跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.38.248) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/11/30 04:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:許祐榮
研究生(外文):Yu-Lung Hsu
論文名稱:菌種、培養條件和熱處理對紅麴二次代謝產物之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of species, culture condition and heat processing on secondary metabolites of Monascus strains
指導教授:黃登福黃登福引用關係侯福分侯福分引用關係
指導教授(外文):Deng-Fwu HwangFu-Fen Hou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:紅麴菌二次代謝產物毒素
外文關鍵詞:Monacolin KGABACitrinin
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:1258
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:208
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
摘要

紅麴在我國食用上已有千年的歷史,被廣泛的用於食品及醫藥上,明代李時珍所著<本草綱目>對紅麴有以下描述:「紅麴主治消食活血,健脾燥胃」。而其中活血部分,與近來研究發現紅麴其二次代謝物中有monacolin K具有降血脂之功能、γ-胺基酪酸 (γ-amino-n-butyric acid;GABA) 擁有降血壓之功效相符。因此在人類罹患心血管疾病日益嚴重的趨勢下,紅麴成為一項極被矚目之機能性食品。
近年來,研究發現紅麴的二次代謝中,會產生一種真菌毒素:桔黴素 (citrinin) 。而此種真菌毒素對人體的肝臟及腎臟器官皆具有毒性,是一種神經毒素,並被定位為肝腎毒素。由於有毒成分被發現,而使得在服用紅麴的安全性逐漸受到重視。因此本研究主要探討利用五株不同紅麴菌株在不同發酵基質與培養時間所生產之發酵產物,其生產具有生理活性的monacolin K、GABA的含量,與檢測其產生桔黴素 (citrinin) 能力,並探討化學組成分、水活性、pH值與色澤上之變化。
由實驗中可得知,在液態培養方面,以MEB (malt extract brothⅠ) 培養五株不同紅麴菌株,發現在第14天時,紅麴菌BCRC 31540其monacolin K的產量達183 mg/kg,為五株最高;在GABA產量方面亦高達1826 mg/kg;但在citrinin方面,BCRC 31540產值亦為五株菌中最高,達99.7 mg/kg。各株紅麴菌之生長,在色度上發現當色澤越紅時,其monacolin k越高,而citrinin的產量亦會上升。在固態培養方面,以麴米為培養基質,在培養7天後,經檢測結果發現,BCRC 31540之monacolin K產量為670 mg/kg,為五株中最高;GABA產量為3933 mg/kg,亦為五株中最高;但citrinin也高達11.2 mg/kg,亦為五株中最高。於是,又進一步針對BCRC 31540,分別以液態培養30天及固態培養49天,探討其monacolin K、GABA及citrinin產量的差異。結果發現,monacolin K在液態培養第8至12天之間,產量達到最高;在固態則是第7天時產量最高。而citrinin在液態培養下在第16至20天之間產量達到最高,固態培養則在第21天至28天之間產量最高。因此建議若以BCRC 31540紅麴菌株為例,其液態培養天數最好在12天,固態培養則在7天,即可獲得高monacolin K低citrinin之產物。進一步探討紅麴菌株生產二次代謝產物monacolin K、GABA及citrinin以不同溫度加熱10分鐘之濃度變化,結果發現在100℃加熱10分鐘下,Monacolin K及GABA之濃度變化不大,但citrinin之濃度下降約69%。可知citrinin是熱不穩定物質,因此建議紅麴菌之產物,可利用加熱方式降低citrinin濃度。
Abstract

The Monascus species is a Chinese traditional fermentation fungus used on food for over thousands of years in China. The fungi Monascus species are known as the sources of various secondary bioactive metabolites, such as monacolin K and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). Monacolin K is a potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylgultaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) and possesses the ability to reduce blood cholesterol and lipid. GABA has several physiological functions including neurotransmitting, hypotensive, and diuretic effects. So Monascus fermented products are becoming more popular functional food. Recently, citrinin was reported to be one of the secondary metabolites of Monascus species. Citrinin is a mycotoxin, and is suspected to be a carcinogen causing renal tumors. So it is important to avoid the direct intake of citrinin or indirect intake through Monascus fermented food. In this study, we tried to produce the Monasucs fermented product with rich in monacolin K and GABA, but lack in citrinin. The composition, Aw, pH value and Hunter L, a, b, value of five kinds of Monascus strains cultured in different conditions were also studied.
Five strains of Monascus spp. (BCRC 31498, 31499, 31502, 31540, 31615) were submerged and cultured in malt extract mediumⅠfor 14 days. Among them, the concentration of monacolin K, citrinin and GABA was 183, 99.7 and 1826 mg/kg for the strain BCRC 31540, respectively. This strain showed the highest production of three metabolites. Then these five strains were further cultured in solid broth for 7 days. The concentration of monacolin K, citrinin and GABA was 670, 11.2 and 3933 mg/kg for the strain BCRC 31540, respectively. This strain also produced the highest amount of three metabolites. The production of monacolin K, citrinin and GABA from Monascus strains in solid culture was better than in the submerged culture. The strain BCRC 31540 was cultured in solid broth for 7 days and produced the highest amounts of three secondary metabolites than the other four strains. The color of fermented products of Monascus was more red, the amount of monacolin K and citrinin was more high. The optimal culture to produce the highest amount of monacolin K, citrinin and GABA for the strains BCRC 31540 cultured in submerged culture was 8-12 days, 12-16 days, and 24-30 days, respectively. In contrast, it was the 7th, 28th, and 7th day, respectively, in solid culture. Furthermore, the fermented product was heated at 100℃ water bath for 10 min, the citrinin was significantly decreased about 69%, but moancolin K and GABA were not. It indicated that citrinin is a heat unstable compound, but monacolin K and GABA are heat stable ones.
目 錄

壹、文獻整理………………………………………………..…..….…1
一、紅麴的應用史………………………………….................1
二、紅麴的分類………………………………………………………...2
三、紅麴在傳統食品上的應用………………………………………….3
四、紅麴食品開發……………………………………………………...5
五、紅麴生產的二次代謝產物……………………………..….......7
六、以不同培養條件探討紅麴中monacolin K、GABA及citrinin之影響........................................................17

貳、研究內容……………………………………………………………19
第一章、探討五株紅麴菌株在不同培養基質、時間,其monacolin K、GABA及citrinin產量、色澤之變化……………………...………19
一、前言…………….……………………………………..…….……19
二、實驗材料…………………………………….………….…….….20
三、實驗方法……………….……………………………………..….22
四、紅麴二次代謝產物 (monacolin K、GABA及citrinin) 萃取及分析........................................................23
五、結果………………………….…………………………………….29
六、討論………………………………….…………………….……..34
圖表…………..…………………….…….…….…………………….39

第二章、紅麴菌株BCRC 31540在不同培養條件與時間下monacolin K、GABA及citrinin之產量差異性….....……………….………...50
一、前言……………….………………….….……….…………..…50
二、實驗材料……….…….…..…….…..………………………….51
三、實驗方法……..…….……...………..…………………………51
四、結果…….…....…………………..…………………………….52
五、討論.…………………………………………………………….…55
圖表...……………….………………………………...…………...58

第三章 不同加熱溫度對紅麴米中monacolin K、GABA及citrinin殘留量之影響……………………...……………………………….....…64
一、前言…………………………………………………………………64
二、實驗材料………….………………...………….………..…….65
三、實驗方法…..…………………………………………………..…65
四、結果…………………………………….………………………...66
五、討論………………………………....………………………....68
圖表………...………………………………………………………...70

參考文獻…………………………………………………………….….73
附錄…………………………………………………………………....83
參考文獻
李昭蓉。1997。漫談紅麴菌。食品工業。29:33-39。
吳展才。2001。機能性紅麴椰果產品之開發研究。台灣大學園藝研究所碩士論文。
林炳坤。1986。豬肉經液體紅糟的浸漬處理,其化學及組織學性質變化之探討。中興大學畜牧研究所碩士論文。
林讚峰。1992。紅麴菌在保健食品上的新用途。食品工業。24:41-45。
林讚峰。1995。紅麴菌培養工藝及紅麴應用之演進。製酒科技專論竹 彙編。17:156-168。
林讚峰。2001。紅麴的神奇療效。世茂。台北。pp. 141-146。
莊淑惠。2003。紅麴色素之應用。食品工業。35:3-8。
陳偉元。1990。紅麴豆腐乳香味成份與色澤分析之研究。大葉大學食品工程研究所碩士論文。
陳彥霖、李昭蓉、陳建州與袁國芳。1998。紅麴菌種之研究開發與應用。食品工業月刊。30:1-10。
陳彥霖。2000。紅麴與高血壓。科學與技術。32:54-59。
陳彥霖。2001。紅麴之機能性代謝產物及其保健食品之開發。食品市場資訊。90:12-16。
葉伶宜。2002。紅麴菌之二次代謝產物及其分析方法簡介。食品工業。34:11-19。
蘇遠志、陳文亮、方鴻源、翁浩慶與王文祥。1970。紅麴菌 (Monascus anka) 之菌學研究。中國農業化學會誌。21:63-71。
蘇遠志。1978。紅麴色素之生產研究。食品科學。5:4-7。
蘇遠志、黃冬梨。1981。紅麴色素之動物飼養實驗。國立台灣大學農學院研究報告。21: 98-112.
蘇遠志。2001。紅麴製品介紹及國內研究現況。機能性醱酵製品研討會。pp.67-112。
Albert, A. W., Chen, J. and Springer, J. 1980. Mevinolin: A highlypotent competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol-lowing agent. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77: 3957-3961.
Aniya, Y., Yokomakura, T., Yonamine, M., Shimada, K., Nagamine, T., Shimabukro, M. and Gibo, H. 1999. Screening of antioxidant action of various molds and protection of Monascus anka against experimentally induced liver injuries of rats. General Pharmacol. 32: 225-231.
Aniya, Y., Ohtani, I. I., Higa, T., Miyagi, C., Gibo, H., Shimabukuro, M., Nakanishi, H. and Taira, J. 2000. Dimerumic acid as an antioxidant of the mold, Monascus anka. Free Radical Biol. Med. 26: 999-1004.
Ansari, R. A., Thakran, R. S. and Berndt, W. O. 1991. The effects of potassium chromate and citrinin on rat renal membrance transport. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 16: 701-703.
AOAC(Association of Official Analytical Chmist). 1998. Official method of Analysis of the Associaltion of Official Analytical, Chemist. 16th Edn., AOAC, Maryland.
Blanc, P. J., Loret, M. O., Santerre, A. L., Pareilleux, A., Prome, D., Prome, J. C., Laussac, J. P. and Goma, G. 1994. Pigments of Monascus. J. Food Sci. 59: 862-865.
Blanc, P. J., Laussac, J. P., Le Bar, J., Le Bar, P., Loret, M. O., Pareilleux, A., Prome, D., Prome, J. C., Santerre, A. L. and Goma, G. 1995a. Characterization of monascidin A from Monascus as citrinin. Inter. J. Food Microbiol. 27: 201-213.
Blanc, P. J., Loret, M. O. and Goma, G. 1995b. Production of citrinin by various species of Monascus. Biotech. Lett. 17: 291-294.
Bravo, L., Herrera, M. D., Marhuenda, E. and Perez-Guerrero, C. 1998. Cardiovascular effects of lovastatin in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Gen. Pharmac. 30: 331-336.
Cannon, P. J., Abdullah, S. K. and Abbas, B. A. 1995. Two new species of Monascus from Iraq, with a key to known species of the genus. Mycol. Res. 99: 659-662.
Davidson, M. H., Lukacsko, P., Sun, J. X., Phillips, G., Walters, E., Sterman, A., Niecestro, R. and Friedhoff, L. 2002. A multiple-dose pharmacodynamic, safety, and pharmacokinetic comparison of extended- and immediate-release formulations of lovastatin. Clin. Ther. 24: 112-125.
Elkin, R. G. and Rogler, J. C. 1990. Reduction of the cholesterol content of eggs by oral administration of lovastatin to laying hens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 1635-1641.
Endo, A. 1979. Monacolin k, a new hypocholesterolemic agent produced by Monascus species. J. Antibiot. 32: 852-854.
Endo, A. and Nigishi, S. 1985. Monacolins J and L, new inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthsis produced by Monascus rubber. J. Antibiot. 38: 420-422.
Fabre, C. E., Santerre, A. L., Loret, M. O., Baberian, R., Pareilleux, A., Goma, G. and Blanc, P. J. 1993. Production and food applications of the red pigments of Monascus ruber. J. Food Sci. 58: 1099-1110.
Fenice, M., Federici, F. and Selbmann, L. 2000. Repeated-batch production of pigments by immobilized Monascus purpureus. J. Biotechnol. 80: 271-276.
Fernandez, C., Suarez, Y., Ferruelo, A. J., Gomez-Coronado, D. and Lasuncion, M. A. 2002. Inhibtion of cholesterol biosynthesis by ⊿22-unsaturated phytosterols via competitive inhibition of sterol ⊿24 –reductase in mammalian cells. Biochem. J. 366: 109-119.
Hajjaj, H., Klaebe, A., Loret, M. O., Goma, G., Blanc, P. J. and Francois, J. 1999. Biosynthetic pathway of citrinin in the filamentous fungus Monascus rubber resonance. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 311-314.
Hajjaj, H., Bland, P., Groussac, E. Uribelarrea, J. L., Goma, G. and Loubiere, P. 2000a. Kinetic analysis of red pigment and citrinin production by Monascus ruber as a functional of organic acid accumulation. Enz. Microbiol. Technol. 27: 619-625.
Hajjaj, H., Klaebe, A., Goma, G., Blanc, P. J., Barbier, E. and Francois, J. 2000b. Medium-chain fatty acid affect citrinin production in the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 1120-1125.
Hawksworth, D. L. and Pitt, J. I. 1983. A new taxonomy for Monascus species based on cultural and microscopical characters. Aust. J. Bot. 31: 51-56.
Heber, D., Yip, I., Ashley, J. M., Elashoff, D. A., Elashoff, R. M. and GO, V. L. W. 1999. Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69: 231-236.
Hirota, M., Menta, A. B., Yoneyama, K. and Kitabatake, N. 2002. A major decomposition product, citrinin H2, from citrinin on heating with moisture. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66: 206-210
Hiroi, T., Shima, T., Suzuki, T., Tsukioka, M. and Ogasawara, N. 1979. Hyperpigment productive mutant of Monascus anka for solid culture. Agric. Biol. Chem. 43: 1975-1976.
Hsieh, P. S. and Tai, Y. H. 2003. Aqueous extract of Monascus purpureus M9001 prevents and reverses fructose-induced hypertension in rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 3945-3950.
IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), 1987. Standard Methods for Analysis of Oils, Fats, and Derivatives. 7th Edn., IUPAC, Oxford.
Jenkins, D. J. A., Kendall, C. W. C., Marchie, M., Faulkner, D. A., Wong, J. M. W., Souzain, R. S., Eman, A., Parker, T. L., Vidgen E., Lapsley, K. G., Trautwein, E. A., Josse, R. G., Leiter, L. A. M. and Connelly, P. W. 2003. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs lovastatin on serum lipids and c-reactive protein. JAMA. 290: 502-510.
Juzlova, P., Martinkova, L. and Kren, V. 1996a. Secondary metabolites of the fungus Monascus: A review. J. Ind. Microbiol. 16: 163-170.
Juzlova, P., Rezanka, T., Martinovka, L. and Kren, V. 1996b. Long chain fatty acids from Monascus purpureus. Phytochemistry 43: 151-153.
Keisuke, T., Tomio, I., Nobukazu, T., Shirou, A., Shoichi, T. and Yasue, N. 1992a. Effect of two kinds of koji on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 66: 1241-1246.
Keisuke, T., Tomio, I., Nobukazu, T., Shirou, A., Shoichi, T. and Yasue, N. 1992b. Effect of beni-koji on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 39: 919-924.
Kerzner, B., Corbelli, J., Sharp, S., Lipka, L. J., Melani, L., LeBeaut, A., Suresh, R., Mukhopadhyay, P. and Veltri, E. P. 2003. Efficacy and safety of ezetimibe coadministered with lovastatin in primary hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Cardiol. 91: 418-424.
Kimura, K., Komagata, D., Murakawa, L. and Endo, A. 1990. Biosynthesis of monacolins: Conversion of monacolin J to moancolin K (mevinolin). J. Antibiot. 44: 1621-1622.
Kohama, Y. 1987. Isolation and identification of hypotensive principle in red mold rice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 25: 2484-2489.
Komagata, D., Shimada, H., Murakawa, S. and Endo, A. 1989. Biosynthesis of monacolins: conversion of monacolin L to monacolin J by a monooxygenase of Monascus rubber. J. Antibiot. 43: 407-412.
Kono, I. and Himeno, K. 2000. Changes in γ-aminobutyric acid content during beni-koji making. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64: 617-619.
Krejci, M. E., Bretz, N. S. and Koechel, D. A. 1996. Citrinin produces acute adverse changes in renal functional and ultrastructure in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs without concomitant reductions in potassium. Toxicology 106: 167-177.
Lee, Y. K., Chen, D. C., Chauvatcharin, S., Seki, T. and Yoshida T. 1995. Production of Monascus pigments by a solid-liquid state culture method. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 79: 516-518.
Li, Z. 1982. A new species of the genus Monascus. Acta. Microbiol. Sin. 22: 118-122.
Li, C., Zhu, Y., Wang, Y., Zhu, J. S., Chang, J. and Kritchevsky, D. 1998. Monascus purpureus-fermented rice ( red yeast rice ): a natural food product that lowers blood cholesterol in animal models of hypercholesterolemia. Nutr. Res. 18: 71-81.
Li, Y. G., Zhang, F., Wang, Z. T. and Hu, Z. B. 2004. Identification and chemical profiling of monacolins in red yeast rice using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry. J. Pharma. Biomed. Analy. 35: 1101-1112.
Lin, C. F. 1973. Isolation and cultural conditions of Monascus sp. For production of pigment in a submerged culture. J. Ferm. Tech. 51: 407-414.
Lin, T. F., Yakushijin, K., Buchi, G. H. and Demain A. L. 1992. Formation of water-soluble Monascus red pigment by biological and semi-synthetic procecces. J. Ind. Microbiol. 9: 173-179.
Lozzo, E. J. D., Mangrich, A. S., Rocha, M. E.M., Oliveira, B. M. D and Carnieri, E. G. S. 2002. Effects of citrinin on iron-redox cycle. Cell Biochemistry and Function 20: 19-29.
Ma, J., Li, Y., Ye, Q., Li, J., Hua, Y., Ju, D. Cooper, R. and Chang, M. 2000. Constitutents of red yeast rice, a traditional Chinese food and medicine. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 5220-5225.
Manabe, M. 2001. Fermented foods and mycotoxins. Mycotoxins 51: 25-28.
Nash, D. T. 1996. Meeting national cholesterol education goals in clinical practice-A comparison of lovastatin and fluvastatin in primary prevention. Am. J. Cardiol. 78: 26-31.
Nomura, M., Kimoto, H., Someya, Y., Furukawa, S. and Suzuki, I. 1998. Production of γ-amionbutyric acid by cheese starters during cheese ripening.J. Dairy. Sci. 81: 1486-1491.
Otto, J., Ordovas, J. M., Smith, D., Dongen, D. V., Nicolosi, R. J. and Schaefer, E. J. 1995. Lovastatin inhibits diet induced atherosclerosis in F1B golden Syrian hamster. Atherosclerosis 144: 19-28.
Panagou, E. Z., Skandamis, P. N. and Nychas, G. J. E. 2005. Use of gradient to study combined effects of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration on growth of Monascus ruber van Tieghem, an ascomycetes fungus isolated from green table olives. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 392-399.
Pappu, A. S. and Illingworth, D. R. 2002. The effects of lovastatin and simvastatin on the diurnal periodicity of plasma mevalonate concentrations in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis 165: 137-144.
Presser, K. A., Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. 1998. Modelling the growth limits (growth/no growth interface) of Escherichia coli as a function of temperature, pH, lactic acid concentration, and water activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 1773-1779.
Rhyu, M. R., Kim, D. K., Kim, H. Y. and Kim, B. Y. 2000. Nitric oxide-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta induced by aqueous extract of red rice fermented with Monascus rubber. J. Ethnopharmacol. 70: 29-34.
Rossetti, V. and Lombard, A. 1996. Determination of glutamate decarboxylase by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatography B 68: 63-67.
Sabater-Vilar, M., Mass, R. F. M. and Fink-Gremmels, J. 1999. Mutagenicity of commercial Monascus fermentation products and the role citrinin comtamination. Mutat. Res. 444:7-6.
Santosh, K. and Narayan, S. P. 1997. The metabolism of γ-amino-butyrate (GABA) in fungi. Mycological Res. 101: 403-409.
Sheu, F., Wang, C. F. and Shyu, Y. T. 2000. Fermentation of Monascus purpureus on bacterial cellulose-nata and the color stability of Monascus-nata complex. J. Food Sci. 65: 342-345.
Su, Y. C. and Huang, J. H. 1976. Studies on the production of anka-pigment. J. Chin. Agr. Chem. Soc. 14: 45-58.
Su, Y. C. and Huang, J. H. 1980. Fermentative production of anka-pigments (Monascus-pigment). Proc. N. S. C. 4: 201-215.
Su, Y. C. and Huang, J. H. 1983. Fermentative production of anka-pigments. Korean J. Appl. Microbiol. 30: 41-46.
Su, Y. C., Wang, J. J., Lin, T. T. and Pan, T. M. 2003. Production of the secondary metabolites γ-aminobutyric acid and monacolin K by Monascus. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 4826-4829.
Taira, J., Miyagi, C. and Aniya, Y. 2002. Dimerumic acid an antioxidant from the, Monascus anka: the inhibition mechanisms against lipid peroxidation and hemeprotein-mediated oxidation. Biochem. Pharmacol. 63: 1019-1026.
Toshio, H., Satoko, O., Hirotake, M. and Hallinan, K. O. 1997. Enantioselective synthesis of the lactone moiety of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor: Stereoselective synthesis of (+) – (4R, 6R) – 4 – hydroxyl–6–(2-phenylethyl)–tetrahydro–2H–pyran–2–one. Asymmetry 8: 181-184.
Trivedi, A. B., Hirote, M., Doi, E. and Kitabatake, N. 1993. Formation of a new toxic compound citrinin H1, from citrinin on mild heating in water. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. Trans. Ⅰ. 2167-2171.
Udagawa, S and Baba, H. 1998. Monascus lunisporas, a new species isolated from mouldy feeds. Cryptogamie. Mycologie. 19: 269-276.
Ueno Y., Hayakawa, K., Takahashi, S. and Oda, K. 1997. Purification and characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis IFO12005. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 61: 1168-1171.
Wang, U. L., Houng, J. Y., Chang, H. S., Chien, H. C. R. and Hsu, W. H. 1998. Selection of drug-resistant mutants Monascus pilosus for enhanced monacolin k production. J. Chin. Agric. Chem. Soc. 36: 192-200.
Wang, S. S., Yen, Y. H., Tsiao, W. J., Chang, W. T. and Wang, C. L. 2002. Production of antimicrobial comounds by Monascus purpureus CCRC 31499 using shrimp and crab shell powder as a carbon source. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 31: 337-344.
Wang, J. J. and Pan, T. M. 2003. Effect of red mold rice supplements on serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels of laying hens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 4824-4829.
Wang, J. J., Lee, C. L. and Pan, T. M., 2003. Improvement of monacolin k, γ-aminobutyric acid and citrinin production ratio as a function of environmental conditions of Monascus purpureus NTU 601. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30: 669-676.
Wang, J. J., Lee, C. L. and Pan, T. M. 2004. Modified mutation method for screening low citrinin-producing strains of Monascus purpureus on rice culture. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 6977-6982.
Wang, Y. Z., Ju, X. L. and Zhou. Y. G. 2005. The variability of citrinin production in Monascus type cultures. Food Microbiol. 22: 145-148.
Wei, W., Li, C., Wang, Y., Su, H., Zhu, J. and Kritchevsky, D. 2003. Hypolipidmic and anti-atherogenic effects of long-term cholestin ( Monascus purpureus-fermented rice, red yeast rice ) in cholesterol fed rabbits. J. Nutr. Biochem. 14: 314-318.
White, P. J. 1991. Method for measuring changes in deep-fat frying oils. Food Technol. 2: 355-405.
Wild, D., Toth, G. and Hump, H. U. 2002. New Monascus metabolite isolated from red yeast rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 3999-4002.
Wu, G. F. and Wu, X. C. 2000. Secreening DPPH radical scavengers from Monascus sp. Acta. Microbiol. Sinica 40: 108-112.
Yongsmith, B., Krairak, S. and Bavavoda, R. 1994. Production of yellow pigments in submerged culture of a mutant of Monascus spp. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 78: 223-228.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top