(18.232.50.137) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/07 03:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:林煜超
研究生(外文):YU-CHAO LIN
論文名稱:動態中文文本在單行顯示之閱讀績效研究
論文名稱(外文):Ergonomic Design on Reading Dynamic Chinese Text from Single-line Displays
指導教授:謝光進謝光進引用關係
指導教授(外文):KING-KONG SHIEH
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:工業管理系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:單行顯示器顯示單位顯示介面設計動態中文文本
外文關鍵詞:dynamic Chinese textsingle-line displaypresentation unitdisplay design
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:18
  • 點閱點閱:398
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:147
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
由於資訊科技的發展,利用單行顯示裝置來呈現動態中文資訊的應用已非常廣泛。有關在單行顯示下閱讀動態中文文本之研究,應值得加以重視。為探究顯示方法如何影響閱讀績效,本論文以兩個實驗進行研究。
實驗一探討受試者在長文閱讀下,各種不同的顯示對閱讀效率與偏好的顯示速率之影響。本實驗調查4種顯示方式(前導式與快速序列視覺呈現兩種顯示樣式,分別在傳統與中文詞間插入空格兩種版面安排下顯示)與高低兩種不同文本困難度,對受試者閱讀效率與偏好的顯示速率之影響。結果顯示,增加詞間空格的前導式顯示方式,在閱讀效率與偏好的顯示速率上,都優於其他三種顯示方式。此外,低文本困難度在閱讀效率與偏好的顯示速率上,則高於高文本困難度。
實驗二探討顯示方式與顯示速率對受試者在閱讀短句時之適讀性與適用性效應。適讀性是以受試者閱讀後之正確回憶率加以衡量,而適用性則是以受試者閱讀時的主觀作業負荷和事後主觀偏好衡量。本實驗所調查之4種顯示方式與實驗一相同,3種顯示速率則分別為每分鐘120、240與500字。結果顯示,前導式的樣式在正確回憶率、主觀作業負荷與主觀偏好都顯著優於快速序列視覺呈現。並且,以詞為顯示單位之設計,顯著優於傳統以字為單位的版面安排方式。在每分鐘500字的顯示速率下,受試者的績效與偏好都顯著較低,特別是在傳統版面安排以快速序列視覺呈現的顯示下,受試者的績效更是明顯惡化。在主觀衡量上,大多數的受試者仍偏好傳統以字為顯示單位的設計,且偏好中等顯示速率。就適用性而言,單行顯示方式雖會妨礙閱讀績效,但仍適合用來顯示動態中文資訊。
本研究結果指出,動態中文文本在單行顯示時,以詞為顯示單位的前導式顯示,有較高的閱讀績效,文本困難度與顯示速率,對閱讀績效都有顯著影響,然而,大多數的受試者仍較偏好傳統以字為顯示單位的前導式設計,顯示受試者對新型的顯示方式之適應,仍有待克服。文中同時也討論了上述研究結果的可能原因與應用。
With advance in information technologies, reading dynamic Chinese texts from a single-line display has become a common experience. However, the studies for dynamic Chinese text presented on a single-line display were relatively rare. In the dissertation, two experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of presentation modes on reading performance.
Experiment 1 investigated the effects of presentation conditions on reading efficiency and preferable presentation speed. Four presentation modes in which two presentation formats (i.e. leading, and rapid serial visual presentation; RSVP) combined with two text layouts (i.e. convention and interword spacing) were investigated. Chinese texts with high- and low-difficulty were compared. The results showed that leading with interword spacing resulted in greater reading efficiency and faster preferable presentation speed than the other presentation modes. Reading efficiency and preferable presentation speed for low-difficulty text were significantly greater than high-difficulty text.
Experiment 2 investigated the effects of presentation mode and presentation speed on readability and usability. The four presentation modes used in experiment 1 and three presentation speed (i.e. 120-, 240- and 500-character-per-minute; CPM) were investigated. The results revealed that recall accuracy, subjective task load and satisfaction rating for leading format were better than RSVP format. Furthermore, the layouts that used Chinese words as presentation units were better than conventional layouts in which characters were the presentation units. Subjects’ performance deteriorated when presentation speed was at a high speed of 500-CPM, particularly for the mode of RSVP with conventional layout. For the subjective measures, most of the subjects preferred the design of conventional layout, and medium presentation speed. For the usability, the single-line display deteriorated reading performance. However, most of the subjects still considered that the single-line diplay was suitable for presenting dynamic Chinese text.
The results of the study indicated that when presenting dynamic Chinese text on a single-line display, the presentation mode of leading with interword spacing yielded better reading performance. The effects of text difficulty and presentation speed were significant on reading performance. However, most of the subjects preferred the design with the layout of conventional character unit. This indicated that the acceptance of novel presentation mode for readers remained to be concerned. The possible explanations and applications of the results are discussed in the present study.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究流程 3
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1閱讀的歷程 6
2.2閱讀眼動模式 7
2.3中文的閱讀單位 10
2.4中文詞間空格的效應 12
2.5紙本與螢幕閱讀之比較 15
2.6螢幕的適讀性與識辨性 16
2.7螢幕閱讀的人因議題 17
2.7.1 螢幕大小 17
2.7.2 視角 18
2.7.3 字距、行距 18
2.7.4 字體大小 18
2.7.5 極性(polarity) 19
2.8小螢幕之閱讀 19
2.8.1 小螢幕的靜態顯示 19
2.8.2 小螢幕的動態顯示 20
2.9單行顯示方式的相關研究 21
2.9.1 前導式顯示 21
2.9.2 RSVP顯示 23
2.9.3 前導式與RSVP顯示之比較 25
2.10閱讀績效的衡量 27
2.10.1 閱讀速度 28
2.10.2 閱讀理解度 29
2.10.3 閱讀精確度 30
2.10.4 主觀評量 31
第三章 長文下顯示方式與文本難度對閱讀績效之影響 33
3.1受試者 33
3.2材料 33
3.3實驗器材 34
3.4實驗設計 35
3.5實驗程序 38
3.6結果 39
3.6.1最大可接受顯示速率 40
3.6.2閱讀理解度分數 40
3.6.3閱讀效率 43
3.6.4偏好的顯示速率 43
3.7討論 46
3.7.1顯示方式之效應 46
3.7.2文本困難度之效應 49
3.8結論 49
第四章 短文下顯示方式與顯示速率對適讀性與適用性之效應 51
4.1受試者 51
4.2材料 51
4.3實驗器材 52
4..4實驗設計 52
4.5實驗程序 54
4.6結果 55
4.6.1平均正確回憶率 55
4.6.2主觀作業負荷評量 56
4.6.3主觀滿意度評量 62
4.6.4主觀偏好評比 64
4.6.5適用性評比 68
4.7討論 68
4.7.1正確回憶率 69
4.7.2主觀作業負荷 72
4.7.3主觀滿意度 73
4.7.4主觀偏好 73
4.8結論 75
第五章 結論與建議 78
5.1結論 78
5.1.1長文下顯示方式與文本難度對閱讀績效之影響 78
5.1.2短文下顯示方式與顯示速率對適讀性與適用性之效應 78
5.2研究限制 80
5.3未來研究之建議 81
5.3.1閱讀眼動模式之調查 81
5.3.2語意操弄之研究 81
5.3.3顯示樣式之研究 82
5.3.4個人差異之研究 82
參考文獻 83
中文文獻 83
英文文獻 83
附錄1 實驗一閱讀實驗材料範例 (高困難度) 92
附錄2 實驗一閱讀實驗材料範例 (低困難度) 93
附錄3 實驗二 實驗材料(部分) 94
附錄4 NASA -TLX (Task Load Index)量表 95
附錄5不同實驗條件下滿意度量表 100
附錄6 主觀偏好評量與適用性問卷 101
中文文獻
沈模衛、符德江、張光強和陳新,2002,自控速度的平滑滾動引導式和RSVP的文本閱讀,心理學報(中國),34,頁43-49。
彭耼齡和張必隱,民88,認知心理學,第一版,東華書局,台北市。
喻柏林,1989,語言單位大小在短時和長時記憶中的效應,心理學報(中國),21,頁1-7
楊憲明,民87年,中文詞間、詞內空格調整對閱讀的影響,台南師院學報,31,頁303-326。
劉英茂,葉重新,王聯慧和張迎桂,民63,詞單位對閱讀效率的影響,中華心理學刊,16,頁25-32。
劉英茂,莊仲仁和吳瑞屯,民76,中文詞及敘述單位分析原則,中華心理學刊,29,頁51-61。
賴世雄,民92,全民英檢中級閱讀能力測驗-閱讀理解,初版,長春藤有聲出版有限公司,台北市。
英文文獻
Bauer, D. & Cavonius, C. R. (1983). Improving the legibility of visual display units through contrast reversal. In E. Grandjean & E. Vigliani (Eds.), Ergonomics aspects of visual display terminals (pp. 22-31). London: Taylor & Francis.
Castelhano, M. S. & Muter, P. (2001). Optimizing the reading of electronic text using rapid serial visual presentation. Behaviour and Information Technology, 20, 237-247.
Chan, K. T. & Chen, H. C. (1991). Reading sequentially-presented Chinese text: effects of display format. Ergonomics, 34, 1083-1093.
Chen, H. C. (1985). Reading Chinese text in sequential display format: effects of display size. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 595-598.
Chen, H. C. (1987). Character detection in reading Chinese: Effects of context and display format. Chinese Journal of Psychology, 29, 45-50.
Chen, H. C. & Tsoi, K. C. (1988). Factors affecting the readability of moving text on a computer display. Human Factors, 30, 25-33.
Chen, H. C., Chan, K. T., & Tsoi, K. C. (1988). Reading self-paced moving text on a computer display. Human Factors, 30, 285-291.
Chen, H. C. & Healy, A. F. (1995). Effects of reading efficiency and display size on rapid-sequential reading. Acta Psychologica, 89, 1-22.
Chen, J. C. (1999). Word recognition during the reading of Chinese sentence: Evidence from studying the word superiority effect. In J. Wang, A. W. Inhoff, & H. C. Chen (Eds.), Reading Chinese script: A cognitive analysis (pp. 239-256). NJ: Erlbaum: Mahwah.
Cocklin, T. G., Ward, N. J., Chen, H. C., & Juola, J. F. (1984). Factors influencing readability of rapidly presented text segments. Memory and Cognition, 12, 431-442.
Dillon, A., Richardson, J., & McKnight, C. (1990). The effects of display size and text splitting on reading lengthy text from screen. Behaviour & Information Technology, 9, 215-227.
Dillon, A. (1992). Reading from paper versus screens: a critical review of the empirical literature. Ergonomics, 35, 1297-1326.
Duchnicky, R. L. & Kolers, P. A. (1983). Readability of text scrolled on visual display terminals as a function of window size. Human Factors, 25, 683-692.
Dyson, M. C. & Kipping, G. J. (1998). The effects of line length and method of movement on patterns of reading from screen. Visible Language, 32, 150-181.
Elkerton, J. & Williges, R. (1984). Information retrieval strategies in a file search environment. Human Factors, 26.
Ericsson, K. A. & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Report as Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Estes, W. K. (1977). On the interaction of perception and memory in reading. In D. LaBerge & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Basic procedures in reading: perception and comprehension (pp. 1-25). NJ: Erlbaum: Hillsdale.
Forster, K. L. (1970). Visual perception of rapidly presented text segments of varying complexity. Perception and Psychophysics, 8, 215-221.
Goodman, K. S. (1976). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. In H. Singer & R. Ruddle (Eds.), A Theoretical models and processes of reading (2nd ed.), Newark: Del.: International Reading Association.
Gough, R. (1985). One second of reading. In H. Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (3rd ed.), Newark: Del.: International Reading Association.
Gould, J. D. & Grischkowsky, N. (1984). Doing the same work with hard copy and cathode ray tube (CRT) computer terminals. Human Factors, 26, 323-337.
Gould, J. D. & Grischkowsky, N. (1986). Does visual angle of a line of characters affect reading speed? Human Factors, 28, 173.
Gould, J. D., Alfaro, L., Barnes, V., Finn, R., Grischkowsky, N., & Minuto, S. (1987). Reading is slower from CRT display than from paper: attempts to isolate a single variable explanation. Human Factors, 29, 269-299.
Granaas, M. M., Mckay, T. D., Laham, R. D., Hurt, L. D., & Juola, J. F. (1984). Reading moving text on a CRT screen. Human Factors, 26, 97-104.
Hansen, W. J. & Haas, C. (1988). Reading and writing with computers: a framework for explaining difference in performance. Communications of the ACM, 31, 1080-1089.
Hart, S. G. & Staveland, L. E. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): results of empirical and theoretical research. In P. A. Hancock & N. Meshkati (Eds.), Human Mental Workload (pp. 139-183). North-Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
Healy, A. F. (1976). Detection errors on the word "the": Evidence for reading unit larger than letters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2, 235-242.
Hendy, K. C., Hamilton, K. M., & Landry, L. N. (1993). Measuring subjective workload: when is one scale better than many. Human Factors, 35, 579-601.
Hsu, S. H. & Huang, K. C. (2000a). Effects of word spacing on reading Chinese text from a video display terminal. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 81-92.
Hsu, S. H. & Huang, K. C. (2000b). Interword spacing in Chinese text layout. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 355-365.
Hwang, S. L., Wang, M. Y., & Her, C. C. (1988). An experimental study of Chinese information display on VDT. Human Factors, 30, 461-471.
Jackson, M. D. & McClelland, J. L. (1979). Processing determinants of reading speed. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 151-181.
Jacobs, A. M., Nazir, T. A., & Heller, O. (1989). Perception of lowercase letters in peripheral vision: A discrimination matrix based on saccade latencies. Perception and Psychophysics, 46, 95-102.
Jorna, G. C. (1991). Image quality determines difference in reading performance and perceived image quality with CRT and hard copy displays. In The Thirty-fifth Annual Meeting (pp. 1432-1436). Human Factors Society.
Juola, J. F., Ward, N. J., & McNamara, T. (1982). Visual search and reading of rapid serial presentation of letter strings, words, and text. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 208-227.
Juola, J. F., Tiritoglu, A., & Pleunis, J. (1995). Reading text presented on a small display. Applied Ergonomics, 26, 227-229.
Just, M. A. & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). A theory of reading: from eye fixation to comprehension. Psychological Review, 87, 329-354.
Just, M. A., Carpenter, P. A., & Woolley, J. D. (1982). Paradigms and processes in reading comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 228-238.
Kang, T. J. & Muter, P. (1989). Reading dynamically display text. Behaviour and Information Technology, 8, 33-42.
Kolers, P. A., Duchnicky, R. L., & Ferguson, D. C. (1981). Eye movement measurement of readability of CRT displays. Human Factors, 23, 527.
Kruk, R. S. & Muter, P. (1984). Reading of continuous text on video screens. Human Factors, 26, 339-345.
Kump, P. (1999). Break-through rapid reading. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Press.
Legge, G. E., Pelli, D. G., Rubin, G. S., & Schleske, M. M. (1985). Psychophysics of reading-I. Normal vision. Vision Research, 25, 239-252.
Masson, M. E. J. (1985). Rapid reading processes and skills. In T. G. Waller & G. E. MacKinnon (Eds.), Reading Research: Advance in Theory and Practice (pp. 183-230). New York: Academic Press.
Masson, M. E. J. (1983). Conceptual processing of text during skimming and rapid sequential reading. Memory and Cognition, 11, 262-274.
Mayes, D. K., Sims, V. K., & Koonce, J. M. (2001). Comprehension and workload differences for VDT and paper-base reading. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 28, 367-378.
McConkie, G. W. & Rayner, K. (1975). The span of the effective stimulus during a fixation in reading. Perception and Psychophysics, 17, 578-586.
McConkie, G. W. & Rayner, K. (1976). Asymmetry of perceptual span in reading. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 8, 365-368.
Mills, C. B. & Weldon, L. J. (1987). Reading text from computer screens. ACM Computing Surveys, 19, 329-358.
Muter, P., Latremouille, S. A., & Treurniet, W. C. (1982). Extended reading of continuous text on television screen. Human Factors, 24, 501-508.
Muter, P., Kruk, R. S., Buttigieg, M. A., & Kang, T. J. (1988). Reader-controlled computerized presentation of text. Human Factors, 30, 473-486.
Muter, P. & Maurutto, P. (1991). Reading and Skimming from computer screen and books: the paperless office revisited. Behaviour and Information Technology, 10, 257-266.
Muter, P. (1996). Interface design and optimization of reading continuous text. In H. van Oostendorp & S.de Mul (Eds.), Cognitive aspects of electronic text processing (pp. 161-180). Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.
Nas, G. L. J. (1988). The effect on reading speed of word divisions at the end of a line. In G. C. van der Veer & G. Mulder (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction: Psychonomic Aspects. (pp. 125-143). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Norton, D. & Stark, L. (1971). Eye movements and visual perception. Scientific American, 224, 34-43.
O'Regan, J. K. (1990). Eye movements and reading. In E. Kowler (Ed.), Eye Movements and Their Role in Visual and Cognitive Processes (pp. 395-453). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Olshavsky, J. (1997). Reading as problem solving: an investigation of strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 4, 674.
Oquist, G. (2001). Adaptive Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Master thesis, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Patberg, J. P. & Yonas, A. (1978). The effect of reader's skill and the difficulty of text on the perceptual span in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4, 545-552.
Poter, M. C. (1984). Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP): a method for studying language processing. In D. E. Kieras & M. A. Just (Eds.), New Methods in Reading Comprehension Research (pp. 91-118). N.J.:Erlbaum: Hillsdale.
Radl, G. W. (1983). Experimental investigations for optimal presentation mode and colours of symbols on the CRT screen. In E. Grandjean & E. Vigliani (Eds.), Ergonomics aspects of visual display terminals (pp. 127-137). London: Taylor & Francis.
Rahman, T. & Muter, P. (1999). Design an interface to optimize reading with small display windows. Human Factors, 41, 106-117.
Rayner, K. & Morris, R. K. (1992). Eye movement control in reading: Evidence against semantic processing. Human Perception and Performance, 18, 163-172.
Rayner, K. (1993). Eye movements in reading: Recent developments. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2, 81-85.
Rayner, K. & Pollatsek, A. (1996). Reading unspaced text is not easy: comment on the implications of Epelboim et al.'s (1994) study for models of eye movement control in reading. Vision Research, 36, 461-465.
Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372-422.
Rayner, K., Fischer, M. H., & Pollatsek, A. (1998). Unspaced text interferes with both word identification and eye movement control. Vision Research, 38, 1129-1144.
Robeck, M. C. & Wallace, R. R. (1990). The psychology of reading: an interdisciplinary approach. (2 ed.) Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Rumelhart, D. E. (1985). Toward an interactive model of reading. In H.Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (3rd ed.), Newark: Del.: International Reading Association.
Samuels, S. J., LaBerge, D., & Bremer, C. D. (1978). Units of word recognition: Evidence for developmental change. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 17, 715-720.
Sekey, A. & Tietz, J. (1982). Text display by " saccadic scrolling". Visible Language, 16, 62-76.
Shneiderman, B. (1998). Designing the user interface: strategies for effective human-computer interaction. (3rd ed.) Reading, Massachusetts: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Smith, A. & Savory, M. (1989). Effects and after-effects of working at a VDU: investigation of the influence of personal variables. In E. D. Megaw (Ed.), Contemporary Ergonomics 1989 (pp. 252-257). London: Taylor & Francis.
Solso, R. L., Maclin, M. K., & Maclin, O. H. (2005). Cognitive Psychology. (7th ed.) MA: Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Sun, F., Morita, M., & Stark, L. W. (1985). Comparative patterns of reading eye movement in Chinese and English. Perception and Psychophysics, 37, 502-506.
Tullis, T. S. (1983). The formatting of alphanumeric displays: A review and analysis. Human Factors, 25, 657-682.
Wang, A. H. & Chen, C. H. (2003). Effects of screen type, Chinese typography, text/background color combination, speed, and jump length for VDT leading display on users' reading performance. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 31, 249-261.
Wickens, C. D. & Hollands, J. G. (2002). Engineering Psychology and Human Performance. (3rd ed.) Taipei: Pearson Education Taiwan Ltd.
Woodworth, R. S. (1938). Experimental Psychology. New York: Holt.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔