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研究生:劉季音
研究生(外文):Niki Chi-Yin
論文名稱:三面濕婆:從印度古典舞蹈傳統探討納拉揚小說《引導者》中母系夏塔傳承的蛻變
論文名稱(外文):Thesis Tile: The Shiva Trinity: The Transformation of the Shakta Heritage from Indian Classical Dance Tradition in R.K. Narayan’s The Guide
指導教授:海柏 博士
指導教授(外文):Dr. Patricia Haseltine
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:英文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:納拉揚夏塔母系神聖藝術傳承拙火三位一體濕婆蛇舞大母神《引導者》
外文關鍵詞:Snake danceTrinityKundaliniShaka HeritageThe Guidesacred tradition in artThe Great MotherR.K. NarayanShiva
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論文名稱:三面濕婆:從印度古典舞蹈傳統探討納拉揚小說《引導者》中母系夏塔傳承的蛻變
校(院)組別:靜宜大學英國語文學系碩士班文學組
畢業時間:九十三年度第二學期
摘要別:碩士學位論文摘要
研究生:劉季音
指導教授:海柏 博士
關鍵字:納拉揚、《引導者》、大母神、三位一體、濕婆、蛇舞、拙火、夏塔母系神聖藝術傳承

論文摘要
本論文主要呈現印度作家納拉揚小說《引導者》中蛻變再生後的印度母系藝
術傳承在整體印度文化傳承現代化的過程中所扮演的關鍵角色。本論文以印度大母神所演化的文化傳承概念以及神聖藝術傳統理論為主軸,藉由分析小說中三位人物的二元對立關係以及三位一體統合的流程,重建印度文化傳承整合傳統與現代化平衡後的新面貌。
小說中螺旋形的蛇舞意象象徵著印度母神的原始精神,巧妙的連結作者納拉
揚的文學寫作以及小說中女性舞者蘿絲的印度舞蹈藝術傳統。作者納拉揚與文本
本身以及和小說中人物緊密的互動連結也呈現出如小說標題《引導者》所指的生
命及文化引導的意涵。保存傳統根源並重現傳統精神文化的創新模式是印度作家
納拉揚的文學寫作和女性舞者蘿絲及其母系傳承精神轉化的關鍵指標。
女性舞者蘿絲及其母系夏塔(Shakta)藝術傳承的精神蛻變成為印度傳統現
代化旅程中一種精神文化上的指引。本論文分為五個章節,第一章介紹在分
析過程中引用到的兩個重要觀念:印度大母神精神傳承概念以及與印度宗教、哲
學、神話等聯結甚深的神聖藝術傳統理論。
第二章主要開啟女性舞者蘿絲及其母系夏塔藝術傳承的精神蛻變之旅。藉由蘿絲與考古學家馬可的婚姻關係中,重塑傳統母系女神藝術傳承如何受到父權書寫系統壓制與扭曲。同時呈現蘿絲與馬可婚姻中不協調的陰與陽、濕婆與夏娣
(Shiva and Shakti)的結合。
第三章呈現蘿絲及其母系夏塔藝術傳承的內在精神蛻變之旅。藉由各種原始的秘密儀式,蘿絲及其夏塔傳承慢慢復甦原始的活力精神與舞蹈傳統精神。為了復興傳承,蘿絲脫離與馬可二元對立的婚姻,轉與導遊拉傑建立起另一個二元結合的男女關係。
第四章將呈現蘿絲及其母系夏塔藝術傳承外在與內在整合的精神之旅。蘿絲個人的精神整合,同時成就母系夏塔藝術傳承的蛻變,而後成為印度現化代
過程中的文化精神指標。蘿絲成功地將女神藝術傳承的宗教舞蹈藝術帶入現代
的藝術殿堂。同時藉由蘿絲最後蛇舞的昇華,破除與拉傑的最後對立二元,為三
位一體帶來個體化的整合。三位一體的和解同時也象徵了印度文化傳承的整合,
也為印度大母神帶來進化的文化精神意象:三面濕婆。
最後一章將重新探討小說標題《引導者》的多重意義與內涵,特別是對於印度文化傳承的整合與昇華。另外,也將呈現印度母系藝術傳承在現代印度的角色定位。
Thesis Tile: The Shiva Trinity: The Transformation of the Shakta Heritage from Indian Classical Dance Tradition in R.K. Narayan’s The Guide
The Graduate Program of the Department of English Language, Literature, and Linguistics
An Abstract of a Thesis for the Degree of Master Arts
Providence University 93rd School Year
Graduate: Niki Chi-Yin Liu
Advisor: Dr. Patricia Haseltine
Key Words: R.K. Narayan, The Guide, The Great Mother, Trinity, Shiva,
Snake dance, Kundalini, Shaka Heritage, sacred tradition in art

Abstract
My thesis aims to represent the transformation of the goddess maternal Shakta
Heritage in Indian cultural heritage for the modern India by employing the theory of the Great Mother and sacred tradition in art to analyze the development of the Duality and the Trinity relationship in The Guide. The process of Shakta’s transformation as well as the interaction of the Trinity characters in dual activity directly represents the activity of guidance that the tile The Guide suggests.

The image of snake dance in the novel is the primal image of the Great Mother, the main source of Indian spirituality connecting Narayan’s literature and female character Rosie’s Indian classical dance in art tradition intensely. Thus, the interaction of Narayan and his characters also causes the function of “guidance” between him and his text The Guide. Re-creating in tradition by giving a new form is the main key factor for Narayan’s literature and Rosie and her Shakta Heritage’s transformation.

The transformation of the female dancer Rosie and her Shakta Heritage plays a
key role of spiritual guidance for modern India. My thesis is divided into five parts. The first chapter introduces two important conceptions adopted in the analytic processes: the concept of the Great Mother in India and the theory of sacred tradition in dancing art related to Indian religion, philosophy and mythology, etc.

Chapter Two puts it focus on the new journey of Rosie and her maternal Shakta
Heritage’s transformation. I would like to represent how the temple dancer Devadasis Rosie and her maternal heritage is repressed and distorted by the rigid patriarchal system. Rosie and Marco’s marriage is an epitome to represent the discrepancy of Shiva-Shakti union.
Chapter Three puts its focus on Rosie’s inner journey of reviving herself and the Shakta Heritage by observing several ancient secret rituals. In this stage, Rosie breaks out the Marco-Rosie Duality, instead, building up the Rosie-Raju Duality.

In Chapter Four, I will focus on the inner and outward balance of Rosie /Nalini’s
journey in her spiritual integration. How does she move the Goddess’s power from the temple to the theater in modern times? In her final snake dance, Rosie breaks the
final Duality of Rosie-Raju and reaches the reconciliation of the Trinity. The
transcendent unity of the Trinity symbolizes the evolved image of the Great Mother in
Indian spirituality -The Shiva Trinity.

Lastly, in the final chapter, I discuss the multiple meanings of the title The Guide especially on the significance of individual and community transcendence for Indian cultural heritage. Furthermore, I make a conclusion of the discussion on the orientation of the Goddess heritage in art tradition in modern India.
Table of Contents

Chinese Abstract……………………………………………………………………...v
English Abstract…………………………………………………………………….vii
Acknowledgments……………………………………………………………………ix

Chapter One: Introduction…………………………………………………………..1
R.K. Narayan’s Literature Indian Writing in English and the Indian Sacred Tradition in Dance ……………………………………………………………….2
Concept of the Great Mother: The Origin is the Great Mother ………………….9
Theory of Sacred Tradition in Dance…………………………………………...13
Two Manifestations of Shiva: The Evolved Image of the Great Mother……….18
Analysis of Duality and Trinity Development in The Guide……………………20
The Map of Guidance and Transcendence in The Guide……………………….26
Chapter Two: The Transformation of the Maternal Shakta Heritage:
From Sterile Womb into the Pulsating Life……………………….27
The Repressed and Distorted Shakta Heritage in Dance Tradition……………..27
The Discrepancy of Shiva and Shakti: Rosie-Marco Duality…………………..36
Chapter Three: Snake Dance: Revival of Rosie’s Dance Tradition and her Shakta Heritage………………………………………………………….. 47
Snake Dance: Projection of the Serpent Power Kundalini……………………...48
Revival in Secret Rituals: Cobra Dance, Watching Games, Enlightening Dance
and Rosie-Raju Duality……………………………..52
Re-Mapping the Truth and Traumatic Past of the Shakta Heritage……………..65
Rosie’s Trauma: A Break of Rosie-Marco Duality………………………….......70
Chapter Four: Shakta Heritage Maintains the Equilibrium of Tradition and Modernity…………………………………………………………76
Challenge of Traditional Force to Shakta’s Modernity…………………………78
Rosie/Nalini: The Transformation of Shakta into Modernity…………………...83
Rosie/ Nalini’s Final Snake Dance: Shakta’s Balance of Tradition and Modernity
………………………………………………………………………………….85
A Break of the Rosie-Raju Duality and Individuality of the Shiva Trinity……..97
Chapter Five: Conclusion…………………………………………………………101
Appendix ………………………………………………………………………......105
Works Cited………………………………………………………………………...111
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