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研究生(外文):Kevin Yang
論文名稱(外文):Storytellers and the Native American Community in Leslie Marmon Silko''s Almanac of the Dead
指導教授(外文):Patricia Haseltine
外文關鍵詞:Native communityNative AmericansstorytellerAmerican Southwestshamanism
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美國原住民一直以來在殖民者文化入侵之下,抵抗著文化傳統及部落記憶的流失。 部落的精髓是社區觀念的傳承。經由故事,身為美國西南部的說書者 萊絲莉 • 瑪門 •絲爾寇 藉由重心論述部落故事而在故事中添加上新的聲音。在其死者歷書一書中,透過Clinton、 Lecha 以及Sterling三位角色,絲爾寇的社區性故事達成了他們理想中的社區構想並且也帶領他們回家。
本文共分五章。第一章分析說書人此角色對於原住民的重要及特色。第二張思爾寇在Clinton的角色中將歷史與故事編織一起。歷史、故事與記憶的互相交錯終結了原住民種族的界線。第三章集中於現代死者歷書的持有者 Lecha的出走美國西南地區。其目的是要將原住民的社區觀念演變成世界主義的縮影。整個世界為一個社區而所有種族皆包含於這個大故事中。換言之,世界與時間已被置入於故事的內容裡。第四章中,Sterling的旅程是趟靈療的過程。在原住民的觀念裡,大自然是社區領域的一部分。在這裡,靈療的意義在於重拾社區的觀念,使得心靈受創傷的人在經歷這趟旅程中得以重獲身為部落一份子的身分。
第五章 筆者結論了對於美國原住民透過此三角色回歸部落社區的可能性— 即原住民新歷史觀、世界主義的實踐、原住民之心靈治療。這些皆清楚的描繪出原住民對於去接納他們種族以外謙虛的世界觀。
Native Americans have been confronting the loss of cultural property, tradition and tribal memory since the colonization. The essence of tribal life is the sense of community that brings people together. Through stories, Leslie Marmon Silko, a storyteller of the Southwestern United States, constructs new voices on her own as she re-tells the tribal stories. In Almanac of the Dead, Silko’s communal stories about three characters, Clinton, Lecha, and Sterling, fulfill the characters’ respective ideal senses of community, a fulfillment which leads them back home.
This thesis is divided into five chapters. The introductory chapter analyzes the characteristics and importance of the storyteller for Native Americans. In chapter II, I discuss how Silko weaves the story/myth together with the history to construct the character of Clinton. In Native story, history, including that of the African American, serves as part of the story. The interweaving of the myth, history and memory in the collections dissolves the boundary of the difference between Native races. Chapter III focuses on the contemporary holder of the Mayan Almanac, Lecha, who would go out of Southwest to build her idea of cosmopolitanism in the world. The world itself is a big community, and all peoples are included in this big story foretold by the almanac. Thus, story contextualizes the world and time. In Chapter IV, the focus is on Sterling’s journey as an example of the healing process of shamanism in the Native sense. For the Native, nature is part of the communal territory, as well. The destination of healing is to regain the sense of community and the ecological equilibrium of the group. The traumatized character regains the tribal identity after passing through spiritual shamanic journeys.
In the last part, I conclude my discussion of the ways it is possible for the Native peoples to return to the community through the examples of the three characters above, the new version of Native history, the practice of cosmopolitanism, and shamanic healing for the Native people. The characters articulate a modest attitude toward the variety of ways community is maintained beyond tribal or personal lives.

Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter I:Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Chapter II: Native History Remapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Chapter III: Retold Stories That Continue . . . . . . . . . . 36

Chapter IV: The Shamanic Journey That Heals . . . . . . . . . 62

Chapter V: Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Works Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
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