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研究生:李蓁
研究生(外文):Joanna C. Lee
論文名稱:中文學齡前兒童非詞覆誦測驗與音韻處理能力之探討
論文名稱(外文):Nonword Repetition and Phonological Processing in Mandarin-speaking Preschool Children
指導教授:張顯達張顯達引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hintat Cheung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:非詞覆誦音韻處理能力詞彙學習語言發展
外文關鍵詞:nonword repetitionphonological processingvocabulary learninglanguage development
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本篇研究欲探討:(一)現存語言知識如何在不同的情況下介入非詞覆誦測驗,(二)不同的非詞覆誦測驗對於新詞學習的預測力。三十位三歲兒童、二十九位五歲兒童、及十五位成人參與本項實驗,其母語皆為中文。孩童受試者依年齡選自台北市三所公立幼稚園,成人受試者則由實驗者的朋友群中隨機抽樣,所有受試者需參與兩組不同的測試工作。在第一組測試工作中,我們根據中文的音節特性操弄非詞刺激,建立兩種不同的非詞覆誦測驗,分別為nonce-word覆誦測驗與gap-word覆誦測驗。每個nonce-word由兩個中文裡真實存在的音節組合而成,每個音節具有獨立音義但合併後沒有意義,在覆誦nonce-word的過程中,已知詞彙知識具有高度機會介入其覆誦表現。相反的,gap-word的雙音節皆選取自中文裡的gap音節,所以詞彙知識鮮有機會介入gap-word的覆誦表現,也就是說,覆誦gap-word的成功與否端賴音韻分析能力的成熟度,精細的音韻分析有助於促進分析效率。第二組的測驗工作為新詞學習,我們操弄三種攜帶不同詞彙知識的新詞,藉由說故事的方法營造自然的學習環境。本研究結果顯示,現存詞彙知識的確會在某些情況下介入非詞覆誦測驗,而介入的深度取決於非詞刺激物的選擇。除此之外,由於孩童在語言發展的連續性中,音韻分析單位會從粗略分析漸轉精細分析,因此,當我們以發展的角度來看非詞覆誦測驗時,可以發現音韻分析能力的成熟度會影響非詞覆誦的表現,特別是當刺激物無法直接獲得現存語言知識的支援時,精細的音韻分析能力就扮演非常重要的角色。兩種不同的非詞覆誦測驗相較,gap-word覆誦測驗對於詞彙學習的預測力較高,但是其預測性僅侷限於詞彙化過程的初階。gap-word的高度預測性也預留了一個伏筆:詞彙學習的好壞可能反應的是音韻分析能力的掌握度,而非工作記憶本身的影響。
The present study aims (1) to investigate the different mediation of prior linguistic knowledge in nonword repetition tasks, and (2) to examine the predictive powers of nonce-word and gap-word repetition in vocabulary learning. Thirty three-year-olds, twenty-nine five-year-olds, and fifteen adults participated in the experiment, all of who were native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Children were recruited through three local kindergartens serving a middle-class population in Taipei whereas adults were randomly selected from the friends of the experimenter. Two sets of experimental tasks were adopted. In the first set, two types of nonwords were designed according to Mandarin characteristics, nonce-words and gap-words respectively. Nonce-words were composed of two real syllables without having meanings as a whole so it was very likely to retrieve similar lexical structures at the syllabic level for supporting repetition. In contrast, disyllabic gap-words were chosen from the pool of Mandarin gap syllables, the repetition of which hardly received lexical supports, and therefore, the availability of fine-grained phonological analysis ability became an important factor in facilitating the encoding efficiency. The second set was the learning task, in which three types of new words expected to be learnt were manipulated by varying the degree of phonological and semantic information in their syllables. The results showed that in addition to lexical influences on nonword repetition, the relative role of phonological analysis was found in the task, the importance of which was especially significant when linguistic information resided in nonwords was minimized. Additionally, gap-word repetition seemed to be more sensitive than nonce-word repetition to predict vocabulary learning at the initial stage of the lexicalization process. These findings appear to suggest that different phonological analysis skills adopted by children along the developmental continuum (i.e., from holistic to fine-grained analytical skills) influence the encoding efficiency of new sounds, and children with different encoding efficiency display different memory span. Moreover, the slow learning of new words may reflect the maturity of phonological analysis rather than the working memory capacity. The implications of the findings in SLI research are also discussed.
List of Tables.......................................iii
List of Figures......................................iv

Chapter 1 Introduction...............................1
1.1 Background...................................1
1.2 Purpose......................................6
1.3 Organization.................................7

Chapter 2 Literature Review..........................8
2.1 The Models of Working Memory.................8
2.2 Working Memory and Language Acquisition.....10
2.3 Working Memory and Nonword Repetition.......13
2.4 Phonological Processing and Phonological
Development.................................16

Chapter 3 Experimental Designs and Experimental Tasks
(I): Nonword Repetition and Subsyllabic
Phonological Awareness....................19
3.1 Nonword Repetition Tasks........................20
3.1.1 Subjects......................................21
3.1.2 Materials.....................................21
3.1.3 Procedure and Scoring.........................26
3.1.4 Results.......................................27
3.2 Onset and Rhyme Oddity Tasks....................30
3.2.1 Subjects......................................30
3.2.2 Materials.....................................30
3.2.3 Procedure and Scoring.........................31
3.2.4 Results.......................................31
3.3 The Relationship between Nonword Repetition Tasks
and Working Memory..............................33
3.4 The Relationship between Phonological Awareness
and Working Memory..............................35
3.5 Discussion......................................36

Chapter 4 Experimental Tasks (II): Vocabulary
Learning..................................41
4.1 Tasks of Vocabulary Learning....................42
4.1.1 Subjects......................................42
4.1.2 Materials.....................................42
4.1.3 Procedure and Scoring.........................44
4.1.4 Results.......................................45
4.2 The Relationship among Working Memory, Phonological
Awareness, and Vocabulayr Learning..............51
4.2.1 Correlational Analyses........................51
4.2.2 Multiple Regression Analyses..................55
4.3 Discussion......................................57

Chapter 5 General Discussion and Conclusion.........63

References...........................................71
Appendices...........................................78
Appendix 1: Items in Picture Naming Task.............78
Appendix 2: The Digit Span Task......................78
Appendix 3: The Onset Oddity Task....................79
Appendix 4: The Rhyme Oddity Task....................79
Appendix 5: Three Story Scripts......................80
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