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研究生:曾志翔
研究生(外文):Chih-Hsiang Tzeng
論文名稱:帶魚(Trichiurusspp.)之形態及基因變異
論文名稱(外文):Specific morphological and genetic variations of cutlassfish (Trichiurus spp.)
指導教授:丘臺生丘臺生引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:動物學研究研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:帶魚細胞色素b
外文關鍵詞:cytochrome bcutlassfish
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帶魚是一類高經濟價值的底棲性魚類,其中又以白帶魚(Trichiurus lepturus)最為重要。 白帶魚在全球三大洋都有分布,產量大多集中在西北太平洋陸棚地區,佔全球總產量80%以上。
先前的研究認為,在西北太平洋陸棚地區的帶魚屬魚類只有白帶魚一個物種,但近年研究指出,在此區域可能有三種帶魚屬魚類。 台灣附近水域先前研究亦指出僅有一種帶魚屬魚類,但在外表上卻有兩型。 本論文利用傳統形態形質特徵、幾何形態測量特徵及粒線體DNA分子特徵來探討帶魚屬的種間及種內之關係。
由形態資料分析發現,所採樣的帶魚屬魚類可以區分出三個有效物種: Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 (白帶魚),T. nanhaiensis Wang and Xu et al., 1992 (南海帶魚)和T. brevis Wang and You et al., 1992 (短帶魚) 。利用幾何形態測量特徵分析發現,三者在外廓上有明顯差異,並可由眼徑、體高、全長、背鰭起始點到鰓蓋骨後緣長度、上顎先端到背鰭起始點長度等利用判別函數加以區分。
三者在粒線體DNA的Cyt b基因序列分析上,可以明顯區分出來,其結果與形態資料一致。 三種帶魚間其DNA兩兩間差異均大於10%,且沒有鑲嵌現象。
本研究結果顯示,在西北太平洋水域的帶魚屬魚類,應有三物種: Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 (白帶魚),T. nanhaiensis Wang and Xu et al., 1992 (南海帶魚)和T. brevis Wang and You et al., 1992 (短帶魚)。 本報告並重新整理這些物種命名的問題。
The cutlassfish (Trichiurus spp.) is a group of ribbon-like demersal fishes inhabited in continental shelf with high commercial value in the world. The most important species is the cosmopolitan one, Trichiurus lepturus, which distribute across tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. Most of the commercial catches of cutlassfish come from the shelf regions of northwest Pacific, in which area the landings accounted to 80% of the world catches.
Previous studies indicate that, one species of the Trichiurus occurred in the regions of northwest Pacific. In recent studies, three species have been added to taxonomic and faunal lists in the region. In the waters around Taiwan, there were 2 phenotypes can be identified similar to T. lepturus, however it is contentious that 2 phena or 2 species should be estimated from morphological and biogeographic analysis. In this study, I apply quantitative methods to analyze morphological characters and molecular markers dually, and expect to solve those taxonomic problems and to clarify the nomenclature status of Trichiurus. The results showed that there are three valid species identified in our samples collected from the vicinity waters around Taiwan; T. lepturus, T. nanhaiensis and T. brevis. Trichiurus brevis is the most distinctive among the three species by having less than 35 dorsal fin elements, and the separation of T. nanhaiensis from T. lepturus is based on fusion or not of forntal bone. Principal component and discrimination function analysis confirmed previous finding with statistical significance (<0.3% mis-identification). Partitioning of molecular variance indicated that more than 10% of variations were ascribed to inter-specific, and the specific taxonomic status is firmly supported.
目 錄

目錄.................................................................................................................................Ⅰ
摘要............................................................................................................................Ⅵ
Abstract......................................................................................................................Ⅴ

壹、前 言

一、帶魚..................................................................................................................1
1.分布及生態.......................................................................................................1
2.資源及漁業.......................................................................................................1
3.分類及學名之變遷...........................................................................................2
二、分子特徵...............................................................................................................4
1.分子技術...........................................................................................................4
2.同功異構酶....................................................................................................5
3.粒線體DNA...........................................................................................................5
三、研究目的...............................................................................................................6

貳、材料與方法

一、樣本的採集及保存……..................................................................................8
二、資料集..............................................................................................................9
1.傳統形態.........................................................................................................9
2.幾何形態................................................................................................................9
3.核苷酸序列............................................................................................................9
3.1. 全DNA之萃取................................................................................................9
3.2. mtCyt b增幅...................................................................................................10
3.3. mtCyt b定序...................................................................................................10
三、資料分析.............................................................................................................11
1.傳統形態測量......................................................................................................11
2.幾何形態測量......................................................................................................11
3.核苷酸序列..........................................................................................................11
3.1.序列校準.........................................................................................................11
3.2.遺傳距離、個體相似性及物種類緣關係樹...................................................12
3.3.族群遺傳距離與地理距離的相關性檢定…............................................12
3.4.族群間分化程度估算.....................................................................................13

参、結果

一、一般形態測定.....................................................................................................14
1.計數形質..............................................................................................................14
2.測量形質..............................................................................................................14
2.1.體高相對於體長.............................................................................................14
2.2.體重相對於體長.............................................................................................14
2.3.去內臟後體重相對於體長.............................................................................15
2.4.肛前長相對於體長.........................................................................................15
2.5.頭長相對於體長.............................................................................................15
2.6 眼徑相對於頭長..........................................................................................16
2.7 眶間距相對於頭長........................................................................................16
二、幾何形態測量.....................................................................................................17
1. 主成分分析........................................................................................................17
2. 判別函數............................................................................................................17
三、分子性狀分析.....................................................................................................17
1. mtCyt b定序結果................................................................................................17
2. 物種相似性........................................................................................................19
2.1核苷酸序列差異..............................................................................................19
2.2 物種分叉圖....................................................................................................19
2.3. 基因間之距離...............................................................................................19
3.白帶魚系群之族群遺傳......................................................................................20
3.1 遺傳距離與地理距離....................................................................................20
3.2 族群間分化程度............................................................................................20



肆、討論

一、帶魚屬物種之形態及基因差異....................................................................21
1形態上的差異..........................................................................................21
2. 粒線體Cyt b基因.........................................................................................23
二、與前人研究之比較......................................................................................23
三、目前帶魚的命名問題....................................................................................25

伍、參考文獻..............................................................................................................28

Tables.........................................................................................................................32
Figure Legends............................................................................................................42
Figures........................................................................................................................44
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