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研究生(外文):Wei-Yen Chen
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Using SMPS to Measurement Size Distribution of Coughing Droplet
指導教授(外文):Whei-May Grace Lee
外文關鍵詞:droplet diameterinfection controlSARS
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由人體所排呼出的飛沫可能帶有能傳染疾病之微生物。由於小於次微米之粒徑在文獻中顯示占了絕大部分。此研究的目的是建立健康個體所呼出小於次微米的飛沫粒徑分佈,並且去量測性別的差異對於咳嗽風速與飛沫濃度之比較。使用採樣袋收集飛沫,再同時以微粒電移動度掃描分徑器(Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, SMPS)系統量測咳嗽飛沫,建立小於次微米之飛沫粒徑分佈。並且將實驗資料進行統計分析,以比較不同的年齡和性別對於粒徑分佈之差異。然後利用這些資料進一步去計算飛沫之蒸發時間,沉降距離及水平距離。
以SMPS 系統實驗結果顯示飛沫粒徑範圍分佈在從0.019〜0.35 μm,而約有80% 的咳嗽飛沫粒徑是在0.03 〜0.2 μm之間,大多數飛沫其粒徑是大於0.03μm;年齡層對於飛沫之粒徑分佈並無顯著之差異,性別的部份則是第2 類族群會受到飛沫粒徑影響而有差異,其餘並沒有顯著之差異。另外在風速計的數據顯示速度分佈範圍從0.13〜1.88 m/s;在這項研究過程中發現飛沫濃度有隨著咳嗽產生之風速而增加的趨勢;而在咳嗽風速與飛沫濃度方面皆是男性大於女性的。飛沫傳輸方面,於20℃、相對濕度(RH)為50%之環境下,粒徑為0.2 μm之飛沫推估其蒸發時間只需7.07×10-5秒,而在蒸發前之沉降距離僅有4.40×10-9公分,水平傳播距離則約為8.58×10-5公分,顯示咳嗽所產生之奈米飛沫,其運動範圍只侷限於產生源附近,且很快地蒸發成飛沫核;而飛沫核在空氣中傳播,會造成疾病擴散的可能性。很多傳染性疾病屬於次微米以下之粒徑例如SARS致病菌。因此藉由此研究可以進一步了解飛沫粒徑在小於次微米之分布情形。
Droplet exhaled from human may carry microorganisms capable of transmitting disease. As a result of the size be smaller than micron scale had been proven to occupy the great part of size distribution . The goal of this study was to establish the nano scale size of droplet exhaled by healthy individuals, and to compare the sexual differences of the coughing velocity and droplet concentration. Using sample bag to collect droplet. The droplets from human subjects performing coughing were measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system, and establish the droplet size distribution. Furthermore, these data were treated with statistical analysis, comparing the difference of different ages and sexual classification. Then computing the evaporation time, falling distances, horizontal traveling distances with some assumptions.
The data of SMPS system showed the respiratory droplets ranged from 0.019 to 0.35 mm and 80% of droplets were between 0.03 and 0.2 mm. Most droplets were more than 0.03 mm. The droplets size were not remarkably difference in age and sexual classification, except for group 2 in sexual classification. The data of wind meter showed the velocity ranged from 0.13 to 1.88 m/s. In this study we found the droplet concentration will increase with coughing velocity. In the data of coughing velocity and droplet concentration, male’s is larger than female’s.
In the environment of 20℃ and 50% relative humidity, it took only 7.07×10-5 seconds for 0.2 mm droplet to evaporate, and the falling distance was less than 4.40×10-9 cm, the horizontal traveling distance was about 8.58×10-5 cm. It showed the range of droplets produced by coughing was near the source, and evaporating to form droplet nuclei quickly. If droplet nuclei transmit in the environment, there will be the possibility of infection of diseases. Many infectious diseases belong to nano scale size such as SARS. Therefore this study could be understood its distribution in the smaller scale of droplet size.
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究方法 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1.嚴重急性呼吸道症候群(SARS) 4
2.1.1 SARS緣起 4
2.1.2 SARS的病原 7
2.1.3 SARS的傳播 8
2.2飛沫粒徑與濃度之探討 9
2.2.1 飛沫粒徑 9
2.2.2飛沫核粒徑 13
2.2.3飛沫濃度 14
2.3肺活量之探討 15
2.3.1呼吸器官的構造 15
2.3.2肺活量 16
2.4飛沫之運動行為 19
2.4.1 慣性運動(inertial motion) 19
2.4.2蒸發 22
2.4.3重力沉降(gravitational settling)26
第三章 實驗設備與實驗方法 31
3.1實驗設備 31
3.1.2 風速計TSI Model 8330 32
3.2實驗方法及設備原理 36
3.2.1實驗方法 36
3.2.2研究對象選擇 37
3.2.3統計分析 37
3.2.4 SMPS系統 38氣膠粒徑篩分儀 38凝結氣膠計數器 45
3.2.5 Q–Track 46
3.2.6風速計 47
3.3操作條件 49
第四章 結果與討論 50
4.1實驗人數與年齡層 50
4.2測試實驗 50
4.3 飛沫粒徑分佈 53
4.3.1 SMPS系統 53
4.3.2咳嗽飛沫濃度之比較 56
4.4統計分析 59
4.4.1 T-test檢定第一類族群 60
4.4.2 T-test檢定第二類族群 64
4.4.3第三類族群 68
4.4.4 F-test檢定不同年齡層之比較 72
4.5不同風速與肺活量關係 76
4.6 飛沫之傳輸 82
4.6.1 飛沫水平傳播距離 82
4.6.2 飛沫蒸發時間 84
4.6.3 沈降距離與懸浮時間 87
4.7實驗誤差 91
4.7.1 SMPS系統可能之誤差 91
4.7.2 個體之誤差 91
4.7.3 收集效率 92
4.7.4 肺活量之誤差 92
第五章 結論與建議 93
5.1結論 93
5.2建議 94
參考文獻 96
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