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研究生:李兆康
研究生(外文):Siu-Hong Lei
論文名稱:拉夫•馮威廉斯(RalphVaughanWilliams)《旅行之歌》(SongsofTravel)之作品研究及詮釋探討
論文名稱(外文):The Analysis and Interpretation of "Songs of Travel" by Ralph Vaughan Williams
指導教授:呂鈺秀呂鈺秀引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:音樂學系
學門:藝術學門
學類:音樂學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2005
畢業學年度:93
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:佛漢威廉斯馮威廉斯威廉斯藝術歌曲聯篇歌曲英文歌曲英國歌曲歌曲藝術歌曲史帝文生流浪旅行男中音
外文關鍵詞:WilliamsVaughan Williamsart songenglish songsong cycleStevensontravelbaritone
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  拉夫.馮威廉斯(Ralph Vaughan Williams, 1872 - 1958)是十九世紀末至二十世紀中期英國作曲家,作品數量及種類繁多,從歌曲、合唱音樂、室內樂、交響樂到電影音樂都有涉略,是英國最重要的作曲家之一。雖然他比較注目和較多被討論的作品多是交響曲(如“A Sea Symphony”和“London Symphony”)和一些晚期作品,然而他早期的主要作品類型卻是歌曲或民歌。《旅行之歌》(Songs of Travel)就是馮威廉斯早期作品中的傑作,歌詞取自十九世紀英國詩人羅伯.路易斯.史帝文生(Robert Louis Stevenson, 1850 - 1894)的同名詩篇全部44首中的9首。這套歌曲的原調就是為男中音(或低男中音)而設而這也是筆者的聲部。當中每一首歌曲都擁有不同的個性和特色,每首都運用不同的作曲技法和設計,而九首聯合組成一個完整的概念。這套作品的音樂結合歌詞一起表達出比原本文字更高的意境,就如歌者和鋼琴之間並不是純粹的伴奏關係,兩者間互相引導配合。
  基於個人對英國文學的喜愛和「流浪」題材歌曲的偏好,筆者對《旅行之歌》這套歌曲有濃厚的興趣。因此希望透過這次的研究能夠對此作品有更深入的認識,從而有更深度詮釋和更充份的演繹。
  歌曲有別於樂器作品,歌詞和其文字意境也是重點。因此除了作曲家生平,作品的創作背境和音樂分析外,本論文還將針對詩人和詩篇本身作研究。總括來說,此研究著重五個方向,分別為:作曲家馮威廉斯和詩人史帝文生的生平與創作風格、詩篇《旅行之歌》的文字研究、歌曲《旅行之歌》的音樂分析與演唱詮釋。
  以上方向所應用的研究方式主要分為資料搜集和分析兩個部份:歷史和文獻資料主要蒐集相關書籍、論文、期刊、網站文章和有聲資料。對於文字和樂曲內容的出分析,會從文字意境、曲式、和聲、節奏和音樂語法切入。詮釋則以情緒張力的表達和聲樂與鋼琴的配合這兩個方面切入。
Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958) is one of the most important English composers from late 19th century to early 20th century, whose works include art songs, choral music, chamber music, symphonies and movie music. Although symphonies (e.g. A Sea Symphony and London Symphony) and works of his late life are more concerned and discussed, art songs and folk songs are the major kinds of work of his early period. "Songs of Travel" is a master piece of his early period, which is inspired by the poem of the English poet Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), putting 9 parts into music out of 44. This song cycle is for baritone (or bass baritone), which is also author's voice. The songs of this song cycle are characterized by different kinds of composing technique and arrangment, while integrating a complete concept. In this song cycle, the music combines the lyrics to bring a higher level of artistic concept, as long as the relationship of the vocal and the piano is not mere accompaniment, but mutual co-operation.
Due to personal interest of English literature and favourite of the "travel" topic, the author is highly interested in "Songs of Travel". Therefore, by the study of this song cycle, I hope to achieve deeper interpretation and more adequate performance.
Art song, unlike instrumental music, is the combination of lyrics and music. Thus, besides the study of the life of the composer, background of the music and musical analysis, this thesis also studies the poet and the poem. Therefore this thesis is studying in five aspects, the lives and styles of the composer and the poet, literal analysis of the poem, musical analysis and interpretation of the song cycle.
Information gathering and analysis are the two methods for the studying aspects mentioned above. Information includes books, thesis, documents from journals and internet, and audio data. Analysis is consisted by literal and musical analysis, which the meaning of the words, musical form, harmony, rhythm and musical language are concerned. For interpretation, emotional expression and the relationship between vocal and piano are concerned.
緒論

研究範圍與方法
文獻探討

第一章 創作背景

第一節:背景與生平
1. 馮威廉斯
2. 史帝文生
第二節:風格
1. 作曲家音樂風格
2. 詩人寫作風格
第三節:《旅行之歌》
1. 關於《旅行之歌》
2. 歌詞詮釋

第二章 音樂分析

第一節:曲式
1 音節式和變化音節式
2. AABA(AABA')
3. 通譜式
第二節:調性與和聲
1. 調式與大小調調性混合
2. 獨立樂段的調性安排
3. 轉調手法
4. I(或i)級六四和絃的運用
第三節:節奏
1. 拍號變化
2. 伴奏音型變化
3. 音型運用
4. 特殊節奏

第三章 詮釋探討

第一節:情緒張力的表達
1. 全曲力度對比
2. 映像性
3. 從聆聽經驗出發的設計
4. 表現情緒的歌詞
5. 音樂術語
第二節:聲樂與鋼琴的互動
1. 全曲速度對比
2. 互動片段

結論

附錄一:整篇《旅行之歌》詩篇標題
附錄二:歌詞翻譯
附錄三:《旅行之歌》歌曲音樂流程分析表

參考文獻
西文書目:
Booth, B. A. (1968). Selected Poetry and Prose of Robert Louis Stevenson. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company
Canby, H. S. & Pierce F. E (ed.). (1911). Selections from Robert Louis Stevenson. Ner York: Charles Scribner’s Sons
Carter, T. (2004). Word-painting. The New Grove Dictionary of Music Online, ed. Macy, L. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed on 21-03-2005).
Commins, S. (1977). Selected Writings of Robert Lous Stevenson. New York: The Modern Library
Douglas, R. (1998). Working with Vaughan Williams. London: The British Library Board.
Frogley, A. (Ed.). (1996) Vaughan Williams Studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hyer, B. (2004). Key (i). The New Grove Dictionary of Music Online, ed. Macy, L. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed on 28-03-2005).
Hyer, B. (2004) Tonality. The New Grove Dictionary of Music Online, ed. Macy, L. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed on 28-03-2005).
Kennedy, M. (1995). The Works of Ralph Vaughan Williams. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Maixner, P (ed.). (1995). Chronology of works. Robert Louis Stevenson – The Critical Heritage. London: Roultedge.
Ottaway, H., Frogley, A. (2003) Vaughan Williams, Ralph. The New Grove Dictionary of Music Online. ed. Macy, http://www.grovemusic.com.
Ottaway, H., McVeagh, D., Payne, A., Holst, I., Kemp, I. & Evans, P. (1980). Twentieth-centry English Masters. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Vaughan Williams, U. (1964). R.V.W. – A Biography of Ralph Vaughan Williams. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

中文書目:
Ottaway, H.(1998)。《佛漢.威廉士:交響曲》(Vaughan Williams Symphonies)。BBC音樂導讀37,BBC Music Guides 37,老耀譯,台北:世界文物出版社(原作1972年出版)。

期刊、論文:
車炎江(1999)。《馮威廉斯藝術歌曲《四首蕭芙的詩》作品研究》。東海大學音樂系碩士論文。
謝孟儒(1998)。《Ralph Vaughan Williams的音樂風格探討-由創作題材及寫作手法出發的分析觀察》。國立臺灣藝術學院音樂研究所碩士論文。
謝毓瑄(2004)。《佛漢.威廉斯《雙簧管協奏曲》之研究-以樂曲的結構發展為研究主體》。東海大學音樂系碩士論文。
Boyer, J. (2003, Jul-Aug). Vaughan Williams: Songs-On Wenlock Edge; Mystical Songs, others. American Record Guide, 66(4), 170.
Frogley, A. (1999, Nov). Ralph Vaughan Williams in Perspective: Studies of an English composer. Music & Letters, 80(4), 647-649.
Hinnells, D. (1998, Feb). Vaughan Williams Studies. Music & Letters, 79(1).
McClain, T. (2003 Feb-Mar). Vaughan Williams: English Folk Song Suite; Lark Ascending; Tallis Fantasia; 6 Studies in English Folk Song; 3 Vocalises; Partita. American Record Guide, 66(1), 139-144.
Mermelstein, D. (1997, Aug 31). The Beauties of English Music Beyond the Familiar Strains; [Review]. New York Times. p2.16.
Mermelstein, D. (1998, Sep 27). Songs of Travel. New York Times. p2.12.
Smiths, P. J. (1995, Nov). Recordings -- The Vagabond: Songs of Butterworth, Finzi, Ireland, Vaughan Williams by Bryn Terfel accompanied by Malcolm Martineau. Opera News, 60(5), 45.
Stalker, D. (2002, May-Jun). Vaughan Williams: Songs. American Record Guide, 65(3), 170.
Traubner, R. (2004, Apr-May). Vaughan Williams: The Poisoned Kiss. American Record Guide, 67(2), 198-199.
Vroon, D. R. (2001 Jan-Feb). Vaughan Williams: Hymns. American Record Guide, 64(1), 210-211.

樂譜:
Vaughan Williams, R. (1960). Ralph Vaughan Williams/ Songs of Travel. London: Boosey & Hawkes, Ltd.

有聲資料:
Allen, T. (Vocalist). (2004). The Very Best of English Song with Orchestra. [CD]. EU, EMI Records Ltd. 7243 5 85896 2 7.
Johnson, A. R. (Vocalist). (2001). Vaughan Williams: The House of Life/ Songs of Travel, etc. [CD]. EU, EMI Records Ltd. 5 74785 2.
Tear, T. (Vocalist). (1991). Vaughan Williams: Songs of Travel. etc. [CD]. Germany, the Decca Record Company Limited. 430 368-2.
Terfel, B. (Vocalist). (1995). The Vagabond/ English Songs by Vaughan Williams, Butterworth, etc [CD]. Hamburg, Deutsche Grammophon Gmbh. 445 946-2.
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