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研究生:王品雅
研究生(外文):Wang Pin Ya
論文名稱:幼兒在社會戲劇遊戲中協商行為之研究
指導教授:盧明盧明引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立台北師範學院
系所名稱:幼兒教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:學前教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:幼兒社會戲劇遊戲協商行為
外文關鍵詞:young childrensociodramatic playnegotiation behavior
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在本研究中,幼兒所進行的是以戲劇的模式為架構之自創故事的社會戲劇遊戲,即是幼兒經過故事劇情的創造、角色的設定、劇情的排演與修正,道具與布景的製作的歷程,並藉協商的策略來融合同儕間彼此對遊戲內涵的意見,達成同儕對社會戲劇遊戲的共識,才能夠建構出一具有主題劇情、角色與道具的正式社會戲劇遊戲,由幼兒創作社會戲劇遊戲的歷程可知,此研究的情境與一般幼兒自發性的社會戲劇遊戲不同。
故在此研究中,研究者欲探討的是幼兒在社會戲劇遊戲中,引發幼兒協商行為的情境為何?幼兒的協商歷程及其所使用的協商策略為何?最後是探討影響幼兒協商的因素。研究者在本研究中的角色是採以觀察者的參與,不主動介入幼兒的社會戲劇遊戲,且是在自然的情境中觀察幼兒進行之自創故事的社會戲劇遊戲。
在研究結果方面分為三部分討論,首先討論的是幼兒在尚未開始以自創故事為架構所進行之社會戲劇遊戲,幼兒是以其所知的童話故事為主幹進行社會戲劇遊戲,幼兒在此歷程中協商的重點,是社會戲劇遊戲中三大要素裡的「角色」這個要素,以後設溝通、說明與解釋等方式為主要協商社會戲劇遊戲問題的策略。接下來幼兒就著手進行故事的創作,形成可以進行社會戲劇遊戲的藍本,並依此藍本進行社會戲劇遊戲的排演,在排演的過程中或是在排演結束的討論狀況下,幼兒針對社會戲劇遊戲的主題劇情、角色和道具此三大要素進行更為詳盡的協商與討論,其所使用之協商策略會依據引發協商的要素不同,而有不同的協商方式。例如在社會戲劇遊戲的進行之中,針對主題劇情的協商,幼兒便會以後設溝通的策略、解釋或澄清劇情內容與發展的方式為主要的協商策略;又如在排演結束後的協商中,幼兒對於角色這個要素,嘗試以示範的方式來說明角色在劇情中的行為與表現。總括來說,幼兒在社會戲劇遊戲的架構中,後設溝通、說明、解釋和澄清歧異等方式,是幼兒用來進行協商的重要策略。
最後一部分是即興遊戲的的開展,在幼兒進行社會戲劇遊戲的排演當下,幼兒會被外在事物影響而偏離了原創故事的劇情,而另創一條即興遊戲的社會戲劇遊戲,在發生即興遊戲的歷程當中,幼兒所使用來解決異議的方式,與針對社會戲劇遊戲三大要素的協商策略相同,亦是以後設溝通、說明、澄清等策略進行。在整個觀察紀錄幼兒進行社會戲劇遊戲的過程中發現,不論幼兒是否在進行社會戲劇遊戲的排演,他們都會試圖以協商的策略來達到同儕對於遊戲的共識,但是其中老師的角色以及幼兒個人的特質和能力,仍是影響社會戲劇遊戲的發展與進行與重要影響因素。
由本研究的研究可知,在幼兒所進行的社會戲劇遊戲中,幼兒不僅要集合眾人的想法,協商並創造出社會戲劇遊戲的劇情,其中更是要挑戰幼兒個人特質以及老師所帶來對於社會戲劇遊戲的衝擊,才能以戲劇的模式呈現幼兒獨特的自創性社會戲劇遊戲。
There were three purposes of this study:
1. In what situation during young children’s sociodramatic play involved young children’s negotiation behavior?
2. What was the process of young children’s negotiation behavior, and the strategies young children used to negotiate.
3. What were the factors to influence young children’s negotiation behavior?.
The result of this study divided into there parts. Before the scripts of sociodramatic play created by young children themselves, they selected and adopted fairy tales to be their scripts of sociodramatic play. In this process, the most important of young children’s negotiation behavior was the “roles”, which was one of the essential factors of sociodramatic play. Young children took several methods to negotiate the problems of sociodramatic play, such as metacommunication, interpretation and explanation. After the sociodramatic play of fairy tales, young children began to make scripts by themselves, and these scripts became the blueprint of sociodramatic play. After young children made the scripts of sociodramatic play, they had to rehearse for the show. During and after the rehearsal, young children would make more detailed negotiation behavior and discussion about the essential factors of sociodramatic play: plots and scripts, roles, and stage properties. According to the factors young children needed to negotiate, they might use different strategies. For example, during the rehearse for the show, young children might use metacommunication, explanation or clarification to make the contents of the scripts more clear. Meanwhile, in the framework of sociodramatic play, metacommunication, interpretation, explanation and clarification were the important ways to negotiate.
The result of this study also showed the young children’s improvisation play. During the rehearse for the sociodramatic play, young children could be influenced by outer affairs, and to form a new sociodramatic play. In the process of improvisation play, young children took the same strategies, like the rehearse for the show, to solve the different opinions. The researcher also found, no matter young children rehearse for the show or not, they might attempt to reach the consensus about the sociodramatic play.
As the results, when young children in the context of sociodramatic play, what young children needed to do not only to gather the ideas, but also to challenge the personality and the role of teacher. And then, young children could present a special form of soiocdramatic play created by themselves.
第一章 緒論 …………………………………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的與問題…………………………………………………… 3
第三節 名詞釋義…………………………………………………………… 4

第二章 文獻探討 ……………………………………………………………………… 5
第一節 遊戲、戲劇遊戲、社會戲劇遊戲………………………………… 5
第二節 社會戲劇遊戲中的幼兒協商行為………………………………… 10
第三節 從後設的觀點看幼兒協商行為…………………………………… 20

第三章 研究過程 ……………………………………………………………………… 28
第一節 研究方法…………………………………………………………… 28
第二節 研究場域…………………………………………………………… 30
第三節 研究對象…………………………………………………………… 34
第四節 研究程序…………………………………………………………… 37

第四章 研究結果 ……………………………………………………………………… 42
第一節 魔幻舞台的故事是這樣開始的…………………………………… 42
第二節 揭開魔幻舞台的面紗……………………………………………… 51
第三節 戲中戲、劇中劇…………………………………………………… 75

第五章 落幕的舞台 …………………………………………………………………… 83

第六章 結論與建議 …………………………………………………………………… 88

參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………………………… 92
表 目 錄
表3-1 班級時間規劃表 ……………………………………………………………… 33
表3-2 觀察時程與觀察內容 ………………………………………………………… 39

圖 目 錄
圖3-1 班級平面圖 …………………………………………………………………… 32
參考文獻
中文文獻
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金瑞芝、林妙徽、林聖曦譯(2000)。幼兒遊戲。台北:華騰。
桂冠前瞻教育叢書編譯組譯(1999)。兒童遊戲與學習。台北:桂冠。
陳淑敏(1999)。幼兒遊戲。台北:心理。
黃瑞琴(1991)。質的教育研究方法。台北:心理。
黃瑞琴(1994)。幼稚園的遊戲課程。台北:心理。
黃慧真(1998)。發展心理學。台北:桂冠。
鍾鳳嬌(2002)。幼兒自發性扮演遊戲之內容分析,屏東師範學報,17,1-34。
外文文獻
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Black, B., & Hazen, N. (1990). Social status and patterns of communication in acquainted and unacquainted preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 26, 379-387.
Cannella, G.S. (1993). Learning Through Social Interaction: Shared Cognitive Experience, Negotiation Strategies, and Joint Concept Construction for Young Children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 8, 427-444.
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