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研究生:張逸婷
研究生(外文):Yi-Ting Chang
論文名稱:水稻台農67號誘變品系米榖粉理化性質之因素分析及其應用
論文名稱(外文):Factor analysis on physicochemical properties of rice flour from TNG67 mutants and its application
指導教授:張永和張永和引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yung-Ho Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005/05/
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:米榖粉因素分析理化性質複迴歸分析
外文關鍵詞:physicochemical propertiesfactor analysisrice flourmultiple regression analysis
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本研究利用快速黏度測定儀、示差掃描熱分析儀及質地剖面分析儀測定米榖粉之理化特性,並進一步利用因素分析的主成分法及複迴歸分析法找出米榖粉之理化特性與米穀膠體質地特性間之相關性,以探討運用米榖粉之理化特性配合因素分析法於推測米穀膠體質地之可行性。
研究結果顯示,79種米榖膠體質地特性經由主因素分析後,可以得到二個共同因素並解釋82.4%的總變異量。而共同因素一為「硬度」、「附著感」、「膠質感」及「咀嚼感」等特性所組成。進一步利用複迴歸分析法找出米榖粉理化特性經主因素分析後的結果與米穀膠體質地特性間之相關程度,發現成糊特性參數與米榖膠體質地參數間的最高相關性(R2 =89.1%)高於熱性質分析與米榖膠體質地參數間的相關性(R2 =39.1%)。而合併成糊特性與熱性質之測定項目與米穀膠體質地特性的相關性(R2 =91.9%)則是高於單一米榖粉理化性質測定之方法。另外,米穀膠體質地剖面分析參數中以附著力(adhesiveness)與米榖粉之所有理化測定參數達最高相關性。合併米榖粉成糊特性及熱性質參數再經由主因素分析之結果則發現,低直鏈澱粉含量(1.2-3.7%)族群可以得到三個共同因素,分別為「升溫及降溫過程之黏度變化」(36.3%)因素(因素一)、「糊化溫度及維持黏度強度」(33.8%)因素(因素二)、「糊化所需溫度與熱焓值」(14.7%)因素(因素三);而中直鏈澱粉含量(14.7-18.6%)族群可以得到五個共同因素,分別為「糊化溫度及熱焓值」(24.1%)因素(因素一)、「黏度回復」(19.8%)因素(因素二)、「黏度維持及冷-熱糊黏度」(36.2%)因素(因素三及四)、糊化末溫及糊化溫度範圍(因素五)。79種米榖粉總合族群則可以得到四個共同因素,分別為「成糊特性及熱焓值」(44.1%)因素(因素一)、「糊化溫度」(36.6%)因素(因素二及三)及黏度破裂比值(11.8%)(因素四)。另外,觀察合併米榖粉之成糊特性與熱性質參數經因素分析後,發現79種米樣品於共同因素一及二所構成之平面座標圖上的相對位置可明顯區分為三個族群,其區分依據與直鏈澱粉含量有關。
Instrumental methods of rapid visco-analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and texture profile analysis (TPA) were used to determine the physicochemical properties of rice flours, then statistical analyses including principal component method of factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to elucidate the correlation between the physicochemical properties of rice flours and the textural properties of rice pastes. The possibility in predicting the textural properties of rice pastes by using of factor analysis on the physicochemical properties of rice flours was also evaluated.
Two factors were found in the factor analysis based on the TPA parameters of 79 tested rice pastes, which explained 82.4% of the total variation. Factor 1 composed of hardness, adhesiveness, gumminess and chewiness properties. Results also indicated that the correlation of the textural properties of rice pastes to the pasting properties of rice flours was 89.1%, which was higher than the correlation to the thermal properties of rice flours (39.1%). While, the correlation of the textural properties of rice pastes to the physicochemical properties of rice flours composing of both pasting properties and gelatinization thermal properties was higher (R2=91.9%) than the correlation determined only with either pasting or gelatinization thermal properties. Moreover, the adhesiveness of the TPA parameters showed the highest correlation with the physicochemical properties of rice flours.
Three factors were found in the factor analysis on the physicochemical properties of low-amylose (1.2-3.7%) rice flours composing of both gelatinization thermal properties and pasting properties, those factors were “the change of viscosity during heating and cooling” (36.3%), “gelatinization temperature and holding strength” (33.8%), and “temperature and enthalpy during gelatinization” (14.7%). Five factors were found on the medium-amylose content (14.7-18.6%) rice flours, factor one was “temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization” (24.1%), factor two “setback of viscosity” (19.8%), factor 3 and 4 “viscosity holding strength and viscosity of cold-hot paste” (36.2%), and factor 5 was “conclusion temperature and temperature range during gelatinization”. While, four factors were found from the pasting and thermal properties of 79 rice flours, factor 1 was ”pasting property and enthalpy” (44.1%), factor 2 and 3 “gelatinization temperature” (36.6%), and factor 4 “breakdown” (11.8%). The distribution of each variety of rice on the plot composed of factor 1 and 2 could be separated into three groups, which was found corresponding to the amylose content of rice.
目錄
頁次
前言...........................1
文獻回顧.........................2
 壹、稻米之組成與應用..................2
 貳、稻米品種的培育...................3
  一、碾米品質.....................4
  二、白米外觀.....................4
  三、烹調及食用之理化性質...............5
  四、米飯入口品質...................6
 參、常見稻米品質之測定方法...............6
  一、快速黏度測定...................7
  二、示差掃描熱分析..................11
  三、質地剖面分析...................17
 肆、台農67號稉稻及其誘變品系.............24
  一、台農67號之介紹.................24
  二、遺傳變異與其機制 ................28
  三、疊氮化鈉應用於台農67號之研究..........29
 伍、統計分析之介紹 ..................30
  一、複迴歸分析...................30
  二、因素分析及其應用...............32
材料與方法........................47
 壹、實驗材料......................47
 貳、實驗方法......................47
  一、成分分析 ....................47
  二、直鏈澱粉含量...................48
  三、總澱粉含量 ...................48
  四、成糊特性 ....................49
  五、糊化及回凝熱性質 ................50
  六、質地剖面分析測定 ................50
  七、試驗設計與統計分析 ...............51
結果與討論........................52
 壹、米榖粉之物化特性與米榖膠體質地特性之迴歸模式....52
 貳、主因素分析應用於米榖粉之物化特性分析........63
  一、成糊特性.....................63
  二、熱性質特性....................72
  三、成糊特性與熱性質特性之合併討論..........81
結論 ..........................88
參考文獻 ........................91
答客問..........................答-1
附錄 ..........................A-1


表目錄
頁次
表A、快速黏度測定儀於米榖粉、米澱粉之應用 ........12
表B、示差掃描熱分析於米榖粉、米澱粉之應用 ........18
表C、TPA參數之計算與定義 ................23
表D、質地剖面分析於米榖粉之應用 .............25
表E、因素分析於米研究上之應用 ..............40
表F、因素分析於高梁研究上之應用 .............43
表G、因素分析於玉米、馬鈴薯及甘薯研究上之應用 ......44
表一、米榖粉之一般組成 ..................53
表二、4oC下儲存7天之米穀膠體質地參數 ..........56
表三、79種參試米榖粉的質地特性之因素荷量.........58
表四、79種米榖粉之成糊特性共同因素與質地參數的複迴歸分
析結果 .......................59
表五、79種米榖粉之熱性質共同因素與質地參數的複迴歸分析
結果 ........................61
表六、79種米榖粉之成糊特性與熱性質共同因素與質地參數的
複迴歸分析結果 ...................62
表七、米榖粉之成糊特性 ..................64
表八、27種參試低直鏈澱粉含量米榖粉的成糊特性之因素荷量..66
表九、47種參試中直鏈澱粉含量米榖粉的成糊特性之因素荷量..67
表十、79種參試米榖粉的成糊特性之因素荷量.........69
表十一、47種參試中直鏈澱粉含量米榖粉的一般組成與成糊特
性之相關性 ....................71
表十二、米榖粉之熱性質 ..................74
表十三、27種參試低直鏈澱粉含量米榖粉的糊化熱性質特性之
因素荷量 .....................77
表十四、47種參試中直鏈澱粉含量米榖粉的糊化熱性質特性之
因素荷量 .....................78
表十五、79種參試米榖粉的糊化熱性質特性之因素荷量.....79
表十六、27種參試低直鏈澱粉含量米榖粉的成糊特性與熱性質
特性之因素荷量 ..................82
表十七、47種參試中直鏈澱粉含量米榖粉的成糊特性與熱性質
特性之因素荷量 ..................84
表十八、79種參試米榖粉的成糊特性與熱性質特性之因素荷量..86
附表一、縮寫之定義 ....................A-1


圖目錄
頁次
圖A、典型之快速黏度測定的成糊連續黏度圖..........8
圖B、典型之DSC熱分析圖.................15
圖C、典型之質地剖面分析圖 ................22
圖D、台農67號之育種過程簡圖...............27
圖E、傾斜度圖解 .....................35
圖一、依據成糊特性的第一及第二主因素繪製之79種米榖粉樣
品分布圖 ......................73
圖二、依據糊化熱性質特性的第一及第二主因素繪製之79種米
榖粉樣品分布圖 ...................80
圖三、依據成糊特性與熱性質特性的第一及第二主因素繪製之79
種米榖粉樣品分布圖 .................87
附圖一、依據成糊特性的第一及第二主因素繪製之69種誘變米
榖粉樣品分布圖 ..................A-2
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