmental differences in the relationship between oral language deficits and reading. Topics in Language Disorders, 17(3), 27-40.
Spear-Swerling, L., & Sternberg, R. J. (1996). Off track : When poor readers become Learning disabled. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Stark, R. E., Bernstein, L. E., Condino, R., Bender, M., Tallal, P., & Catts, H. (1984). Four-year follow-up study of language impaired children. Annals of Dyslexia, 34(499-568).
Sticht, T. G., & James, J. H. (1984). Listening and reading. In P. D. Pearson, Barr, R. & Kamil, M. L., & Mosenthal (Ed.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 1, pp. 293-317). New York: Longman.
Stone, C. A. (2002). Promises and pitfalls of scaffolded instruction for students with language learning disabilities. In K. G. Butler, & Slliman, E. R. (Ed.), Speaking, reading, and wrting in children with language learning disabilities (pp. 175-198). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Stone, C. A. (2002). Engaging studeints with learning disabilities in instructional discourse: A commentary on the REACH papers. Learning disabilities research & practice, 17(3),201-203.
Swanson, H. L., & Carson, C. (1996). A selective synthesis of intervention research for students with learning disabilities. School Psychology Review, 25(3), 370-392.
Swanson, H. L., & Hoskyn, M. (1998). Experimental intervention research on students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis os treatment outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 277-321.
Swanson, H. L. (1999). Instructional components that predict treatment outcomes for students with learning disabilities: Support for a combined strateggy and direct instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice. 14, 129-140.
Swanson, H. L. (1999). Reading research for students with LD: A meta-analysis of intervention outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(6), 504-532.
Swanson, H. L., & Sachse-Lee, C. (2000). A meta-analysis of single-subject-design intervention research for students with LD. Journal of learning disabilities, 33(2), 114-136.
Swanson, H. L. (2001). Searching for the best model for instruction students with learning disabilities. Focus on Exceptional children, 34(2), 1-15.
Swanson, H. L., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (2003). Handbook of learning disabilities. New York: The Guilford press.
Tharp, R., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing Minds to Life: teaching, learning, and schooling in social context. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tharp, R., & Gallimore, R. (1991). The instructional conversation: Teaching and learning in social activity (No. 2). {Tharp, 1991 #83}: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Torgesen, J., Wagner, R., Tashotte, C., Rose, E., Lindamaood, P., Conway, T.,(1999). Preventing reading failure in young children with phonological processing disabilities: Group and individual responses to instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 579-593.
Vaughn, S., Gersten, R., & Chard, D. (2000). The underlying message in LD intervention research: Findings from research syntheses. Exceptional Children, 67(1), 99-114.
Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., Moody, S. W., & Elbaum, B. (2001). Instructional grouping for reading for students with LD: Implications for practice. Intervention in Scholl and Clinic, 36(3), 131-137.
Vaughn, S., Moody, S., & Schumm, J. S. (1998). Broken proisese: Reading instruction in the resource room. Excptional Children, 64(2), 211-226.
Vaughn, S, Gersten, R., & Chard, D. (2000). The underlying message in LD intervention research: Findings from research syntheses. Exceptional Children. 67(1), 99-114.
Vellutino, F. F. (1977). Alternative conceptualizations of dyslexia: Evidence in support of a verbal deficit hypothesis. Harvard Educational Review, 47(334-354).
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and language (A. Kozulin, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Wagner, R., Torgesen, J., & Rashotte, C. (1994). Development of reading related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bi-directional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 30, 73-87.
Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192-212.
Ward-Lonergan, J. M., Liles, B. Z., & Anderson, A. M. (1999). Verbal retelling abilities in adolescents with and without language-learning disabilities for social studies lectures. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(3), 213-223.
Wasik, B. A., & Slavin, R. E. (1993). Preventing early reading failure with one-to-one tutoring: A review of five programs. Reading Research Quarterly, 28(2), 178-200.
Webster, P. (1994). Linguistic factors in reading disability: A model for assessing children who are without overt language impairment. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 10(1), 259-277.
Williams, J. P. (1991). Comprehension by learning disabled and nondisabled adolescents of personal /social problems presented in text . American Journal of Psychology, 104, 563-586.
Wilkinson, L. C., & Silliman, E. R. (2000). Classroom language and literacy learning. In P. D. Pearson, Barr, R. & Kamil, M. L (Ed.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3). New York: Longman: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Wixson, K. K., & Lipson, M. Y. (1991). Perspectives on reading disability research. In R. Barr, Kamil, M. L., Mosenthal, P. B. & Pearson, P. D. (Ed.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 539-567). New York: Longman.
Wong, B. Y. L., & Sauatsky, D. (1984). Sentence elaboration and retention of good, average and poor readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 229-235.
Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89-100.
Woodward, J. (2001). Introduction to special issue. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(1), 3-4.
Woodward, J., & Morocco, C. C. (2002). Introduction to special issue. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17(3), 141-143.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top