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研究生:李冠興
研究生(外文):Kuan-Hsing Lee
論文名稱:臺灣產蟹類形態、棲地與行為生態關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):Relationships between the morphological characteristics, inhabitations and behavior ecology of crabs in Taiwan
指導教授:黃寶貴鄭明修鄭明修引用關係
指導教授(外文):B.Q. HuangMing Shiou, Jeng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:環境生物與漁業科學學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:181
中文關鍵詞:棲地行為形質生態
外文關鍵詞:crabsinhabitationsbehavior ecologymorphologicail characteristicsecology
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本論文主要目的是藉由北關螃蟹博物館之典藏標本為研究材料,並記錄分析及觀察活體展示缸之行為生態,綜合分析台灣產蟹類外部形質、棲地與行為之關係,以求更深入了解螃蟹的生態。經分類鑑定標本共280種,發現可能之台灣新種或新記錄種蟹類約30種,其中並新增加反羽蟹科及根足蟹亞科,使目前台灣產蟹類科數增為40科。並取其中37科150種蟹類做本次研究之樣本。
根據上述資料建立蟹類名錄、棲地與生態行為簡索對照表,並將數據歸納分析,得知下列成果:
ㄧ、隨深度增加螃蟹體型是否符合一般深海生物巨大化之假說,經由分析垂直深度較廣泛分佈之同總科蟹類後發現結果與理論不完全符合,有極大化與極小化二極兩種體型演化趨勢。
二、隨深度增加螃蟹體色是否符合海洋生物體色趨橘紅或白之假說,藉由分析垂直深度較廣泛分佈之蟹類後符合此趨勢理論。其體色開始趨紅或白之深度分界約在一百至二百米左右。
三、海生蟹類棲息於礁岩硬底質與沙泥軟底質步足形質的演化差異,從同類緣蟹類步足指節比較後得知。棲息於礁岩硬底質蟹類指節為扁錐形或圓錐形且指節內側緣多具剛毛;棲息於沙泥質軟底質蟹類指節則為鏟形或鍬形且指節外側緣或側緣具剛毛。
四、螃蟹躲避天敵外部形質的四種演化策略:(1)蟹類外部形質模仿棲地環境或生物達成偽裝目的之形質擬態策略,例:菱蟹類。(2)蟹類撿取棲地環境生物或非生物,沾粘於外表達成偽裝目的之偽裝物擬態策略,例:蜘蛛蟹類。(3)蟹類外部形質具鮮豔警戒色並常具毒性之形質毒性警戒色策略,例:扇蟹類。(4)蟹類外部形質明顯不同於棲地環境生物或非生物體,且色彩鮮豔並行群體生活之混淆天敵策略,例:招潮蟹,和尚蟹等。
五、棲息於陸域的蟹類如何克服水份不足的問題,經研究觀察後,確認其採取的三種外部形質演化:(1)擴大鰓域面積並改變鰓絲構造。(2)步足座節處演化出吸水絨毛囊。(3)步足長節側面增生氣體交換之股窗結構。
The purpose of this thesis is to understand the relationships between morphological characteristics, inhabitations and behavior ecology of crabs in Taiwan by recording and analyzing the crab specimens sourced from the Peikuan Crab Museum. There are 280 species of crabs according to the taxonomic identifications of all crab specimens. During the process of this research, 20 kinds of new species or new record species of crabs were found, including both subfamily Rhizopine and family Retroplumidae. As a result, families of crabs in Taiwan increase to 40. According to the above-mentioned information, an index of crabs in Taiwan, inhabitations and behavior ecology was established and results were analyzed as follows

(1), it doesn't completely match the hypothesis of abyssal gigantism after analyzing the same family of crabs. The result displays evolution tendency of maximum or minimum.

(2), it accords completely with the hypothesis that body colors of marine biology tend to be orange or white after analyzing the same family of crabs. Furthermore, the delimitation of body colors turning to be orange or white is between 100 and 200 meters deep.

(3), sea crabs, living on reef or silt areas, have different evolution tendency of pereiopods after comparing the dactylus of the same phylogenetic crabs. Crabs living on reef areas have cone dactylus with rich seta inside it. Instead, those who living on silt areas have shovel dactylus with rich seta outside it.

(4), morphological characteristics of crabs have evolved into four different trends to escape from the natural enemies. (i)as most people know, mimicry is the form of imitating the habitats or other organisms, like Family Parthenopidae (ii)another mimicry is to use materials around their habitats and stick them to crabs themselves, Family Majidae, for example (iii)Family Xanthidae are toxic crabs with attractive, bright colors as a symbol of warning (iv)another example of crabs, like Family Ocypodidae and Mictyridae, have beautiful colors but no poison. They survive from nature enemies by living together within big groups.
(5), the study finds that morphological characteristics of crabs living on land evolve into three different ways to avoid lose water. (i)the gill will increase area and change the structure. (ii)the ischium will evolve absorbent fine hair. (iii) the side of the merus will evolve the thigh window to increase the gas exchange.
中文摘要
英文摘要
謝辭
目錄
壹 、前言...................... 1
貳 、材料與方法................... 3
一、 標本來源.................. 3
二、 標本處理.................. 3
三、 研究方法.................. 3
參 結果...................... 9
肆 討論...................... 26
伍 附錄...................... 33
附錄一 蟹類垂直棲地分佈表............. 33
附錄二 類緣總科、科、亞科、屬種對照表....... 54
附錄三 螃蟹形質測量、棲地環境與生態行為對照表
    ...................... 59
附錄四 原始資料.................. 62
附錄五 海生型蟹類體型與垂直深度對照矩陣......102
附錄六 海生型蟹類體色與垂直深度對照矩陣......105
附錄七 海生型蟹類步足指節類型與棲地底質及掘洞
    行為對照矩陣................109
附錄八 海生型蟹類挑避天敵之擬態策略分析......110
附錄九 陸域螃蟹克服水份不足之形質演化策略分析...113
陸 參考文獻....................114
柒 圖檔......................136
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