# 臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

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 我們在這篇論文中提出了適應性搜尋步數自動對焦演算法以及變焦追蹤演算法。目前存在著許多自動對焦搜尋演算法，像是全域搜尋，二元搜尋，費柏納西搜尋以及其他相關的搜尋演算法。全域搜尋可以保證找到最大的峰值(peak)，但是其缺點為搜尋時間過長。二元搜尋以及費柏納西搜尋的搜尋時間減短了，但是鏡頭必須來回移動，容易造成定位上的失誤。我們的適應性搜尋步數演算法只有一次反向移動，而且搜尋的時間可以減少很多。變焦追蹤是在變焦的時候持續的改變焦距來保持聚焦。常見的變焦追蹤演算法都是使用查表法加上內插法。但是表的大小常常有其限制。我們的變焦追蹤演算法可以有效的減少表的大小並且仍能保持聚焦。
 In this thesis, an adaptive step size auto focus search algorithm and a reduced zoom tracking algorithm are proposed.Many different auto focus search algorithms exist, such as global search, binary search, Fibonacci search, and so on. Global search can ensure the global peak is found correctly, but the search time is too long. The search time of binary or Fibonacci search is shortened, but the lens has to move back and forth frequently, which is prone to have step errors. Our adaptive step size search algorithm performs only one backward movement while the search time is greatly decreased.Zoom tracking is to adjust a camera’s focal length continuously, to keep the in-focus state of an image during zoom operation. A simple table-lookup with interpolation method is commonly used, but the size of the table is important. Our reduced zoom tracking algorithm reduces the table size while still achieving good image quality.
 Chapter 1 Introduction 11.1 Thin Lens Equation 21.2 Focal Length 21.2.1 Field of View 31.3 Depth of Field 31.4 Aperture Diameter 41.5.1 F-Stops (F-numbers) 41.5 Shutter Speed 5Chapter 2 Auto Focus 62.1 Auto Focus Methods 62.1.1 Active Auto Focus 62.1.2 Passive Auto Focus 82.1.3 Type of Passive Auto Focus 92.2 Focus Value Measurements 102.2.1 Gradient Magnitudes 112.2.1.1 Roberts Edge Detector 122.2.1.2 Sobel Edge Detector 122.2.1.3 Other Edge Detectors 132.2.2 Laplacian Filter 132.2.3 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filter 142.3 Lens Position Search Algorithms 152.3.1 Global Search 152.3.2 Hill-Climbing Search 162.3.3 Binary Search 172.3.4 Fibonacci Search 182.3.5 Rule-Based Search 182.4 Adaptive Step Size Search 192.4.1 Step States 202.4.2 Decision Criteria 20Chapter 3 Zoom Tracking 253.1 Related Work 263.1.1 Adaptive Zoom Tracking 263.1.2 Enhanced Zoom Tracking 273.2 Reduced Zoom Tracking 293.2.1 Linear Region 293.2.2 Nonlinear Region 313.2.3 Summary 31Chapter 4 Equipment Setup and Experiments Results 324.1 Equipments Setup 324.1.1 Hardware Overview 324.1.2 Software Overview 354.2 Proposed Adaptive Step Size Auto Focus Search Algorithm 364.2.1 Focus Value Measurement 364.2.2 Adaptive Step Size Search Algorithm 374.2.2.1 Experiment 1 384.2.2.2 Experiment 2 394.2.2.3 Experiment 3 404.2.2.4 Experiment 4 414.2.2.5 Summary 424.3 Reduced Zoom Tracking 424.3.1 Wide-Angle to Tele-Photo 444.3.2 Tele-Photo to Wide-Angle 474.3.3 Summary 51Chapter 5 Conclusion and Future Work 535.1 Adaptive Step Size Search 535.1.1 Conclusion 535.1.2 Future Work 535.2 Reduced Zoom tracking 545.2.1 Conclusion 545.2.2 Future Work 54References 55
 [1]B. E. Bayer, “Color Imaging Array,” US Patent No. 3971065.[2]G. S. Beveridge and R. S. Schechter, Optimization: Theory and Practice, pp. 180-193, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970.[3]V. Bockaert, “Focal Length", http://www.dpreview.com/learn/?/Glossary/Optical/Focal_Length_01.htm, 2003.[4]Bores Signal Processing, “Introduction to DSP,” http://www.bores.com/courses/intro/iir/5_eq.htm, 2004.[5]Canon, “Calculate Depth of Field,” http://www.canon.com/bctv/calculator/calculator2.html, 2005.[6]R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 2ndEd., pp. 128-132, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2002.[7]R. M. Haralick and L. G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision, Vol. I, pp. 337-352, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1992.[8]P. Hoad and J. Illingworth, “Automatic Control of Camera Pan, Zoom and Focus for Improving Object Recognition,” Proceedings of IEE International Conference on Image Processing and Its Applications, Edinburgh, no. 410, pp. 291-295, 1995.[9]Iowegian International, “Infinite Impulse Response Filter FAQ,” http://www.dspguru.com/info/faqs/iirfaq.htm, 2004.[10]N. Kehtarnavaz and H. J. Oh, “Development and Real-Time Implementation of a Rule-Based Auto-Focus Algorithm,” Journal of Real-Time Imaging, Vol. 9, Issue 3, pp. 197-203, 2003.[11]Y. Kim, J. S. Lee, A. Morales and S. J. Ko, "A Video Camera System with Enhanced Zoom Tracking and Auto White Balance," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 428 -434, 2002.[12]J. S. Lee., S. J. Ko, Y. Kim, and A. Morales, “A Video Camera System with Adaptive Zoom Tracking,” Proceedings of International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Los Angeles, California, pp. 56-57, 2002.[13]A. Macbeth, “Camera Basics,” http://www.andrewmacbeth.com/articles/camera_basics.htm, 2005.[14]Ricoh, 4T16-3X-3.3M Lens Module Sample Specification Sheet, 2002.[15]A. R. Sampson, “Scanning Electron Microscopy,” http://www.sem.com/analytic/sem.htm, 1996.[16]Texas Instruments, “TMS320DM320 Image Peripherals Vol-1b,” Technical Reference Manual, Ver. 1.4, 2005.
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