(3.215.183.251) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/23 13:33
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:劉佳遠
研究生(外文):Chia-Yuan Liu
論文名稱:犬貓腎衰竭短期預後相關因子之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Short-term Prognostic Factors in Canine and Feline Renal Failure
指導教授:張本恆
指導教授(外文):Pen-Heng Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:獸醫學研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:腎衰竭預後
外文關鍵詞:renal failureprognosiscaninefeline
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:443
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
摘 要

腎衰竭在小動物臨床上是常見且治療上相當棘手的疾病。為提供獸醫師在診斷、治療、與如何正確的評估預後時之參考資料,本研究以回溯性方式調查自民國九十年十月起到九十三年十月止,至台灣大學生農學院附設動物醫院就診之犬貓,經診斷為腎衰竭後並接受住院治療之病例,以邏輯迴歸分析病畜的性別、年齡、臨床症狀、初次就診時之血液檢查數值、採取的治療方式、診斷結果、及是否伴隨有其他疾病的發生等因子,對於治療的反應(短期預後)是否具有影響力。結果共收集439隻腎衰竭犬病例,貓病例則有113例。根據本研究結果,犬貓性別分佈以雄性居多;年齡分佈以七歲以上之老年犬貓為主要族群;品種則是以混種犬貓最為常見;消化道症狀為最常被觀察到之臨床症狀,其中又以食慾廢絕、嘔吐發生的比例最高。經邏輯回歸分析,在腎衰竭犬方面,病犬發病的年齡、臨床上是否有出現神經症狀(包括痙攣、震顫、昏迷)、或心血管/呼吸症狀(包括黏膜蒼白、呼吸急促)、診斷結果為急性腎衰竭或慢性腎衰竭、及初次就診時血中尿素氮數值高低等五項因子,對於治療後的反應具有顯著影響力。在腎衰竭貓方面,則以有無出現神經症狀、診斷結果為腎性腎衰竭或非腎性腎衰竭、及初次就診時血容比數值的高低等三項因子,會顯著影響治療後之反應。因此我們可以用這幾項因子,作為臨床上評估腎衰竭犬貓短期預後好壞之指標。至於其他因子方面,包括:病畜性別、其他相關之臨床症狀,像是泌尿系統異常、其他症狀(包括:體重減輕、低體溫、脫水)、及初次就診時血中肌酸酐的濃度、和是否伴隨有其他的疾病發生等,則對於短期預後不具有顯著影響力。
Abstract

Renal failure is one of the most common diseases in small animal practice and is usually difficult to treat. The aim of this study is to offer veterinarians informations of how to diagnose, treat, and evaluate the prognosis of a renal failure patient in it’s first attending. Four hundred and thirty-nine dogs and 113 cats were collected from hospitalized renal failure cases in NTUVH between October 2001 and October 2004. The majority of sex in this study was male and age over 7 years old was the dominant group. The most common breed of dogs and cats in this study were mixed breed. Gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common clinical signs, especially anorexia and vomiting. According to the result of logistic regression analysis, the responses to treatments were significantly influenced by the patient’s age, occurrence of neurological signs or cardiovascular and respiratory signs, diagnosis result, concentration of serum blood urea nitrogen when first attending in canine population. While in feline group, the responses to treatments were significantly influenced by occurrence of neurological signs, diagnosis result and values of packed cell volume. There were no significant disparities between short-term prognosis and sex, other clinical signs, serum creatinine concentration or other diseases followed with the renal failure.
目 錄

頁次

誌謝 ………………………………………………………… Ⅴ
中文摘要 ………………………………………………………… Ⅶ
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………… Ⅸ

第一章 緒言…………………………………………………… 1

第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………… 2
第一節 急性腎衰竭…………………………………………… 2
2.1.1 簡介…………………………………………………… 2
2.1.2 引起急性腎衰竭常見之原因………………………… 4
2.1.3 急性腎衰竭之診斷與臨床呈象……………………… 7
第二節 慢性腎衰竭…………………………………………… 9
2.2.1 簡介…………………………………………………… 9
2.2.2 慢性腎衰竭之診斷與臨床呈象……………………… 10
2.2.3 慢性腎衰竭引起之繼發性疾病及治療……………… 12
第三節 腎衰竭之治療………………………………………… 14
2.3.1 治療目的……………………………………………… 14
2.3.2 傳統內科療法………………………………………… 15
2.3.3 透析療法……………………………………………… 17
2.3.4 飲食療法……………………………………………… 20
2.3.5 腎臟移植……………………………………………… 21
第四節 預後評估……………………………………………… 22
2.4.1 預後評估之目的……………………………………… 22
2.4.2 急性腎衰竭與慢性腎衰竭之鑑別診斷要素………… 24
2.4.3 影響預後因子之探討………………………………… 25

第三章 材料與方法…………………………………………… 27
第一節 研究病例之收集……………………………………… 27
第二節 病例之紀錄與分類…………………………………… 28
第三節 資料分析與方法……………………………………… 30

第四章 資料分析結果(一):犬資料………………………… 31
第一節 犬基本資料分析……………………………………… 31
第二節 犬臨床症狀、診斷、治療資料分析………………… 34
第三節 犬急、慢性腎衰竭之診斷與預後相關因子………… 39
之探討
第四節 影響腎衰竭犬預後因子之分析………………………
45

第五章 資料分析結果(二):貓資料………………………… 48
第一節 貓基本資料分析……………………………………… 48
第二節 貓臨床症狀、診斷、治療資料分析………………… 50
第三節 貓急、慢性腎衰竭之診斷與預後相關因子………… 55
之探討
第四節 影響腎衰竭貓預後因子之分析……………………… 61

第六章 討論…………………………………………………… 64
第一節 腎衰竭犬貓基本資料分析討論……………………… 64
第二節 腎衰竭犬貓之臨床症狀、診斷、治療……………… 67
與伴隨發生疾病之分析討論
第三節 影響腎衰竭預後相關因子之討論…………………… 72

第七章 結論…………………………………………………… 77

參考文獻 ………………………………………………………… 78
參考文獻

劉朝鑫、王金和。鉤端螺旋體自然感染犬血清學、病理學及細菌學之研究。國立台灣大學農學院研報。5:47-51,1977
劉佳遠、蔡函儒、張本恆、葉力森。血液透析於犬隻腎衰竭之應用。台灣省畜牧獸醫學會九十一年度聯合年會暨學術論文發表會。2002
賴傳疆。台灣地區就診犬及北部地區流浪犬之鉤端螺旋體症流行病學調查。國立台灣大學獸醫學研究所碩士論文。2004
Arieff A. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: Current concepts on pathogenesis and prevention. Kidney Int. 45: 629-635, 1994
Avram MM, Blaustein D, Fein PA, Goel N, Chattopadhyay J, Mittman N. Hemoglobin predicts long-term survival in dialysis patients: a 15-year single-center longitudinal study and a correlation trend between prealbumin and hemoglobin. Kidney Int Suppl. 87: S6-11, 2003
Adin CA, Cowgill LD. Treatment and outcome of dogs with leptospirosis: 36 cases (1990-1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 216: 371-375, 2000
Adrogue HJ, Madias NE. Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders. N Engl J Med. 338: 26-34, 1998
Amann K, Tornig J, Kugel B, Gross ML, Tyralla K, El-Shakmak A, Szabo A, Ritz E. Hyperphosphatemia aggravates cardiac fibrosis and microvascular disease in experimental uremia. Kidney Int. 63: 1296-1301, 2003
Brown SA, Brown CA, Crowell WA, Barsanti JA, Allen T, Cowell C, Finco DR. Beneficial effects of chronic administration of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dogs with renal insufficiency. J Lab Clin Med. 131: 447-455, 1998
Brown SA, Crowell WA, Brown CA, Barsanti JA, Finco DR. Pathophysiology and management of progressive renal disease. Vet J. 154: 93-109, 1997
Barber PJ, Elliott J. Feline chronic renal failure: Calcium homeostasis in 80 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 1995. J Small Anim Pract. 39: 108-116, 1998
Block GA, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Levin NW, Port FK. Association of serum phosphorus and calcium × phosphate product with mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients: a national study. Am J Kidney Dis. 31: 607-617, 1998
Bodey AR, Michell AR. An epidemiologic study of blood pressure in domestic dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 37: 116-125, 1996
Bro S, Olgaard K. Effects of excess PTH on nonclassical target organs. Am J Kidney Dis. 30: 606-620, 1997
Bellinghieri G, Santoro D, Savica D. Pharmacological treatment of acute and chronic hyperuricemia in kidney diseased patients. Contrib Nephrol. 147: 149-160, 2005
Better OS, Rubinstein I, Winaver JM, Knochel JP. Mannitol therapy revisited (1940-1997). Kidney Int. 52: 886-894, 1997
Birnbaum N, Barr SC, Center SA, Schermerhorn T, Randolph JF, Simpson KW. Naturally acquired leptospirosis in 36 dogs: Serological and clinicopathological features. J Small Anim Pract. 39: 231-236, 1998
Bartges JW, Willis AM, Polzin DJ. Hypertension and renal disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 26: 1331-1345, 1996
Bullock ML, Umen AJ, Finkelstein M, Keane WF. The assessment of risk factors in 462 patients with acute renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis. 5: 97-103, 1985
Cowgill LD. Pathophysiology and management of anemia in chronic progressive renal failure. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim). 7: 175-182, 1992
Cook AK, Breitschwerdt EB, Levine JF, Bunch SE, Linn LO. Risk factors associated with acute pancreatitis in dogs: 101 cases (1985-1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 203: 673-679, 1993
Cook AK, Cowgill LD. Clinical and pathological features of protein-losing glomerular disease in the dog: A review of 137 cases (1985-1992). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 32: 313-322, 1996
Crisp MS, Chew DJ, DiBartola SP, Birchard SJ. Peritoneal dialysis in dogs and cats: 27 cases (1976-1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 195: 1262-1266, 1989
Cowgill LD, Elliott DA. Acute renal failure. In Ettinger SJ (ed): Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 5th. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2000, pp 1615-1633
Cowgill LD, James KM, Levy JK, Browne JK, Miller A, Lobingier RT, Egrie JC. Use of recombinant human erythropoietin for management of anemia in dogs and cats with renal failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 212: 521-528, 1998
Cooper BA, Penne EL, Bartlett LH, Pollock CA. Protein malnutrition and hypoalbuminemia as predictors of vascular events and mortality in ESRD. Am J Kidney Dis. 43: 61-66, 2004
DeBroe ME. Haemodialysis-induced hypoxaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 9: 173-175, 1994
Daugaard G, Abildgaard U, Holstein-Rathlou NH, Leyssac PP, Amtorp O, Dikhoff TG. Acute effect of cisplatin on renal hemodynamics and tubular function in dog kidneys. Ren Physiol. 9: 308-316, 1986
Davenport A, Jones SR, Goel S, Astley JP, Hartog M. Differentiation of acute from chronic renal impairment by detection of carbamylated haemoglobin. Lancet. 341: 1614-1617, 1993
Devaux C, Polzin DJ, Osborne CA. What role does dietary protein restriction play in the management of chronic renal failure in dogs. Vet Clin North Am. 26: 1247-1267, 1996
DiBartola SP, Rutgers HC, Zack PM, Tarr MJ. Clinicopathologic findings associated with chronic renal disease in cats: 74 cases (1973-1984). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 190: 1196-1202, 1987
Don B. Acute renal failure associated with pigmenturia or crystal deposits. In Schrier R, Gottschalk C (ends): Diseases of the Kidney, 6th ed. Boston, Little, Brown. 1997, pp 1273-1299
Elliott DA. Hemodialysis. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 15: 136-148, 2000
Elliot J, Barber PJ. Feline chronic renal failure: Clinical findings in 80 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 1995. J Small Anim Pract. 39: 78-85, 1998
Elliot J, Barber PJ, Rawlings JM. Effect of phosphate and protein restriction on progression of chronic renal failure in cats. J Vet Intern Med. 12: 221A, 1998
Finco DR. Association of systemic hypertension with renal injury in dogs with induced renal failure. J Vet Intern Med. 18: 289-294, 2004
Fenner W. Uremic encephalopathy. In Bonagura RW (ed): Current Veterinary Therapy XII. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1995, pp 1158-1161
Fraser CL, Arieff AI. Metabolic encephalopathy as a complication of renal failure: Mechanisms and mediators. New Horiz. 2: 518-526, 1994
Fox LE, Grauer GF, Dubielzig RR, Bjorling DE. Reversal of ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicosis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 191: 1433-1435, 1987
Fischer JR, Pantaleo V, Francey T, Cowgill LD. Veterinary hemodialysis: advances in management and technology. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 34: 935-967, 2004
Fillastre JP, Raguenez-Viotte G. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 46: 163-175, 1989
Gulledge L, Boos D, Wachsstock R. Acute renal failure in a cat secondary to Tiger Lily (Lilium tigrinum) toxicity. Feline Pract. 25: 38-39, 1997
Gerber B, Glaus TM, Unterer S, Reusch CE. Evaluation of parameters for the differentiation of acute from chronic renal failure in the dog. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 146: 365-373, 2004
Gwaltney-Brant S, Holding JK, Donaldson CW, Eubig PA, Khan SA. Renal failure associated with ingestion of grapes or raisins in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 218: 1555-1556, 2001
Goldstein RE, Marks SL, Kass PH, Cowgill LD. Gastrin concentrations in plasma of cats with chronic renal failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 213: 826-828, 1998
Graziani G, Cantaluppi A, Casati S, Citterio A, Scalamogna A, Aroldi A, Silenzio R, Brancaccio D, Ponticelli C. Dopamine and furosemide in oliguric acute renal failure. The Nephron. 37: 39-42, 1984
Harkin KR, Gartrell CL. Canine leptospirosis in New Jersey and Michigan: 17 cases (1990-1995). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 32: 495-501, 1996
Hakley RM, Richardson JA, Gwaltney-Brant SM. A retrospective study of daylily toxicosis in cats. Vet Hum Toxicol. 45: 38-39, 2003
Iseki K, Ikemiya Y, Inoue T, Iseki C, Kinjo K, Takishita S. Significance of hyperuricemia as a risk factor for developing ESRD in a screened cohort. Am J Kidney Dis. 44: 642-650, 2004
Iseki K, Ikemiya Y, Iseki C, Takishita S. Proteinuria and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 63: 1468-1474, 2003
Iseki K, Ikemiya Y, Iseki C, Takishita S. Haematocrit and the risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 18: 899-905, 2003
Jacob F, Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Neaton JD, Kirk CA, Allen TA, Swanson LL. Evaluation of the association between initial proteinuria and morbidity rate or death in dogs with naturally occurring chronic renal failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 226: 393-400, 2005
Jacob F, Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Neaton JD, Lekcharoensuk C, Allen TA, Kirk CA, Swanson LL. Association between initial systolic blood pressure and risk of developing a uremic crisis or of dying in dogs with chronic renal failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 222: 322-329, 2003
Jacob F, Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Allen TA, Kirk CA, Neaton JD, Lekcharoensuk C, Swanson LL. Clinical evaluation of dietary modification for treatment of spontaneous chronic renal failure in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 220: 1163-1170, 2002
Krawiec D. Managing gastrointestinal complications of uremia. Vet Clin North Am. 26: 1287-1292, 1996
King LG, Giger U, Diserens D, Nagode LA. Anemia of chronic renal failure in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 6: 264-270, 1992
Kalra PA, Guo H, Kausz AT, Gilbertson DT, Liu J, Chen SC, Ishani A, Collins AJ, Foley RN. Atherosclerotic renovascular disease in United States patients aged 67 years or older: Risk factors, revascularization, and prognosis. Kidney Int. 68: 293-301, 2005
Kruger JM, Osborne CA, Nachreiner RF, Refsal KR. Hypercalcemia and renal failure. Etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 26: 1417-1445, 1996
Kobayashi DL, Peterson ME, Graves TK, Lesser M, Nichols CE. Hypertension in cats with chronic renal failure or hyperthyroidism. J Vet Intern Med. 4: 58-62, 1990
Kates DM, Sherrard DJ, Andress DL. Evidence that serum phosphate is independently associated with serum PTH in patients with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis. 30: 809-813, 1997
Langston CE. Acute renal failure caused by lily ingestion in six cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 220: 49-52, 2002
Levinsky NG, Bernard DB. Mannitol and loop diuretics in acute renal failure. In Brenner BM, Lazarus JM (eds): Acute Renal Failure. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1998, pp 841-856
Langston CE, Cowgill LD, Spano JA. Applications and outcome of hemodialysis in cats: a review of 29 cases. J Vet Intern Med. 11: 348-355, 1997
Lobetti RG, Jacobson LS. Renal involvement in dogs with babesiosis. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 72: 23-28, 2001
Lulich J, Osborne C, O’Brien T. Feline renal failure: Questions, answers, questions. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet. 14: 127-152, 1992
Michell AR, Bodey AR, Gleodhill A. Absence of hypertension in dogs with renal insufficiency. Ren Fail. 19: 61-68, 1997
Mathews KG, Gregory CR. Renal transplants in cats: 66 cases (1987-1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc.211: 1431-1436, 1997
Mathews KA, Holmberg DL, Miller CW. Kidney transplantation in dogs with naturally occurring end-stage renal disease. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 36: 294-301, 2000
Minkus G, Horauf A. Evaluation of renal biopsies in cats and dogs – Histopathology in comparison with clinical data. J Small Anim Pract. 35: 465-472, 1994
Molitoris BA, Meyer C, Dahl R, Geerdes A. Mechanism of ischemia-enhanced aminoglycoside binding and uptake by proximal tubule cells. Am J Physiol. 264: F907-F916, 1993
Mishina M, Watanabe T, Fujii K, Maeda H, Wakao Y, Takahashi M. Non-invasive blood pressure measurements in cats: clinical significance of hypertension associated with chronic renal failure. J Vet Med Sci. 60: 805-808, 1998
Nagode LA, Chew DJ. Nephrocalcinosis caused by hyperparathyroidism in progression of renal failure: Treatment with calcitriol. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim). 7: 202-220, 1992
Nagode LA, Chew DJ, Podell M. Benefits of calcitriol therapy and serum phosphorus control in dogs and cats with chronic renal failure. Both are essential to prevent of suppress toxic hyperparathyroidism. Vet North Am Small Anim Pract. 26: 1293-1330, 1996
Nagode L, Chew D, Steinmeyer C. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism: Toxic aspects, mechanisms of development, and control by real calcitriol treatment. Washington, DC, 11th Annual Veterinary Medical Forum, 1993, pp 154-157
Palmer B, Henrich W. Nephrotoxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. In Schrier R, Gottschalk C (ends): Diseases of the Kidney, 6th ed. Boston, Little, Brown. 1997, pp 1167-1188
Penny D, Henderson SM, Brown PJ. Raisin poisoning in a dog. Vet Rec. 152: 376, 2003
Pechereau D, Martel P, Braun JP. Plasma erythropoietin concentrations in dogs and cats: reference values and changes with anaemia and/or chronic renal failure. Res Vet Sci. 62: 185-188, 1997
Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Lulich JP. Diet therapy guidelines for cats with chronic renal failure. Vet Clin North Am. 26: 1269-1275, 1996
Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, O’Brien TD. Diseases of the kidneys and ureters. In Ettinger SJ (ed): Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 3rd. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1989, pp 1963-2046
Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Jacob F, Ross S. Chronic renal failure. In Ettinger SJ (ed): Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 5th. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2000, pp 1634-1662
Ruilope LM, Garcia-Puig J. Hyperuricemia and renal function. Curr Hypertens Rep. 3: 197-202, 2001
Ruggenenti P, Gaspari F, Perna A, Remuzzi G. Cross sectional longitudinal study of spot morning urine protein:creatinine ratio, 24 hour urine protein excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate, and end stage renal failure in chronic renal disease in patients without diabetes. BMJ. 316: 504-509, 1998
Randolph JE, Scarlett JM, Stokol T, MacLeod JN. Clinical efficacy and safety of recombinant canine erythropoietin in dogs with anemia of chronic renal failure and dogs with recombinant human erythropoietin-induced red cell aplasia. J Vet Intern Med. 18: 81-91, 2004
Randolph JE, Scarlett JM, Stokol T, Saunders KM, MacLeod JN. Expression, bioactivity, and clinical assessment of recombinant feline erythropoietin. Am J Vet Res. 65: 1355-1366, 2004
Reusch CE, Tomsa K, Zimmer C, Hoerauf A Nett C, Unterer S, Glaus TM, Schlittner E, Pospischil A. Ultrasonography of the parathyroid glands as an aid in differentiation of acute and chronic renal failure in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 217: 1849-1852, 2000
Singleton VL. More information on grape or raisin toxicosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 219: 434-436, 2001
Swan S, Bennet W. Nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In Lazarus J, Brenner BM (eds): Acute renal failure, 3rd ed. New York, Churchill Livingstone. 1993, pp 357-392
Stokes JE, Forrester SD. New and unusual causes of acute renal failure in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 34: 909-922, 2004
Soares CM, Oliveira EA, Diniz JS, Lima EM, Vasconcelos MM, Oliveira GR. Predictive factors of progression of chronic renal insufficiency: a multivariate analysis. Pediatr Nephrol. 18: 371-377, 2003
Tasanarong A, Seublinvong T, Eiam-Ong S. The role of carbamylated hemoglobin in identifying acute and chronic renal failure. J Med Assoc Thai. 85: 462-469, 2002
Thrall MA. Advances in therapy for antifreeze poisoning. Calif Vet. 52: 18, 1998
Volmer PA. Easter lily toxicosis in cats. Vet Med. 94: 331, 1999
Vaden SL, Gookin J, Trogdon M, Langston CE, Levine J, Cowgill LD. Use of carbamylated hemoglobin concentration to differentiate acute from chronic renal failure in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 58: 1193-1196, 1997
Vaden SL, Levine J, Breitschwerdt EB. A retrospective case-control of acute renal failure in 99 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 11: 58-64, 1997
Washabau RJ, Elie MS. Antiemetic therapy. In Bonagura JD, Kirk RW (eds): Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XII. Philadelphia, WB Saunders. 1995, pp 679-684
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 吳璧如(2003a)。師資職前教育中實施家長參與之教學成效研究。教育研究資訊雙月刊,11(2),63-90。
2. 周淑卿(1995)。美國公元2000年教育目標法案。教育研究資訊雙月刊,3(3),143-147。
3. 吳璧如(2000)。師資教育學程中家長參與與知能之內容分析研究。教育研究資訊雙月刊,8(5),15-38。
4. 吳璧如(1998c)。校(園)長與教師對家長參與學校教育的態度研究。教育研究資訊雙月刊,6(4),8-29。
5. 吳清山(2002)。當前校長遴選制度的迷思與省思。教師天地,118,7-12。
6. 吳清山(1999)。教育基本法的基本精神與重要內涵。學校行政,2,28-41。
7. 吳清山(1994)。有興趣,大家一起來–談美國家長會組織。國立教育資料館館訊,27,6-9。
8. 任秀媚(1985)。家長參與幼兒學校學習活動對幼兒社會行為的影響。新竹師專學報,12,125-180。
9. 田光復(1996)。如何開創三贏的局面-家長行政教師三者之間。教師天地,86,46-47。
10. 史英(1996)。父母如何參與孩子的學校教育-家長參與學校教育的行動計劃。人本教育札記,89,8-11。
11. 吳璧如(2003c)。家長參與之師資培育初探。人文及社會學科教學通訊,14(2),49-65。
12. 吳璧如(2003b)。家庭-社區-學校之夥伴關係:理論、涵義及研究展望。教育資料與研究,52,84-91。
13. 周愫嫻(1996)。家長會與學校對話關係。北縣教育,13,20-24。
14. 林天祐,(1997a)。學校經營與教育品質。教育資料與研究,19,28-32。
15. 林文虎(1997)。教師、行政和家長共創三贏––學校經營的新觀念。教師天地,86,35-37。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔