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研究生:林瑋瑾
研究生(外文):Wei-Chin Lin
論文名稱:光週、光強度、溫度及藥劑處理對水仙百合開花與開花枝品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Photoperiod, Light Intensity, Temperature and Chemical Treatment on Flowering and Flower Stem Quality of Alstroemeria
指導教授:張育森張育森引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:水仙百合光週光強度溫度藥劑處理
外文關鍵詞:Alstroemeriaphotoperiodlight intensitytemperaturechemical treatment
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水仙百合又稱百合水仙、秘魯百合、六出花,是水仙百合科(Alstroemeriaceae)水仙百合屬(Alstroemeria)的單子葉花卉植物,在台灣為一新興切花花卉,近年來總產值有上升趨勢。本研究擬以光週期、光照強度或生產溫度對水仙百合做花期調控,期使其生產不足之月份產量增加;另以GA處理,探討生產調控或促進產量之可行性;並以不同藥劑處理水仙百合切花,探討適用之增進切花壽命,及延緩葉片黃化之方式。
本研究皆以水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’為試驗材料,為使水仙百合於台灣秋冬季增加開花產量,利用各種光照方式組合,來確認何者對生產上幫助最大,或最適於台灣應用方式。水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’,以夜間延長光照組(In+N)、日間加強光照組(HSP+D)、夜間延長且加強光照組(HSP+N)與對照組(CK)做比較,皆能使產量增加,對產量增加由多至少為夜間延長且加強光照組(HSP+N)、加強光照組(HSP+D)、夜間延長光照組(In+N),與對照組相比分別增加了195%、117%、74%。由此可見各組的光照處理效應為,長日處理且加強光強度處理效果>加強度處理效果>長日處理效果,其中長日處理效果主要促進花芽分化使開花提早,加強光照處理主要使產量增加;試驗區冬天光照強度可能未達 ‘Sunny Rebecca’ 之光飽和點,所以加強光照加上夜間延長光照效果對開花產量幫助最大。因此,生產上以高壓鈉燈夜間光照組對產量增加幫助最大,但台灣冬季可用成本較低的鎢絲燈,即可明顯增加秋冬季產量。
為瞭解溫度對水仙百合生長與開花之影響,並探討其在台灣平地生產之可行性。於台大人工氣候室,25/20℃、20/15℃及15/13℃日夜溫度控制的自然光照室下試驗處理,水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’於25/20℃高溫下,枝條伸長速率較快、從抽芽至第一朵花開天數最短,比20/15℃縮短15天。花朵發育所需時間,亦於25/20℃高溫下顯著縮短,約可縮短10天(25/20℃比上20/15℃及15/13℃);各溫度下皆以花梗伸長期(stage2)佔了大部分的發育時間,且高溫下明顯使這個時期所需時間大幅縮短。開花枝條數以15/13℃及20/15℃較多;各溫度下總枝條數並無差異,但低溫下(15/13℃及20/15℃)使開花枝條數增加,開花比例提高。開花品質部分,於25/20℃高溫下枝條長度較長,花序下節數較多。此外,30/25℃下開花枝條幾乎停滯生產,可能無法使花芽分化及正常的發育。因此,建議在生產上,水仙百合於開花枝條發育前之花芽分化階段,盡量控制於20/15℃以下,使開花枝條數增加,開花枝條發育階段,於25/20℃高溫下開花速率較快。本試驗結果亦可說明水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’自然盛花期為冬季低溫促進花芽分化後,接著而來的高溫促進開花速率,因而造成春夏的盛花期;因此如平地欲生產水仙百合,亦以冬季有低溫環境誘導花芽分化的時期較適合。
為瞭解GA對水仙百合是否有促進開花或生長之作用。水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’於25/20℃相對高溫下,施用GA3可促使開花提早、花芽發育時間縮短、開花枝條伸長及開花枝條伸長速率增加,開花枝條之節數及節間長度皆有增加;與對照組相比約提早開花達10天,花芽發育時間縮短約4天,使開花枝條伸長約16公分。於15/13℃相對低溫下,施用GA3可促使開花枝條伸長速率增加,但對花芽發育時間、至開花天數及開花枝條長度則無顯著影響,開花枝條之節數及節間長度亦無增加。推論水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’於25/20℃下高溫短日下,GA3處理作用可能有取代長日或低溫的效果。外施GA3無論於25/20℃或15/13℃下,對總枝條數及開花比例上,皆無顯著影響。GA3以噴施方式及澆灌方式與對照組相比,噴施使至開花天數顯著縮短、使花芽發育stage2所需時間顯著縮短;而澆灌則使至開花天數縮短效果較不明顯;因此噴施的效果較好。生產上建議於均溫至少22.5℃以上的生產環境下,施用GA3以促使開花提早、枝條等級增加;GA3以噴施方式直接處理在抽出芽體上,效果較佳。
為解決水仙百合切花對乙烯敏感,及葉片嚴重黃化問題,以不同藥劑STS、GA3、1-MCP及商業產品Crysal SVB及Crysal AVB對水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’做預措及運輸過程處理,探討其對花朵瓶插壽命及葉片黃化現象之影響。對瓶插壽命來說,最有效的為STSx+Sucrose及STS2x+Sucrose處理,其次為STS3x+Sucrose,最後為SVB+LVB。對延遲葉片黃化程度來說,最有效的為1-MCP,其次為SVB+LVB。綜合花朵壽命延長效果及延遲葉片黃化效果,建議以STSx+Sucrose做預措處理可達到較佳效果。另外以不同光度(150, 1500, 3000lux)瓶插處理,如置於光度1500lux以上之環境下,無論對照組或藥劑處理(GA3+8HQS+Sucrose)組皆能有效的延遲葉片黃化;較低光度(150lux)下瓶插,則以藥劑處理比對照組更能延遲葉片黃化。
Alstreoemeria species, a member of the family Alstroemeriaceae and genus Alstroemeria, are also named Peruvian lily and monocotyledon flowering plants. Alstroemeria is a new cutting flower in Taiwan and total yield of Alstroemeria is increasing in recent years. This research suggests to increase flower produce in months flower production is not enough by controling flowering period by photoperiod, light intensity or growth temperature. Chemical treatment of GA is suggested to control and increase flower production. Different chemical treatments on Alstreoemeria cut flowers is suggested to increase vase life of cut flowers and to delay yellowing of leaves.
Alstroemeria ‘Sunny Rebecca’ is main material in this research. Using combinations of different lightening ways for increasing production in autum and winter in Taiwan and confirm which way is most helpful or suitable for Alstroemeria production in Taiwan. Extending lightening by night (incandescent lamp lightening by night, In+N ), increasing light intensity by day (high pressure sodium lamp lightening by day, HPS+D) and extending lightening with increasing light intensity by night (high pressure sodium lamp lightening by night, HPS+N ) comparing with control treatment (natural daylight), all can increase the production on Alstroemeria ‘Sunny Rebecca’. Increasing the produce from maximum to minimum follows in the order, extending lightening with increasing light intensity (HPS+N ), increasing light intensity by day (In+N ) and extending lightening by night (In+N ), and increased percentage of flower shoots which is compaired with control treatment is 195%, 117% and 74% , respectively. Therefore, lightening effect,effect of long day with increasing light intensity treatment is better than effect of increasing light intensity better than effect of long day treatment. The main effect of long day treatment is to promote flower induction and early flowering .The main effect of increasing light intensity treatment is to increase produce. The light intensity of treat area may not achieve light saturation point of Alstroemeria ‘Sunny Rebecca’ and extending lightening with increasing light intensity is most helpful to flower shoot produce. Therefore, high pressure sodium lamp lightening by night is most helpful in production and using low cost incandescent lamp can obviously increase flower shoot produce in autum and winter in Taiwan.
This research is to understand effect of temperature on flowering and development of Alstroemeria and discuss possibility of flower shoot produce in low altitude in Taiwan. Treat area is in natural daylight rooms which are day/night temperatures controlled under 25/20℃, 20/15℃ and 15/13℃ of phytotron in National Taiwan University. Under hight temperature of 25/20℃, elongating rate of shoots is faster and days from sprouting to first flower is shortist, 15 days shorter compaired with under 15/13℃. Time that flower bud development(days from stage 1 to stage 5) needs is obviously shorter under 25/20℃, 10 days shorter (under 25/20℃ compaire with under 20/15℃ and 15/13℃). Under each temperature, pedicel elongating stage (stage 2) takes most of time of flower bud development and this stage is obviously shorten under 25/20℃. Flowering shoots are more under 15/13℃ and 20/15℃. Total shoots have no difference under each temperature but flowering shoots are increased under lower temperature(20/15℃ and 15/13℃), flowering percentage increased. On flowering stem quality, shoots are longer under hight temperature of 25/20℃, numbers of node under the cyme are more. Besides, flower shoot is almost absent under 30/25℃.That might be because of failing to make flower induction and have normal developmet of flower bud. Therefore, it is suggested that stage of flower induction before flower shoot development should be controlled under 20/15℃ in production to make flowering shoots increased. And flower shoot development stage should be controlled under 25/20℃ in production to make flowering rate faster. The result declares that natural abundant flowering season of Alstroemeria ‘Sunny Rebecca’ is coming after low temperature in winter that promotes flower induction. Then high temperature in summer promotes flowering rate and contribute to abundant flowering season in spring and summer. If production being at low altitude, it’s better to growth Alstroemeria in winter when there is low temperature to induce flower induction.
This research is to understand if gibberellin(GA) treatment on Alstroemeria promotes flowering or growth. Under relative hight temperature of 25/20℃, GA3 treatment promotes early flowering, time of flower bud development shortened, flower shoots elongating, elongating rate of flowering shoot increased and numbers of node and internode lenghth increased. It is 10 days earlier for time of flowering and 4 days earlier for time of flower bud development and 16 cm longer in flowering shoot lenghth that all are compaired with control treatment. Under relative low temperature of 15/13℃, GA3 treatment promotes elongating rate of flowering shoots increased but has no effect on time of flower bud development, days to flower, lenghth of flowering shoot, numbers of node and lenghth of internode. It is suggested that GA3 treatment may have effect of long day or low temperature under high temoperature of 25/20℃ on Alstroemeria ‘Sunny Rebecca’. GA3 treatment have no siginificant effect on total shoots and flowering percentage no matter under 25/20℃ or 15/13℃. GA3 treatment by spraying or by drenching being compaired with control treatment, GA3 treatment by spraying makes days to flower and time of stage 2 shorten significantly. Therefore GA3 treatment by spraying has better effects. It is suggested that GA3 treatment promotes early flowering and improves grade of shoots at least under 25/20℃ above of growth environment. GA3 treats direct on sprouting shoots by spraying has better effect.
Using different chemicals including STS(sodium thiosulfate), GA3, 1-MCP(1-methylcyclopropene) and commercial product Crysal SVB and Crysal LVB as pre-treatment and transport processing are for resolving the problems of sensitivity of Alstroemeria cut flower to ethylene and yellowing of leaves and discuss those effects on the vase life and leaf yellowing. For vase life, STS1x+Sucrose and STS2x+Sucrose are most effective, then is STS3x+Sucrose and then is SVB+LVB. For delaying leaf yellowing, 1-MCP is most effective and then is SVB+LVB. Combinating effects of prolonging vase life and delaying leaf yellowing, it is suggested that effect of STS1x+Sucrose is the best. Continuous treating of cut flower under different light intensity(150, 1500, 3000lux), there are effect on delaying leaf yellowing no matter by control treatment or chemical (GA3+8HQS+Sucrose) treatment under 1500lux of lightening. Under lower lightening intensity(150lux), chemical treatment has better effect on delaying leaf yellowing compaired with control treatment.
內容目錄
第一章 緒論 (Introduction) 1
第二章 前人研究 (Literature Review) 2
一、基本特性 2
二、溫度對水仙百合開花之影響 2
(一)根溫 3
(二)氣溫 4
三、光週與光強度對水仙百合開花之影響 4
(一)光週 5
(二)光強度 5
四、GA與長日及春化作用之關係 6
(一)GA對長日作用的取代關係 6
(二)GA與春化作用的關係 7
第三章 光週與光線強度對水仙百合開花之影響 8
一、前言(Introduction) 9
二、材料與方法 (Materials and Methods) 12
三、結 果(Resultes) 13
四、討論(Discussion) 16
第四章 溫度對水仙百合開花生長之影響 28
一、前言(Introduction) 29
二、材料與方法 (Materials and Methods) 30
三、結 果(Resultes) 32
四、討論(Discussion) 33
第五章 Gibberellin對水仙百合開花生長之影響 47
一、前言(Introduction) 48
二、材料與方法 (Materials and Methods) 48
三、結 果(Resultes) 50
四、討論(Discussion) 51
第六章 藥劑處理對水仙百合切花之影響 61
一、前言(Introduction) 62
二、材料與方法 (Materials and Methods) 62
三、結 果(Resultes) 64
四、討論(Discussion) 65
參考文獻 72
中文摘要 78
Summary 81

表目錄
表3.1 水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’試驗處理後第171天之產量增加比率 21
表3.2 不同光照處理對水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’枝條品質的影響。 22
表3.3 水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’每株之累計開花枝條數。 23
表4.1 不同溫度處理對水仙百合 ‘Sunny Rebecca’枝條伸長速率之影響 36
表4.2 不同溫度處理對水仙百合 ‘Sunny Rebecca’枝條品質之影響(試驗期間:2004年5月14日至2004年8月13日) 37
表4.3 不同溫度處理對水仙百合 ‘Sunny Rebecca’ 枝條伸長速率及從抽芽至第一朵花開所需天數之影響 38
表4.4 不同溫度處理對水仙百合 ‘Sunny Rebecca’枝條品質之影響 39
表4.5 不同溫度處理對水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’抽芽至花芽可見前一天、花朵發育stage1至stage5、從抽芽至第一朵花開所需時間(試驗期間:2004年10月4日至2004年12月6日) 40
表4.6 由15/13℃下移溫至20/15℃下對水仙百合 ‘Sunny Rebecca’枝條品質及枝條伸長速率之影響 41
表4.7 由20/15℃下移溫至25/20℃下對水仙百合 ‘Sunny Rebecca’枝條品質及枝條伸長速率之影響 42
表5.1 25/20℃下水仙百合抽芽後GA3處理對枝條伸長速率及至開花天數之影響 (試驗期間:2004年10月4日至2004年12月6日) 53
表5.2 15/13℃下水仙百合抽芽後GA3處理對生長速率及至開花天數之影響 (試驗期間:2004年10月4日至200年2月5日) 54
表5.3 25/20℃下水仙百合GA3處理對花芽發育各階段所需天數之影響 55
表5.4 15/13℃下水仙百合GA3處理對花芽發育1-5階段所需天數之影響 56
表5.5 25/20℃下水仙百合抽芽後GA3處理對開花枝條之影響 57
表5.6 15/13℃下水仙百合抽芽後GA3處理對開花枝條之影響 58
表6.1 不同藥劑處理對至一次花序開放天數、一次花序之瓶插壽命、處理後第10天之葉綠素值之影響 67
表6.2 不同藥劑處理對至一次花序開放天數、一次花序之瓶插壽命、至二次花序開放天數、二次花序之瓶插壽命之影響 68
表6.3 不同藥劑處理下對試驗處理第1天至第6天之葉綠素差值、試驗處理第6天至第9天之葉綠素差值之影響 69

圖目錄
圖3.1 水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’每次開花枝條數 24
圖3.2 水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’累計開花枝條數 25
圖3.3 水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’平均每日每公頃產能 26
圖3.4 水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’花序下葉片數 27
圖4.1 不同溫度處理水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’之開花枝條數 43
圖4.2 不同溫度處理水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’之總枝條數、無開花枝條數、開花枝條數及開花比例 44
圖4.3 水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’花芽發育各階段 45
圖4.4 不同溫度下水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’花朵發育各階段所需時間 46
圖5.1 25/20℃下GA3處理水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’之總枝條數、無開花枝條數、開花枝條數及開花比例 59
圖5.2 15/13℃下GA3處理水仙百合‘Sunny Rebecca’之總枝條數、無開花枝條數、開花枝條數及開花比例 60
圖6.1 Water處理及GA3+8HQS+ Sucrose預措處理者於150lux、1500lux、3000lux光度下瓶插對至一次花序開放天數、一次花序之瓶插壽命、處理後第10天之葉綠素值之影響 70
圖6.2 不同藥劑處理下對試驗處理第1天之葉綠素值、試驗處理第6天之葉綠素值與試驗處理第9天之葉綠素值之影響 71
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