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研究生:蕭旭伶
研究生(外文):Shi-ling Shiao
論文名稱:身體、權力與認同:台北飲食男女社會學分析
論文名稱(外文):Body, Power and Identity:The Sociological Analysis of Diet in Taipei
指導教授:葉肅科葉肅科引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:社會學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:社會學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:165
中文關鍵詞:社會建構認同權力飲食男女身體
外文關鍵詞:Social ConstructionIdentityDiet of Males and FemalesBodyPower
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  現代社會強調窈窕、勻稱的身材與具有吸引力的外表。這種意識型態常導致女性對自己身體的不滿意,因此,隨時可見到有關節食、瘦身的報導與訊息,也傳達出社會文化對男女身體外表的刻板印象。女性深陷於「苗條就是美」的規約與無止盡的瘦身焦慮中,並以男性凝視的嚴苛標準來審視女性身體。性別是社會建構的結果,每個個體終其一生的各個發展階段,都深受性別社會化的影響。然而,關於身體意象的研究也多以女性為對象,缺乏性別比較。即使少數同時包含兩性的研究結果,也僅以量性統計分析呈現性別差異,缺乏對這些差異的實質意涵深入探討。

本研究試圖討論飲食中性別差異的社會意涵,並且分析媒體、同儕與家人等社會因素如何影響男女身體意象嶼飲食。最後,進一步探討身體、權力、認同與飲食之社會文化因素的建構關聯。本研究採取質性研究法,依據立意取樣,以台北地區20歲以上,共12位為研究對象,男女各半,進行半結構式深度訪談與童年記憶書寫。

本研究的重要發現:流行文化對纖瘦身形的崇尚經由媒體傳播,透過人際互動過程中同儕與家人對外表體型的善意監督或嚴格批評,共同形塑出理想體型的社會壓力,進而影響女性的負面身體意象與飲食障礙傾向。社會文化因素中受傳播媒體影響愈大、自覺重要他人(父母、同性及異性同儕)對其體型的負面評價愈多、或重要他人對其體重控制的忠告和支持愈頻繁者,愈有節制飲食行為。性別角色在此區隔了社會壓力的影響,女性成了理想體型的主要約束對象,亦是其健康威脅的直接受害者。最後,本論文根據研究所得的重要發現進行討論與建議,並提出後續研究與未來發展之建議。
In modern society, where slender, symmetric and attractive appearances are highly valued, reports and messages crammed with diet and weight loss are seen everywhere, resulting in an ideology which leads to females’ dissatisfaction of their own bodies. Female are deeply trapped in the “Thinness is beauty” quagmire and examined female bodies in terms of the strict standards of male gaze. Gender is a social construction; in other words, every individual’s concept of gender will be influenced by his or her society all through his or her life. However, most previous studies concerning body image focus on females only. Few of them address gender differences. Even among few studies that include both males and females, they use quantitative data to address the gender differences. There is a serious lack of substantive and qualitative analyses of the implications of the gender differences.
This study intends to discusses the social implication of the gender differences in diet and analyze how the social factors, such as media, peers and families influence their body image and diet. Finally, this study is to explore the relationship among body, power, identity and diet under the influence of social cultural construction. This qualitative research bases on the purposeful sampling method with semi-structured deep interview and childhood of written memories, and 12 interviewees are chosen from above 20 years old and equal numbers of both males and females in Taipei.
The major findings of this study are as following:The social pressure of ideal body image is constructed by the fashion and the culture toward the admiration of thinness, which is carried through media and through the friendly supervision and criticism by their peers and families. This social pressure subsequently leads to negative body image and diet disturbances of females. The lower body image is associated with higher diet restrained behavior. Besides, sociocultural factors include mass media, the teasing, weight-control advice and social support from significant others (parents, female and male peers) show significant correlations with dietary restraint behaviors. The impact of this social pressure differs by gender, with females becoming the objects of restrain and the victims of health by the ideal body shape. Finally, this study discussed these findings and proposed some suggestions. It also addressed further research directions in the future.  
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究緣起與動機……………………………………… 1
第二節 問題意識……………………………………………… 4
第三節 研究目的……………………………………………… 5
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………… 6
第一節 文獻回顧……………………………………………… 6
第二節 理論探討……………………………………………… 22
第三節 名詞釋義……………………………………………… 39
第四節 研究架構……………………………………………… 42
第三章 研究方法……………………………………………………………44
第一節 資料蒐集方法………………………………………… 44
第二節 研究對象……………………………………………… 46
第三節 研究信度與效度……………………………………… 48
第四節 資料處理與分析……………………………………… 50
第四章 身體與飲食對話……………………………………………………52
第一節 性別角色社會建構…………………………………… 53
第二節 社會建構下的男女飲食觀…………………………… 64
第三節 身體與飲食的探索…………………………………… 74
第五章 權力與飲食的互動…………………………………………………88
第一節 家庭與飲食…………………………………………… 88
第二節 同儕與飲食……………………………………………102
第三節 大眾傳播媒體與飲食…………………………………105
第六章 身體、權力、認同與飲食互動關係…………………………… 111
第一節 身體意象與權力論述…………………………………111
第二節 身體意象、社會互動與飲食行為關聯性……………118
第三節 身體、權力、認同與飲食關聯性探討………………123
第七章 結論與建議……………………………………………………… 127
第一節 重要發現摘要…………………………………………127
第二節 討論與建議……………………………………………131
第三節 研究限制………………………………………………138
第四節 對未來研究的建議………………………………… 138
參考書目…………………………………………………………………… 139
一、中文部分……………………………………………………………… 139
二、英文部分………………………………………………….…….…… 142
三、網路部份……………………………………………………………… 149
附錄……………………………………………………………………………150
附錄一:訪談大綱………………………………………………………… 150
附錄二:童年記憶書寫…………………………………………………… 153
附錄三:編碼分析表……………………………………………………… 157 

表目錄
表3-1 受訪者個人基本資料介析……………………………………… 47
表4-1 不同性別對於女性食物的認知差異分析表…………………… 67
表4-2 不同性別對於男性食物的認知差異分析表 69
圖目錄
圖2-1 李維史陀的食物烹飪三角形…………………………………… 29
圖2-4 研究架構…………………………………………………………… 42
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三、網路資料
薛剛,2004,〈職場研究:外貌身高真的左右你的薪水?〉,《新華網》,http://learning.21cn.com/guanli/zhiye/2004/08/26/1731448.shtml,2004/10/30。
謝臥龍,2001,〈解讀凝視與偷窺下的性別關係〉,《第六屆全國婦女國是會議論文》,http://taiwan.yam.org.tw/nwc/nwc6/safe/18.htm,2004/11/12。
蔣文宜,〈太胖不好找工作?調查:過胖者比一般人薪資均差1.5倍〉,《東森新聞報》,http://www.ettoday.com/2005/06/08/11338-1801013.htm,2005/06/08
The Regional Economist,2005,“So Much for That Merit Raise: The Link between Wages and Appearance”in http://stlouisfed.org/publications/re/2005/b/pages/appearances.html。2005/04/20。
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